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The marriage]

(feast. unto a certain king, which made a ways, and as many as ye shall find, marriage for his son,

bid to the marriage. 3 And sent forth his servants to call 10 So those servants went out into them that were bidden to the wed- the highways, and gathered together all ding; and they would not come. as many as they found, both bad and

4 Again, he sent forth other ser- good : and the wedding was furnished vants, saying, Tell them which are with guests. bidden, Behold, I have prepared my 11 And when the king came in to dinder: my oxen and my fatlings are see the guests, he saw there a man killed, and all things are ready: come which had not on a wedding garment: unto the marriage.

12 And he saith unto him, Friend, 5 But they made light of it, and how camest thou in hither not having went their ways, one to his farm, a wedding garment? And he was another to his merchandise :

speechless. 6 And the remnant took his ser- 13 Then said the king to the servants, and entreated them spitefully, vants, Bind him hand and foot, and and slew them.

take him away, and cast him into outer 7 But when the king heard thereof, darkness; there shall be weeping and he was wroth: and he sent forth his gnashing of teeth. armies, and destroyed those murder 14 For many are called, but few ers, and burned up their city.

are chosen. (Z) 8 Then saith he to his servants, 15 | Then went the Pharisees, and The wedding is ready, but they which took counsel how they might entangle were bidden were not worthy.

him in his talk. 9 Go ye therefore into the high- 16 And they sent out unto him


and went, "one to his farm, and another (Z) Ver. 1-14. The parable of the mar. to his merchandize;" but the remnant, riage feast, and the wedding garment.- namely, the priests, and the Scribes, and The gospel dispensation is here compared the Pharisees, " entreated” the servants to a feast, which a certain king made on of this great king “ despitefully, and slew occasion of the marriage of his son. It is them.” When the king, however, heard necessary to keep in mind the royalty of this, he was justly provoked with such conthe occasion, to account for “oxen and duct, and sent forth his armies—for all the fatlings being killed,” which implies great armies in earth and heaven are his-and preparation for a numerous company. The slew them. Seeing, however, that the persons first invited were the Jews, who feast was ready, the king was determined were “bidden" by the early prophets to have guests; and seeing those who had "In this mountain shall the Lord of hosts been hitherto invited were utterly unmake unto all people a feast,” &c. (Isa. worthy of the feast, the king sends forth XXV, 6.) He then sent forth his servants, into the public roads, that is, among the the later prophets, to invite again them Gentiles, and gathers together all that that were bidden; but “ they would not could be found, “ good or bad, till the come." Next be sent forth John the Bap: wedding was furnished with guests :" and tist and the apostles, who announced that now came the hour of discrimination. The "all things (were) ready.” One part of king, who had given the invitation, came the company, the Jaity, made light of this, in, as was customary, to view his guests.

NOTES. CHAP. XXIL Ver , Made orringe or

God the barmonizing of his words, as well as of

God the bar Harriage feast. “The word here properly signifies his works of nature, and moral government." a nuptial banquet." Doddr.

Claude's Essay, vol.ii. p. 336, Note. Ver. 7. Burned up their city. There can be no Ver. 10. Highways-"Doddr.“ Public ways," or doubt but this refers to tbe destruction of Jerusalem ways most frequented. by the Romans

Ver. 12. Speechless-Doddr.“Struck speechless;" T. 9. As many as ye shall find, lid.-Many have Greek, literally," Muzzled," as I Cor. ix.6. *pared this general call of the gospel; but Mr. Ver. 14. Many are called.-See Note, cb, xx. 16. oinson, of Cambridge, remarks, “ It would be Ver. 16. The Herodians.- See chap. xvi. 1-12 come ministers to do all God's commands without Exposition. MUTTiTiny, and without disputing; and to leave to

On paying]

(tribute. their disciples with the Herodians, 19 Shew me the tribute money. saying, Master, we know that thou And they brought unto him a penny. art true, and teachest the way of God 20 And he saith unto them, Whose in truth, neither carest thou for any is this image and superscription? man : for thou regardest not the per- 21 They say unto him, Cesar's. son of men.

Then saith he unto them, Render, 17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest therefore unto Cesar the things which thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto are Cesar's; and unto God the things Cesar, or not?

that are God's. 18 But Jesus perceived their wick- 22 When they heard these words, edness, and said, Why tempt ye me, they marvelled, and left him, and went ye hypocrites ?

their way.

EXPOSITION-Chap. XXII. Continued. (See Luke xiv. 10.) On this occasion, it vizier, or at the divan. The caftan is a seems, his eye immediately marked one of long robe, with loose sleeves, the white the company, who “ had not on a wedding ground of which is of goat's hair, mixed garment,” and immediately demanded, with some silver ; but the flowers woven ** Friend, how camest thou in hither, not in, are of a gold-coloured silk." (Orient. having a wedding garment? And he was Lit. No. 1217.) speechless," and was immediately ex- But the mystical import of this wedding pelled. This circumstance makes it im- garment has been somewhat controverted. portant for us to know what is intended by Two points are clear, that it must be “a this “ wedding garment," and how it miglit garment of honour," and provided hy the be procured? for might this stranger bave king. This last circumstance (as Calvin replied, he could not procure one, a just himself remarks) is admirably suited to and good prince would not have excluded the method of God's dealing with us; who, him on that account. It is most certain indeed, requires holiness in order to our that persons were expected, on such oc- receiving the benefits of the gospel, but is casions, to put on their best apparel, as, graciously pleased to work it in us by his indeed, is the universal practice; but Holy Spirit; and therefore may justly reDoddridge mentions several instances, sent and punish our neglect of so great a among the Greeks, of great men, on such favour." See Doddr. in loc. Note f.) occasions, providing proper habits for It is added, that when the king saw this their visitors; and such ajipears to be the man without a wedding garment, he was custom, even now in Asia. An Eastern so incensed, that he ordered bim to be cast “king sent to invite the Ambassadors to “ into outer darkness; there shall be dine with him once more. The Meheman- weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many der told them it was the custom that they are called, but few are chosen."_It is should wear, over their own clothes, the evident (says an ingenious writer) that by best of those garments which the king had this parable our Lord chiefly intends to sent them." Some scrupled this, till they show the levity with which the Jews treated were told that it was a general custom, the gospel; and consequently the justice, " and that no doubt the king would take as well as the goodness of God in sending it very ill at their hands, if they presented it to the Gentiles. The first would not themselves before bim without these marks come; the last furnished the table with of his liberality.” On this, they all agreed guests, both bad and good: but that we to comply. (Orient. Cust. No. 1202.) may well understand the purity of Christ

Another traveller tells us, that " in the ianity, he informs us, that bad Gentiles, a palace of the sultan, every body who wishes well as wicked Jews, would be inexcusable to go into the audience chamber, must put if they turned the grace of God into lasci on the garment of honour provided by the viousness; if they put not on the wedding sultan; namely, the, caftan, which they garment.” (Robinson's Vill. Disc. xv.) receive either in the palace of the grand

NOTES-Chap. XXII. Con. Ver. 17. Is it lawful?-this question seems to be Ver. 20. Whose is this image and superscription founded on Deut. xvii. 15, which required the Jews -Doddr, “ Inscription." Dr. Lightfoot, on this tex to set over them a king of their own nation : on quotes from Maimonides this maxim of their school which Dr. A. Clarke remarks, “Had Christ said, that " wheresoever the money of any king is cai Yes, then they woald have condemned him by this rent, there the inhabitants acknowledge that kio Jaw: had he said, No; then they would have ac. for their lord." cused bim to Cæsar."

Ver. 23. Sadducees.See Expos. chap. xvi.

On the]

[resurrection. 23 The same day came to him the 34 But when the Pharisees had Sadducees, which say that there is no heard that he had put the Sadducees resurrection, and asked him,

to silence, they were gathered together. 24 Saying, Master, Moses said, If 35 Then one of them, which was a man die, having no children, his a Lawyer, asked him a question, brother shall marry his wife, and raise tempting him, and saying, up seed unto his brother.

36 Master, which is the great com25 Now there were with us seven mandment in the law ? brethren: and the first, when he had 37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt married a wife, deceased, and, having love the Lord thy God with all thy no issue, left his wife unto his brother: heart, and with all thy soul, and with

26 Likewise the second also, and all thy mind : the third, unto the seventh.

38 This is the first and great com27 And last of all the woman died mandment. also.

39 And the second is like unto it, 28 Therefore in the resurrection Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thywhose wife shall she be of the seven? self. for they all had her.

40 On these two commandments 29 Jesus answered and said unto hang all the Law and the Prophets. them, Ye do err, not knowing the 41 While the Pharisees were gaScriptures, nor the power of God. thered together, Jesus asked them,

30 For in the resurrection they nei. 42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? ther marry, nor are given in marriage, whose son is he? They say unto him, but are as the angels of God in hea. The Son of David. ven.

43 He saith unto them, How then 31 But as touching the resurrection doth David in spirit call him Lord, of the dead, have ye not read that saying, which was spoken unto you by God, 44 The Lord said unto my Lord, saying,

Sit thou on my right hand, till I make 32 I am the God of Abraham, and thine enemies thy footstool ? the God of Isaac, and the God of 45 If David then call him Lord, Jacob? God is not the God of the how is he his son ? dead, but of the living.

46 And no man was able to answer 33 And when the multitude heard him a word, neither durst any man this, they were astonished at his doc- from that day forth ask him any more

questions. (A)


EXPOSITION. (2) Ver. 15–46. The Phurisees, the He- tribute. The substance of his argument rodians, and the Sadducees, successively enn from the Ronan penny is, “ You own ceuvour to entangle our Lord in his conver- this to be Cæsar's coin, which, being cursation. This chapter furnisbes several in rent in your land, proves you to be under stances of the art with which these several bis governmeut; while, therefore, yolt parties attempted to ensnare our Lord, and enjoy that protection, it is your duty to acof the wisdom and address with which he knowledge it: at the same time, forget answered them. First, the Herodians eu- not that you are under higher obligations deavoured to embroil him with ihe Roman to the God of Israel, and owe him a more govertiment, on the subject of paying absolute obedience."

NOTES. Ver. 31. Have we not ready &c.-Bp. Warburton Ver. 37. Thou shall love the Lord, &c.- Deut. vi.5. taaintained, that the doctrine of a future state was Ver. 39. Thou shall love thy neighbour, &c.revealed to Abraham, Moses, &c., and a few more Levit. xix. 18. inspired men under the Old Testament, but not re- Ver. 40. On these two.... hang - Doddr. “ Deceived by the pious Jews in general. This is sufi- pend.” So Campbell. ciently related by our Lord.

Ver. 42. What ihink ye of Christ ?--or, of “The Ver. 34. They were gathered together--Campbell, Christ,"' or Messiah. Doddr. Camp. "Flocked about him."

Ver. 43. David in spirit-Mark. xii. 36, “By the Ver. 36. Tempting him.-See Mark xii, 28. Holy Ghost."

The doctrine]


(of the Pharisees.

5 But all their works they do for to CHAP. XXIII.

be seen of men : they make broad their THEN spake Jesus to the multitude, phylacteries, and enlarge the borders and to his disciples,

of their garments, 2 Saying, The Scribes and the Pha- 6 And love the uppermost rooms at risees sit in Moses' seat :

feasts, and the chief seats in the syna3 All therefore whatsoever they bid gogues, you observe, that observe and do; but 7 And greetings in the markets, and do not ye after their works : for they to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. say, and do not.

8 But be not ye called Rabbi : for 4 For they bind heavy burdens and one is your Master, even Christ ; and grievous to be borne, and lay them on all ye are brethren. men's shoulders; but they themselves 9 And call no man your father upon will not move them with one of their the earth : for one is your Father, fingers.

which is in heaven.

EXPOSITION—Chap. XXII. Continued. Next, the Sadducees endeavour to puzzle a professor of the Jewish law, now came our Saviour, on a difficulty of their own tempting him with this question, “ Master, raising, and attempt to expose to ridicule which is the great commandment of the the doctrine of the resurrection. A woman law?" On this occasion, our Lord divides is supposed to have been married succes- the whole moral law into two tables;

the sively to seven husbands; which of them love of God, and of our neighbour. This can claim her at the resurrection? The question, “ Which is the first and great reply is, “ Neither :" that blessed state commandment?" had, it seems, been often knows nothing of the matrimonial connex- argued by the Jewish doctors ; " some conion; men then shall be as pure as angels. tending for the law of circumcision, others “But (adds our Lord) as touching the re- for that of sacrifices, and others for that surrection of the dead, have ye not read of the phylacteries :" and Dr. Lightfoot rethat which was spoken to you by God marks, that our Lord answered this scribe (himself), saying, I am the God of Abra- from one of the sentences usually written ham-of Isaac-and of Jacob? (Exod. iii. on their phylacteries. (See chap. xxiii. 5.) 6. 16.) God is not the God of the dead, but It is worthy of remark that, in all these of the living ;' that is, they must continue instances, after our Lord had resolved to exist, or he cannot be said to bear any each of the questions proposed to him, relation to them. Dr. Doddridge here re- hc, in return, proposes one to them. So, marks, that “ As it is expressly said (Acts in this case, after explaining to them the xxiii, 8), they denied (the existence of) any law, he thus introduces the gospel : spirit (human or angelic), and conse- “What think ye of Christ ?" or of the quently the existence of the soul in a sepa- Messiah ? " Whose Son is he?” Tbey rate state; so our Lord's answer here, and reply, “ The Son of David." “ How then much of St. Paul's reasoning in 1 Cor xv., (rejoins our Saviour) doth David in spirit goes on the supposition of such denia call him Lord ?" referring to Ps. cx. 1. their part.” God can bear no relation to " The Lord said unto my Lord," &c. what has no existence: Abraham, Isaac, " If David called Messias Lord, how is he and Jacob, must therefore still exist, or he then his son?” This the Jews could not would not acknowledge himself as their answer, nor can it be answered, but on God. It is observable, that the passage the principle that, as John the Baptist said here referred 10, is quoted from the Pen- of Jesus, “ He who came after him was tateuch, or the writings of Moses. Pas before him," both in point of time and sages far more express, if not more deci- dignity. The Son of God, as to his divine sive, might be found in the Psalms and nature, was David's Lord; though as to his Prophets ; but the Sadducees, it is said, human pature, he was David's son and paid little or no regard to them. By the beir. (See Expos. Ps. cx. 1, &c.) But we quotation from Moses, however, they were cannot better close this section, than by completely silenced. · At this the multi- proposing to our own meditation, and that tude were astonished; and we might bave of our readers, this very serious questionexpected the Pharisees would bave been “What think ye of Christ ?" gratified, as our Lord's argument was in their favour: but so inveterate was their

“What think ye of Christ? is the test

To try both your state and your scheme; malice, that they were only thereby excited Ye cannot be right in the rest, to attack bim themselves.

Unless you think rightly of him." One of them, who was a lawyer, that is,



The Scribes and]

CHAP. XXIII. (Pharisees reproved. 10 Neither be ye called masters: 16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, for one is your Master, even Christ. which say, Whosoever shall swear by

11 But he that is greatest among the temple, it is nothing ; but whosoyou shall be your servant.

ever shall swear by the gold of the tem12 And whosoever shall exalt him- ple, he is a debtor! self shall be abased; and he that shall 17 Ye fools and blind : for whether humble bimself shall be exalted. is greater, the gold, or the temple that

13 But woe unto you, Scribes and sanctifieth the gold? Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up 18 And, Whosoever shall swear by the kingdom of heaven against men: the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever for ye neither go in yourselves, neither sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he sufiter ye them that are entering to is guilty. go in.

19 Ye fools and blind : for whether 14 Woe unto you, Scribes and Phari- is greater, the gift, or the altar that sees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' sanctifieth the gift? houses, and for a pretence make long 20 Whoso therefore shall swear by prayer: therefore ye shall receive the the altar, sweareth by it, and by all greater damnation.

things thereon. 15 Woe unto you, Scribes and Pha- 21 And whoso shall swear by the risees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea temple, sweareth by it, and by him and land to make one proselyte, and that dwelleth therein. when he is made, ye make him two 22 And he that shall swear by heafold more the child of hell than your- ven, sweareth by the throne of God, selves.

and ty him that sitteth thereon. (B)


risees, while they sat in the seat (or chair) (B) Ver. 1-22. Jesus commends the of Moses,--that is, while they delivered teaching of the Pharisees, but severely cen- the precepts of his law, were intitled to sures their conduct.-The Scribes and Pha- reverence and respect; and whatever they

NOTES. VAP. XXIII. Ver. 2. Sit in Moses' seal. They open the mysteries of the law. was afterwards worn were accustomed to teach sitting, and considering as a badge of honour. Orient. Lit. No. 1220. Com. themselves as the saccessors, or representatives, of pare chap. xvi. 19, and Notes. Moses, wished to be so considered by the people.

Ver. 8. One is your master-Greek, Kathegetes. Ver. 3. Obserre and do-that is, so far as they teacher, or guide. Campbell says, a great number of produce the authority of God's word. Doddr. justly MSS. here read Didaskalos; the Gr. term usually Observes, that If this limitation be not supposed, answering to Rabbi. This is also sanctioned by the this passage will be inconsistent with all those in Syriac interpreter, by Origen and Chrysostom, and which Jesas condemns the doctrines of the Scribes by many modern critics. He adds, “ The internal and Pharisees.”_ Scribes.-See Note chap. y. 20. evidence is entirely in favour of this reading.

Ver. 5. Phylacteries. - " These were four sec Ver. 12. Whoever shall eralt tions of the law, written on parchments, folded up marks, “ No one sentence of our Lord's is so frein the skin of a clean beast, and tied to the head and quently repeated as this, which occurs at least ten hands. The four sections were the following: Exod. times in the Evangelists." Xiii. 110: Ditto. 11-16; Deut. vi. 4-9, and xi. Ver. 13. Hypocrites. - Dr. More (Theol. Works, 13-21. Those that were for the head, were written p. 293) observes, that “ this word, in its most exact 06 four pieres of skin, rolled up separately, and application, signifies players, who, according to the fastened with strings to the crown of the head, to- unnatural custom of the ancients, acted a part under wards the face. Those that were for the hands, a mask.” were written in four columns on one parchment, Ver. 14. The greater damnation-Camp.“ Punishwhich, being rolled up, was fastened to the inside of ment." So Boothroyd. we left arm, between the shoulder and the elbow, Ver. 15. Ye compass sea and land. The zeal of that it might be over against the heart. The Jews the Jews in making proselytes, even at Rome, was call them Zephillin. The Greek term Phylacteries, so remarkable, that it became almost proverbial. See means preservatives; namely, against evil spirits. Orient. Cust. No. 1207. See Allen's Mod. Judaism, chap. xvii.

Ver. 16. It is nothing-that is, "it has not the Ibid. The borders, &c.- Doddr. “Fringes." See power of binding." Campbell. Só in ver 18. Note, chap. v. 20.

Ver. 17. Ye fools and blind.-See chap. v. 33-37 Ver. 6. Uppermost rooms - Doddr. and Camp. and Notes. Our Lord here subjoins a specimen of

the various ridiculous subterfuges adopted by these Ver. 7. Rahbi, Rabbi-that is, "great ;" namely, men to cheat their consciences, and evade the guilt in respect of learning; and is equivalent to our term of perjury. Doclor, and was conferred with no less ceremony, Ver. 18. He is guilty – Marg. “ Bound,” or “ a oh which occasion they were presented with a table debtor." Doddridge, * He is obliged;" Camp. “ It book and a key; the latter, implying their ability to is binding." Compare the Expos, of chap. v. 33-48.


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