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bellion against government is an offence® against God himself, because its tendency is to set us loose from the observation of his laws. That charge of Jehosaphat to the Judges of Israel, is upon all others in the like authority; take heed what ye do, for ye judge not for man, but for the Lord, who is with

you in judgment. And the same charge will apply itself to the people: “ take heed what ye do,

obedience is not to man, but to the Lord.”

The primitive Christians placed civil obedience among the first articles of social duty; and we cannot refuse to Christian princes that honour which they allowed to heathen empe

I exhort, said the apostle, that first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men ; for kings, and for all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and a peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. When the enemies of the Christians had no evil thing to say, they endeavoured to make them odious to the state, as people of suspicious politics, the friends of another king, whose interests were not consistent with those of the empire. But this scandal was confuted by that amiable submission and quietness which they never failed to



observe towards all that were in authority over them.

Our duty, then, is clear from such precepts as cannot be evaded, and such examples as are taken from the purest times of the gospel, when obedience to heathen persecutors was a trial far more severe to flesh and blood, than the practice of common loyalty to the friends and protectors of Christianity.

The wisdom of adhering to this duty, is the next thing to be considered. And surely it must be the wisdom of men enlightened by the word of God, and blessed with great improvements of science, to proceed on true principles; to walk in that light which they have, and not to emulate the darkness of heathens, or the confusion and rapine of barbarians. The Scripture teaches us, that there is no power but of God; that, as he is the maker of the world, all the property of the world is originally vested in him; that kings hold of him; and the people of their kings : and our laws recognize this doctrine, by making all property revert to the crown, upon any act of treason or rebellion. Some embrace another opinion, that there is no power but of the people; which position being contrary to that of


the scripture, they cannot both be true. The question about power may easily be solved, if we do but distinguish rightly between physicul or natural

power, and


of authority. It can never be denied, that an armed multitude is superior in physical power to any defenceless man, with all his honours and titles about him; as smoke and ashes, shot upwards from the bowels of the earth, can put out the light of the sun : but in this there is no power of authority; and it may be turned against all the law, and all the reason in the world. A gang of robbers have power over the helpless traveller in the forest, and he is obliged to submit to it at the peril of his life: but still there is no authority ; nothing but brutal force; and it matters not how large we suppose the

gang to be; for its properties are no more changed by its magnitude, than the properties of a circle, which are always the same. Their power is absolute force; and the authority by which they exercise it, is from themselves, against all the settlements of law, and all the rights of possession. Allow but the force of those two commandments, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not steal, and then all this sort of power vanishes.

Such, Such, however, is the power of the people; against which, therefore, every government is armed and defended; and without such a defence, there could be neither property nor security in the world; nothing but violence and rapine, which are sure to prevail, as soon as the people, under some wolvish unprincipled leaders of sedition, attempt to take power into their own hands.

All liberty then takes its flight; the liberty of acting, of speaking, and perhaps of breathing; unless the breath be applied to blow the flames of sedition.

My brethren, let me speak freely to you upon this subject: power is a weapon of so sharp an edge, that mistakes about the nature and exercise of it are perilous indeed, and the bad consequences inexpressible: therefore, as we value our own security, let us always distinguish between power and authority. The storm hath power to blow; the waves of the sea have power to rage; the lightning hath power to strike; the fire hath power to consume; but all this power tends only to destruction: the power which God giveth is for edification, and not for destruction. It is 'to build up society and preserve it, not to destroy it. He hath appointed the sun to rule over


the day, the moon and the stars to govern the night: all the nations of the earth enjoy light, and peace, and happiness under their dominion, and their authority is confined by a law which cannot be broken.

But if we should become so insensible of this blessing, as to argue for a lawless power in the elements, and they were to be let loose upon us in consequence of our mistake; we should then discover, that it is the wisdom as well as the happiness of man, to submit to the ordinance of God. They are his laws which are executed in a state; and they can be executed by no authority but his own : if by an authority from the people, that would exalt the people into the place of God. Every state must have power of life and death: but no individual hath

power over himself; and consequently, he cannot give what he hath not: such a power can be communicated only by that God, in whose hand are the lives of all mankind; to whom alone belongs that sword of justice, which is borne by the magistrate : who being the giver, is also the Lord of Life; and to suppose it otherwise, is to derive power by ascent instead of descent; which is contrary to the order of nature in all other cases whatsoever. Chris

any such


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