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abutments action appears applied arch arranged axis bars base beams blocks bolts bottom braces brick bridge built cast iron cause cement centre character clay combination common connected consists construction courses covered cross curved depend depth dimensions direction durability earth effect embankment engineer equal experiments exposed extremities face feet force foundations frame give given greater ground hard head heavy horizontal hydraulic inches inclined increase joints laid latter length less lime lime-stones lower manner masonry mass material means method mortar natural obtained ordinary pieces piers piles placed portion position present pressure receive require resistance rest ribs road roadway sand secured side slope soil solid span square stone strain strength string structure sufficient suitable surface taken termed thickness timber tion usually vertical wall weight width wood yield
Page 90 - When a body is subjected to a transverse strain, some of its particles are extended and others compressed ; I was desirous to ascertain whether the above defect in elasticity arose from tension or compression, or both. Experiments 4 and 5 show this ; in these a section of the casting, which was...
Page 284 - Pure sand and gravel may require a greater slope, according to circumstances. In all cases where the depth of the excavation is great. the base of the slope should be increased. It is not usual to use any artificial means to protect the surface of the side slopes from the action of the weather ; but it is a precaution which, in the end, will save much labor and expense in keeping the roadway in good order. The simplest means which can be used for this purpose, consist in covering the slopes with...
Page 100 - It will be found that with the exception of a slight anomaly between 520° and 570°, amounting to — .08, the numbers expressing the ratio between the elevations of temperature, and the diminutions of tenacity, constantly increase until we reach 932°, at which it is 2.97, 'and that from this point the ratio of diminution decreases to the limits of our range of trials, 1317°, where it is 2.14.
Page 105 - In the softer and more spongy kinds of wood the fibres, instead of being forced back longitudinally and condensed upon themselves, are, by driving a thick, and especially a rather...
Page 288 - When the axis of the roadway is laid out on the side slope of a hill, and the road-surface is formed partly by excavating and partly by embanking out, the usual and most simple method is to extend out the embankment gradually along the whole line of excavation. This method is insecure, and no pains therefore should be spared to give the embankment a good footing on the natural surface upon which it rests, particularly at the foot of the slope. For this purpose the natural surface should be cut into...
Page 83 - A long, uniform, cast-iron pillar, with its ends firmly fixed, whether by means of discs or otherwise, has the same power to resist breaking as a pillar of the same diameter, and half the length, with the ends rounded or turned so that the force would pass through the axis.
Page 282 - In the calculations of solid contents required in balancing the excavations and embankments, the most accurate method consists in subdividing the different solids into others of the most simple geometrical forms, as prisms, prismoids, wedges, and pyramids, whose solidities are readily determined by the ordinary rules for the mensuration of solids.
Page 335 - ... culvert. If the water of the brook is generally limpid, and its current gentle, it may, in the last case, be received into the canal. The communication of the brook, or feeder, with the canal, should be so arranged that the water may be shut off, or let in at pleasure, in any quantity desired. For this purpose a cut is made through the side of the canal, and the sides and bottom of the cut are faced with masonry laid in hydraulic mortar. A sliding gate, fitted into two grooves made in the side...
Page 61 - ... the other slightly electro-positive, with respect to cast iron. These results will also enable some advances to be made towards the solution of the important problem proposed by the author in his former report, viz., " the obtaining a mode of electro-chemical protection, such that while the metal (iron) shall be preserved, the protector shall not be acted on, and the protection of which shall be invariable.
Page 95 - Note. This last conclusion is drawn from a comparison of the results of experiment with those obtained from calculation, in which the beam is assumed as perfectly elastic. (4-.) " The effect of bodies of different natures striking against a hard, flexible beam, seems to be independent of the elasticities of the bodies, and may be calculated, with trifling error, on a supposition that they are inelastic.