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over-educated. So sure as man's heart is full of unrest and dissatisfaction, so sure as God knew what was in man, so sure as Jesus said, “I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto Me," and “Come unto Me all ye that are weary and heavy laden;" would such a religion meet a longing wish of our age, and tri
andu jd such a religides of Willing spirive spoken a
hur cause out these roof willing sing wisho fand heavy laqMey"
Throughout these remarks, we have spoken as to brethren. Our cause is yours, and all that we hold dear is embarked in this vessel-our free Presbyterian Church. It is folly for men to take a bold stand like ours, and then shrink from the effort or the suffering necessary to maintain it. The spirits of our fathers bend from the skies to see how we bear ourselves in this crisis. The great men who achieved our deliverance from Popish thraldom, and high Church formalism, look to us to see if we are worthy of the freedom and simplicity of Presbyterian truth and order, and the voice of our Saviour sounds ever in our ears, “Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, who have not defiled their garments, and they shall walk with me in white, for they are worthy.'
NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.*
I. A History of the Purchase and Settlement of Western New
York, and of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the
Hotchkin. pp. 600.
Rev. William Henry Foote, D. D., Pastor of Presbyterian
Church, Romney, Virginia. pp. 568. History of the Presbyterian Church in the State of Kentucky,
with a preliminary Sketch of the Churches in the Valley of Virginia, by the Rev. Robert Davidson, D. D., late President of Transylvania University, &c. pp. 371.
. We do not use the word "New" in its strictest sense, as including only books that have appeared during the last quarter. Our aim is to give our readers the form and spirit of the time, in theological literature, and to a certain extent, in all literature appropriate to a Christian people. We wish also to answer the question so often put to friends in the city: What books are worth buying? The questioner can answer this best for himself, if we can give him an exact idea of what a Book is, -and is not.
· Letters on the Early History of the Presbyterian Church in
America, addressed to the late Rev. Robert M. Laird, by Irving Spence, Esq., of Snow Hill, Maryland, with a sketch of the life of the Author, and a selection from his religious writings. pp. 191.
We notice the above works, not because they are all very new, or because we, by any means, approve of everything contained in some of them, but because we are deeply interested in this kind of literature. The man who preserves the fastperishing records and recollections of the Church of our Fathers, confers on us all a common benefit. The History of the Presbyterian Church in America has yet to be written. A noble work it will be when rightly done. Meanwhile these various contributions to it are its materials, now, we rejoice to see, steadily accumulating.
The sufferings of the Scottish martyrs, the atrocities of Claverhouse, the struggles for liberty and a pure faith of the Puritans in England, the sailing of the Eaglewing, the Siege of Derry, the martyrdoms, perils and wanderings of the noble Huguenots, all these, with a multitude of other interesting memories, enter into our early history. Each section, too, of our widely extended territory, has its own separate legends and recollections. The spirit and life of American Presbyterianism is thus to be made out, in connection with her constitutional history. The author must make allowance for party and individual prejudices. He is to be truly grateful for every fact he can gather in this wide field; and from the whole is to be developed a work that will be sufficient to immortalize his name, who is able rightly to accomplish it.
The Rev. Richard Webster, of Mauch Chunk, Pa., has a work in manuscript which is designed to be published, entitled “ The Presbyterian Church from 1708 to 1760.” “It comprises a history, in ten chapters, followed by biographical sketches of each minister from 1708 to 1758.” He has also published, in the “ Presbyterian" newspaper, thirty numbers, entitled “ Glances at the Past.” Dr. Foote has used Mr. Webster's materials to a considerable extent, in his book. Mr. Webster is a man of a peculiar talent, with a profound feeling of interest in antiquarian researches, family, national, but, above all, ecclesiastical. Like Dr. Foote, he is thoroughly with our separated brethren.
The work of Mr. Hotchkin is very elaborate and minute. It is a Thesaurus of information touching that noble and flourishing region, whose good name bigotry attempted to destroy, but which constitutes, in fact, one of the most glorious parts of the heritage of the Lord. Let any sane man travel from Utica to Buffalo, and then wind his way through the Southern villages of the great State of New York, and marvel at the attempt to sever from a Church so vital, integral and mighty a part of it.
The works of Dr. Foote and Dr. Davidson, contain much that is valuable. The prejudices of the latter, however, make him an unsafe guide in all that relates to the division between the two branches of the Church. In saying this, we of course
mean no disparagement to the entire honesty of Dr. Davidson, nor to his gentlemanly .and Christian character. II. New Themes for the Protestant Clergy: Creeds without
Charity, Theology without Humanity, and Protestanism without Christianity, with notes by the editor on the literature of Charity, Population, Pauperism, Political Eco
nomy, and Protestantism. pp. 383. One hardly knows exactly what to say about this book. There is an earnest vein of sincerity running through it which commends it; but there is an obvious exaggeration. That there are faults in Protestantism; that it is not a perfect development of Christianity ; that the clergy are not in all points what they ought to be; that the poor are not sufficiently cared for; that there is not enough genuine, gentle, and Christ-like kindness in the Church, we are quite ready to admit, without being at all willing to believe in the violent assertions of the author. For illustrations of what we mean, we are compelled to refer to almost the entire spirit of the book.
Our deepest feeling about the matter we thus express. Here is a layman, pious, attached to the Church, learned, polished, keen, shrewd, acquainted with the world, obviously having mingled much both in the circles of business and refinement. He sees evils in the church which are painful to him, just because of his attachment to it. Now it is eminently desirable that such a layman should give a fair, candid criticism on the state of the church. He has a different angle of vision from the ministry, and his suggestions might be eminently useful. We have always observed - the clergy ready to listen to suggestions from such a quarter.
But we regret to say that this is not such a book. It awakens an antagonism, which, we are afraid, is fatal to its usefulness. It overstates unconsciously. It is over-excited. Sometimes it caricatures. It proves too much, and so comes, we fear, to prove almost nothing at all.
We wish we could persuade the author to try again. For example, America needs castigation as to her worldliness and exclusive devotion to business. The -subject of competition in manufacturing, with its politico-economic and moral influences, is one of vast and vital importance. England is, beyond all peradventure terribly wrong in trying to manufacture for the world, and so bringing down prices, by excessive competition, until at that Moloch there come to be offered up myriads of souls and bodies, an awful holocaust. The whole subject of the poor is most interesting, and ministry and people would listen, if kindly, as well as ably addressed. The author is fierce for charity, but loses her sweet spirit in his vehement indignation. His is the Vesuvius-lava, which we hope will, as in Southern Italy, presently be a basis for a more fertile soil. The pioneer, perhaps, must not use his axe too gently. We hope that the smiling lawn, the soft meadow and the running stream will come next. We cannot afford to lose such co-laborers. Mighty is the power of gentleness. We hope this Protestant laymen will essay it.
One bad thing about the book is, that men a great deal worse than the author, will make a great deal more out of his statements than he means. Quakerism, (we use the word to express what is evil in the Society of Friends, we hear, delights in it. We are not surprised at that. Men, too, who dislike all religion, will find material in unqualified denunciation by a good man (which we have no doubt the author is) for mischief, which would shock him. Literæ scriptæ manent. It is an important maxim.
III. The Doctrine of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ,
in its relation to mankind and to the Church, by Robert Isaac Wilberforce, A. M., Archdeacon of the East Riding.
First American, from the Second London Edition. The Doctrine of Holy Baptism: with remarks on the Rev.
W. Goode's “ Effects of Infant Baptism,” by the same.
Three sons of William Wilberforce became clergymen in the English establishment. One of them has become a Romanist. The remaining two, one of whom is Bishop of Oxford, and the other the author of the works whose titles we bave quoted, hold views similar to those of Dr. Pusey.
The ground taken in the work on the Incarnation, is briefly this: The essence of all true Christianity lies in the union of the human soul with the Incarnate Saviour. So far, we trace the influence of the Author of the Practical View, but when we inquire how this union is commenced, and perpetuated, we learn that Sacraments are the “Extension of the Incarnation,” that “ they effect union with Christ.” In the first half of this book, we find much that is interesting and admirahle, and are perfectly amazed at the platitude of the nether half.
The second of the above books presents an interesting phase of the Puseyito controversy. Mr. Goode attempts to show, that the Compilers of the Formularies of the Church of England were Calvinistic, and therefore it was impossible, that they could have meant to teach that all children, duly baptized, are “recipients of grace.” Mr. Wilberforce replies to this argument in a book of three hundred pages. The most interesting chapters are those in which the questions arc discussed : How far belief in baptismal regeneration is consistent with adherence to Calvinism; and, Whether the formularies of the Church of England were drawn up by Calvinists. The latter point he attempts to answer in the negative. He labors hard to sever Augustine from Calvin. It is interesting to see how strongly a man of real ability (for such Archdeacon Wilberforce is,) feels, that if Calvinism can only be fairly gotten rid of, nothing else stands much in the way of the ritual system. There are only two systems worth the name, v. pp. 169–179. Does not this look like an admission, that Calvinism is the only sure bulwark against Popery and Semi-Popery? It is but right to add, that Mr. W: recognizes the power of Calvin, as is seen in such expressions as these, “ recast by the powerful intellect of the Genevese Reformer;" “Calvin's great penetration;" the “horribile
decretum enabled him to dispense with the whole theory of the Church system." Mr. Goode, he says, “ assumes not only that Calvinists modified our services, but created them. Give him his standing-ground, and no doubt he may shake the whole world of our theology."
The manner in which Semi-Popery marches with some of the most esoteric doctrines of pure Christianity, and the near approach it makes to the most tender and affectionate emotions of experimental religion, show most fearfully the working of the mystery of iniquity, the master-piece of Satan. We are not ignorant of his devices, for we know that he is most terribly dangerous, when he is transformed, with whatever unconsciousness of mistaken good men, into an angel of light. For which, see Keble's Christian Year, Newman's Sermons, and the first half of Wilberforce on the Incarnation.
Our readers may be curious to know the state of parties in the one, united and indivisible English Church. We believe the following will be found to be nearly correct, viz.:
1. Catholic, or developed Puseyite; this is the Apex. A thorough “ Catholic,” comes under the general designation “tendimus in Latium.” This division professes to look to what is primitive and universal. There is a good deal that is in. teresting in their spirit. Their main delusion is in imagining that the demon of Popery really has any thing in common with their imaginations.
2. Anglo-Catholic, or Tractarian, the same thing, only more English ruggedness, and less development.
3. Anglican, more English still, and more Protestant.
4. High and Dry. Political English High-Churchmanship, without the Christian zeal of the others, and the “ Jim religious" sentiment of the “ Catholics." Highly “respectable.”
5. Low and Slow. Low-Church-and-State-Protestant, not much suspicion of zeal or warmth.
6. Latitudinarian. They may be of either party as to Churchmanship, but are strongly tinctured with German rationalistic notions. When they come into full consciousness, they are apt to crop out into Westminister-Review-infidelity.
7. Evangelical, truly Protestant and religious, some of them amongst the salt of the earth.
IV. Sermons, by Henry Edward Manning, M. A., Archdeacon
of Chichester. Volume the Fourth. (English Edition.) We fear that our Church do not exactly understand the nature of Puseyite literature. If they have conceived of it all as dry, uninteresting, husky with decisions of Councils, dull with extracts from half-forgotten fathers whose treatises were only adapted to past centuries, sour with a revived asceticism, cunning with a malignant sinister glance reflected from Jesuitism, with just enough mediæval sentimentality to catch silly misses in their teens ; if, we say, our calm sensible people have formed some such imagination as this of the Newmania, then have they greatly failed