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the Book of Daniel are worthy of notice. The order in which they are mentioned is not designed to express anything in regard to their value, but is adopted merely for the sake of convenience:

Critici Sacri. Tom. iv.

Calvin, Prælectiones in Daniel. Works, vol. v., ed. Amsterdam, 1667.

Jerome, Commentary on Daniel. Works, tom. iv., ed. Paris,



The Pictorial Bible (Dr. Kitto). London, 1836. Bush's Illustrations of Scripture. Brattleboro, 1836. Dr. Gill, Commentaries. Vol. vi., ed. Philadelphia, 1819. Hengstenberg's Christology, translated by the Rev. Reuel Keith, D. D., Alexandria, 1836. Newton on the Prophecies. London, 1832. Einleitung in das Alte Testament. Von Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, Vierter Band, $ 612-619.

Daniel aus dem Hebräish-Aramäischen neu ubersetzt und erklärt mit einer vollständigen Einleitung, und einigen historischen und exegetischen Excursen, Von Leonhard Bertholdt. Erlangen, 1806.

Das Buch Daniel Verdeutscht und Ausleget Von Dr. Cæsar von Lengerke, Professor der Theologiæ zu Königsburg in Pr. Königsberg, 1835.

Commentarius Grammaticus in Vetus Testamentum in usum maxime Gymnasiorum et Academiarum adornatus. Scripsit Franc. Jos. Valent. Dominic. Maurer. Phil. Doct. Soc. Historico-Theol. Lips. Sod. Ord. Volumen Secundum. Lipsiæ, 1838.

Isaaci Newtoni ad Danielis Profetæ Vaticínia. Opuscula, tom. ii., 1744.

Lehrbuch der Historish-Kritischen Einleitung in die Kanonishen und Apokryphischen Bücher des Alten Testamentes. Von Wilhelm Martin Leberect De Wette, $ 253–259. Berlin, 1845.

In Danielem Prophetam Commentarius editus a Philippo Melanthone, Anno M. D. XLIII. Corpus Reformatorum, Bretschneider, vol. xiii., 1846.

Ueber Verfasser und der Zweck des Buches Daniel. Theologische Zeitschrift. Drittes Heft. Berlin, 1822, pp. 181–294. By Dr. Fried. Lücke. Commentatio Historico-Critica. Exhibens descriptionem et. VOL. 1.-17

when Einleituten TestamBerlin, escripat Image Visionsunded botel'exact he must 19

censuram recentium de Danielis Libro Opinionum, Auctore Henrico Godofredo Kirmss, Saxone Seminarii Theologici Sodali. Jenæ, 1828.

Die Authentie des Daniel. Von Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg. Berlin, 1831.

The Season and Time, or an Exposition of the Prophecies which relate to the two periods of Daniel subsequent to the 1260 years now recently expired. By W. Ettrick, A. M. London, 1816.

An Essay towards an Interpretation of the Prophecies of Daniel. By Richard Amner. London, 1776.

Neue Kritishe Untersuchungen über des Buch Daniel. Von Heinrich Hävernick, der Theologie Doctor und A. 0. Professor an der Universität Rostock. Hamburgh, 1838.

An Exposition of such of the Prophecies of Daniel as receive their accomplishment under the New Testament. By the late Rev. Magnus Frederic Roos A. M., Superintendent and Prelate in Lustnan and Anhausen. Translated from the German, by Ebenezer Henderson. Edinburgh, 1811.

A Description accompanying an hieroglyphical print of Daniel's Great Image London

Daniel, his Chaldie Visions and his Ebrew: both translated after the original, and expounded both, by the reduction of heathen most famous stories, with the exact proprietie of his wordes (which is the surest certaintie what he must meane): and joining all the Bible and learned tongues to the frame of his Worke. London, 1596. By Hugh Broughton.

Observations intended to point out the application of Prophecy in the eleventh chapter of Daniel to the French Power. London, 1800. Author unknown.

An Ápologie in Briefe Assertions defending that our Lord died in the time properly fortold to Daniel. For satisfaction to some studentes in both Universities. By H. Broughton. London, 1592.

As Essay in Scripture Prophecy, wherein it is endeavored to explain the three periods contained in the xiith chapter of the Prophet Daniel, with some arguments to make it probable that the first of the periods did expire in the year 1715. Printed in the year 1715. Author and place unknown.

Daniel, an Improved Version attempted, with a Preliminary Dissertation, and Notes, critical, historical, and explanatory. By Thomas Wintle, B. D., Rector of Brightwall, in Berkshire, and Fellow of Pembroke College. Oxford, 1792.

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Hermanni Venema Commentarius, ad Danielis cap. xi. 4-45, et xii, 1–3. Leovardiæ, 1752.

A Chronological Treatise upon the Seventy Weeks of Daniel. By Benjamin Marshall, M. A., Rector Naunton, in Gloucestershire. London, 1725.

The Times of Daniel, Chronological and Prophetical, examined with relation to the point of contact between Sacred and Profane Chronology. By George, Duke of Manchester, London, 1845.

Prof. Stuart's Commentary on Daniel, Boston, 1850.

The following works are referred to by De Wette, Lehrbuch, pp. 378, 379, as valuable aids in interpreting Daniel :

Ephräm, d. S. Ausleg. des Proph. Daniel, Opp. ii. 203, seq.

Theodoret, Comment. in Visiones Dan. Proph. Opp. ed. Sculz. ï. 1053, seq.

Paraph. Josephi Jachidæ in Dan. c. Vers. et Annotatt. Const. l'Empereur. Amst. 1633.

Prælectt. Acad. in Dan. Proph. habitæ a Mart. Geir. Lips. 1667, ed. corr. 84.

H. Venem. Dissertatt. ad Vatice Danielis, c. ii. vii. et viii. Leov. 1745.

Chr. B. Michael. Annotatt. in Dan. in J. H. Michael. Ueberr. Annotatt. in Hagiogr. iii. 1, seq.

Rosenmüller schol.

ARTICLE III. History of Greece. By GEORGE GROTE, Esq. Reprinted from the second

London edition. In eight volumes, 1852. A History of Greece. By the Right Rev. ConnOP THIRLWALL, Lord Bishop of St. David's. In two volumes. From the English edition, 1848.

The origin of the most perfect of languages is lost in obscurity. The formation of the most exquisite of all human instruments of thought and expression, by a remarkable dispensation of Divine Providence was assigned to a remote age beyond the reach of profane history, to a Pagan people, and to a land so minute, that if the waters of the Ægean and the Adriatic sweeping over it had mingled their waves, it would scarcely be missed from the map of the world. Yet how amazingly

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different that world would have been, had Greece never existed!

The name which we give to that wonderful people was of Roman origin. The people themselves did not call their land Grecian, nor themselves Greek. The source of the word is doubtful, though some suppose it to have been derived from Graicus, called the son of Thessalus. The Greeks called their land by the various names, Hellas, Achaia, Argos, &c., and themselves Argives, Hellenes, Ionians, &c. The most distinctive and appropriate names are undoubtedly Hellas and Hellenes.

That the Greeks descended from Japhet, seems quite certain. The evidence from Comparative Philology, to say nothing of that from any other source, is conclusive, and furnishes another interesting illustration of the fulfilment of prophecy. Some philologists find the name Ionian in Javan, the son of Japhet. The roots of the words are similar, though the etymology cannot perhaps be relied upon. The original inhabitants seem to have entered the land through Thrace, which corresponds well with the other evidence, that connects them with the ruling race whose cradle was the mountains which lie between the Euxine and Caspian Seas.

The Greeks all call this original people Pelasgi. The attempts to fix the derivation of this word are not considered very successful. The statements which describe these people as utterly barbarous, as feeding on acorns, and ignorant even of fire, are rather to be received as the fancy of poetry which delights in strong contrasts, or as the still more perfect dreaminess of mere philosophical theory, than as the statement of sober history, or even probable tradition. It is far more probable, that these children of Japhet brought with them a fierce and warlike spirit indeed, but one imbued to a considerable extent with the arts and civilization of the East. The Pelasgi are found first in the north, and afterwards in various divisions of Greece, and it is said in Italy also. They seem to have been, if not strictly the first inhabitants of Greece, at all events the first who made any marked impression. The gigantic, and to a considerable extent rude remains of architecture, called Cyclopean, seem traceable to the Pelasgi.

We need not inform our readers that there has been much controversy upon the subject of the Hellenes, the race which most powerfully influenced Greek character. Without going minutely into the question, we will state the results which seem

the res With once which

best founded. They are, that the Pelasgi were the basis of the population at a remote period, that the Hellenes were in all probability one of the Pelasgic tribes, the most remarkable of all, and possessing within them the main germ of what is essentially Greek. That they, coming from the north, by conquest, and the force of superior intellect, impressed their character upon the Pelasgic nation. This is substantially the opinion of Thirlwall. Then it appears evident, that by constant communication with the adjacent coasts of Asia and Africa, begun probably by colonies at a very early period, and continued in numerous ways, that the original Greek character was partially modified, but especially obtained materials upon which its own versatility and love of symmetry acted. The nations which thus exerted special influence upon Greece, were Phænicia and Egypt; the former most probably by colonies and commercial intercourse, and the latter by visits to them of the Greeks and Phoenicians, who thus became imbued with their learning, and to some extent, with their religion.

We doubt whether the Phoenicians can be properly understood, without taking into consideration an element in the formation of their character much overlooked—their connection with the Jews. That they were intimately connected in the golden age of Palestine, the age which began with David and Šolomon, is very clear. That the greatest wealth and splendor of Tyre was coeval with the loftiest sweep of the Hebrew prophetic poetry, will hardly be denied, with Isaiah open before us. We may be quite mistaken, but it seems to us that this very important source of influence upon Greece, through Phoenicia, has been much neglected by scholars.

A certain affinity is discernible between the Phoenicians and the Hellenists. The Phænicians were an active, versatile, commercial and manufacturing people. Their ships coasted almost every league of the Mediterranean, and they thus laid every land from Palestine to Spain under tribute. Though they never cultivated learning as did the Chaldeans, or religious mystery like the Egyptians, yet they possessed, on the one hand much intelligence, and on the other, a religion essentially, and even in some respects horribly, oriental. They were, therefore, while the carriers of the world commercially, prepared to transmit learning from one nation to another, catching something of its spirit themselves. Phoenicia was essentially maritime, the mart of opinion as well as of precious stones, of the mysteries of Ashtoreth, as well as of the Tyrian

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