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most southern of the New Hebrides, in the Pacific occan: Lg. 170.9 E, Lat. 20.10 s.

ANBAR, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Irak. It is scated on the Euphrates, 40 m. w. of Bagdad, with a palace, built by Solyman the Great.

ANCASTER, a village of England, in Lincolnshire, 15 m. s. of Lincoln, standing on a Roman highway, at the foot of a hill, abounding with antiquities; P. 471.

ANCASTER, a town of Upper Canada, between the w. end of lake Ontario, and the Ouse, or Grand River, which flows SE. to lake Erie, 30 m. sw. of York.

ANCENIS, a town of France, in the dept. of the Loire Inferieure, seated on the Loire 20 m. E. of Nantes.

ANCISA, a small town of Tuscany in Italy, celebrated for having given birth to the poet Petrarch.

ANCOBRA, a district of Guinea, in Africa, on the Ivory coast, separated from the Gold coast, on the E. by the Ancobra, or Axim. At the mouth of the river, within the bar, is a good harbour: Lg. 1.10 w, Lt. 4.50 N.

ANCONA, MARCA D', a province of Italy, in the Ecclesiastical State, 70 m. long by 50 broad; bounded on the NW. by Urbino, NE. by the gulf of Venice, s. by Naples, and sw. by Spoleto. The soil is fertile, producing hemp, flax, wax, and honey.

ANCONA, a city of Italy, and capital of the province or march of Ancona; a bishop's see, with a citadel; 116 m. N. by E. of Rome. The cathedral stands upon a hill, and the houses extend down the side of the eminence toward the gulf of Venice. Clement XII. built a mole, to render the harbour safe; on the ruins of that raised by Trajan, 2000 feet long, 100 broad, and 68 high, with a battery and light-house on the point. Near this stands the triumphal arch of Trajan, built of white marble, and deemed the most perfect remain of Roman magnificence existing. Here likewise Clement erected a lazaretto, which advances a little way into the sea, in the form of a pentagon. Great numbers of Jews are settled in this city, and they have the principal share of its commerce: Lg. 13.35 E, Lt. 43.36 N.

ANDALUSIA, a province of Spain, sometimes divided into Upper and Lower: Upper Andalusia comprehends the province of Granada, and Lower Andalusia the districts of Seville, Cordova, and Jaen. Andalusia, in a restricted sense (excluding Granada), is 270 m. long by 80 broad; bounded on the N. by Estramadura and Mancha, E. by Murcia, s. by Granada and the Mediterranean, and w. by the Atlantic and Portugal. The Guadalquiver runs through its whole length; and it is the most fertile and trading district in Spain. The capital is Seville.

ANDAMAN ISLANDS, several islands of Asia, on the E. side of the bay of Bengal. The largest, called Great Andaman, is 140 m. long by 20, indented by deep bays affording good

harbours, and intersected by creeks, two of which pass through the island, and at high water are navigable for small vessels. A hill in the centre of this island is named Saddlepeak, about 240 fect high. The forests afford some valuable trees, as ebony and the Nicobar bread-fruit; edible birds' nests abound here. The only quadrupeds are wild hogs, monkeys, and rats. The inhabitants are Negroes, in a state of barbarism, living chiefly on fish, fruits, and herbs; their canoes are of the rudest kind. In 1793 the English made a settlement on the N. end of Great Andaman, which is called Port Cornwallis, and has a commodious harbour to shelter ships during the NE. monsoon: Lg. 93.0 E, Lt. 13.30 N.

ANDAYE, a fortified town of France, in the dept. of the Basses Pyrennees, near the mouth of the Bidassoa, almost opposite Fontarabia, in Spain, and 18 m. sw. of Bayonne. It is noted for its brandy.

ANDELYS, a town of France, dept. Eure, 17 m. NE. of Evreux, and 20 SE. of Rouen. It is divided by a paved road into Great and Little Andely, a mile from each other: the cloths manufactured here are in high esteem.

ANDERAB, a city of Usbec Tartary, capital of the province of Tokaristan, in Asia; seated on a river, near a pass through the mountains of Hindoo-ko, 240 m. ESE. of Balk. In its vicinity are rich quarries of lapis lazuli : Lg. 69.58 E, Lt. 36.10 N.

ANDERNACH, a post town of Prussia, in the province of the Lower Rhine, with a castle 2 German m. wNW. of Coblentz, on the post road to Koln. It is famous for millstones, and cement that hardens in water. Great quantities of timber are also collected here, which are formed into vast rafts, and floated to Dort in Holland.

ANDES, better known now as Pictola, a village two leagues from Mantua, in Italy, remarkable for laying claim to the birth-place of Virgil.

ANDES, OF THE CORDILLERAS, or chain of mountains in South America so called, extending 4300 m. along the coast of the Pacific ocean, from the isthmus of Panama to the strait of Magellan. In some parts they are 100 m. from the coast, in others not above 50; their greatest width is 60 m, where they divide into two branches. They are superior in height to any other mountains, except those of Himaleh, in Asia; for the plain of Quito, which may be considered as the base of the Andes, is more elevated above the sea than the top of the Pyrennees. The storms roll, and the thunder bursts below their summits, which, though exposed to the rays of the sun in the torrid zone, are covered with snow. The highest part of this chain rises from the plain of Quito, and the loftiest mountains are from 18,000 to 21,000 feet above the level of the sea. These mountains are distinguished from others by frightful quebradas, or perpendicular rents, some of which measure 4000 feet in vertical descent; and the task of

crossing such tremendous clefts is often a work of great toil and danger. The Andes contain numerous volcanos, many of them constantly burning, and ejecting lava and other matter; they likewise give rise to waterfalls of immense height and force. They are clad with forests; and abound in gold, silver, precious stones, marbles, and mineral earths of the rarest qualities.

ANDLAU, a town and castle of France, dept. of the Bas Rhin, on a mountain, 18 m. ssw. of Strasburg.

ANDOVER, a borough of England, in Hampshire, near the river Ande, 14 m. N. by w. of Winchester, and 67 w. by s. of London. It returns 2 M.P.'s, and has a market on Saturday. It has a manufacture of shalloons, and a considerable trade in malt. A navigable canal passes hence to Southampton water; P. 4843. Polling place.

ANDOVER, a town of North America, in the state of Massachusetts, Essex county, United States; it lies on the Shawsheen, 20 m. wsw. of Newburyport, and 22 NNW. of Boston. Here are a theological seminary, and an excellent academy; also manufactures of paper and gunpowder; P. 4540.

ANDRAIGIRY, a town of Asia, the capital of a kingdom on the E. coast of Sumatra, seated on a river, 200 m. N. by w. of Bencoolen. The chief produce is pepper: Lg. 102.0 E, Lt. 0.56 s.

ANDRARUM, a town of Sweden, in the province of Christianstadt, 10 m s. of Christianstadt. It has great alum works.

ANDRAVIDA, a town of Greece, in the Morea, and province of Gastouni, 18 m. E. by s. of cape Klarenza.

ANDREASBERG, a town of Hanover, in the province of Gottingen, 28 m. NE. of Gottingen; near are silver mines.

ANDREOSSA, OF ANDROUSSA, a town of the Morea, in Greece, at the foot of a perpendienlar mountain, near the Pirnazza, 40 m. w. of Mistra.

ANDREWSKOIA BAY, situated in the gulf of Siberia, in Northern Asia, and in the Frozen Ocean: Lt. 76.20 N, Lg. 106.14 E.

ANDRI, or ANDRIA, a town in Naples, in the province of Bari; it is situated in a fertile plain, and has a fine manufactory of earthenware. ANDROS, an island of the Greek Archipelago, 24 m. long by 8. It has fertile plains, but no good harbour. The inhabitants are of the Greek church, and have a bishop and several monasteries. The exports consist of silks, Granges, citrons, mulberries, pomegranates, and figs. Andros is the capital, situated on the E. Cast: Lg. 25.2 E, Lt. 38.0 N.

ANDROS ISLANDS, North America, lying among the Bahamas, and extending in a curve, from N. to s, upward of 40 leagues. The principal island is 50 m. long, but has few inhabitants, and its shores are difficult of access. High Point, the most s. part, is 26 m. ssw. of the w. point of Providence; Lg. 77.25 w, Lt. 24 48 N.

ANDROUVSOVA, a village of Russia, in the government of Smolensk. A treaty between Russia and Poland was signed there in 1667.

ANDUGAN, a town of Usbec Tartary, in Asia, the capital of the province of Fergana, 300 m. NE. of Samarcand: Lg. 68.55 E, Lt. 42.25 N.

ANDUJAR, a town of Spain, situated in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir, 25 m. NNW. of Jaen. It has six churches and nine convents; the environs abound in wheat, wine, oil, honey, and fruit; P. 20,000.

ANEGADA, North America, the most northern of the English Virgin Islands: Lg. 64.7 w, Lt. 18.40 N.

ANGARAES, a province of South America, in Peru, E. of the Andes, of which the capital is Guancavilica.

ANGELOS; see PUEBLA DE LOS ANGELOS. ANGMERING, a parish in the rape of Arundel, Sussex, 3 m. from Little Hampton; P. 928. ANGERBURG, a post town of Prussia, in the province of Ost Preussen, on the N. side of a lake called Mauer-see, with a castle, 174 German m. by post road SE. of Konigsberg.

ANGERMANLAND, or WESTER NORERLAND, a province of Sweden, 150 m. long; the widest part is to the E, on the sea of Bothnia. It is mountainous and woody; produces a quantity of flax, which is spun and dressed in a peculiar manner; and has considerable iron-works. The chief town is Hernosand.

ANGERMUNDE, a town of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, on the lake Munde, 50 m. by post road NE. of Berlin.

ANGERS, a city of France, the capital of the department of the Mayenne et Loire, and an episcopal see. It is seated on the Mayenne, at the influx of the Sarte, 50 m. ENE, of Nantes, and 167 sw. of Paris. It is divided by the Mayenne into two parts; the western, which extends into a plain, and the eastern, which rises on the side of a hill. The castle, flanked by 18 round towers, is situated on a rock, and contains the tomb of Réné, king of Sicily. The cathedral consists of one long aisle, surmounted by a Gothic arched roof, without a pillar; in it is the monument of Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry IV. of England. Angers has manufactures of kerchiefs and canvas; the slate quarries, at the 'extremity of the suburb of Bressigny, are very productive; P. 33,000: Lg. 0.33 w, Lt. 47.28 N.

ANGHIERA, a town of Austrian Italy, in the Milanese, on the E. side of lake Maggiore, 30 m. Nw. of Milan.

ANGLEN, OF ANGELEN, a small district of Denmark, in the duchy of Sleswick. Some suppose that from the people of this country the English originated; being called in to assist the Britons against their invaders from Norway, and that in process of time, becoming masters of the country, they gave it the name of England.

ANGLESEY, a county of Wales, 24 m. long by 18, containing 257,280 acres. It is divided into 6 hundreds, and 77 parishes;

market towns; returns 1 county and 1 borough M.P., and has 4 polling places. It is separated from Carnarvonshire by a narrow channel called the Menai straits, which passes from St. George's channel, by Caruarvon and Bangor, to the Irish sea, over which a suspension bridge has been erected, so high that vessels pass under it. A part of the island which borders the strait is wooded, recalling to mind its ancient state, when it was the seat of the Druids, whose religious rites were performed in the gloom of the thickest forests. Many rude mounds, circles, and monumental stones, said to be druidical remains, are still to be seen; but a little way from the straits the whole appears an open tract, without trees or hedges, watered by numerous rills, fertile in grass and corn, and abounding in cattle. Anglesey produces copper and sulphur, and in the NW. part is a quarry of green marble, intermixed with asbestos. Beaumaris is the county town, but Holyhead is the largest; P. 48,325.

ANGLESEY ISLAND, England, in the hundred of Staine, Cambridgeshire; it was once noted for a priory of black canons, founded by Henry I. There is also a village of the same name in Hampshire, 2 m. from Gosport.

ANGLONE, ANGLONA, or AGNONE, formerly an episcopal city of Naples, a few leagues from Tursi, where the see is transferred; a church and castle are now almost the sole relics of the place.

ANGOLA, a kingdom of Congo, in Africa, bounded on the N. by Congo Proper, E. by Matamba, s. by Benguela, and w. by the Atlantic. The country is divided among several petty princes, and the Portuguese have several settlements on the coast; but the British and Dutch traffic most with the natives. Loanda is the capital. It produces the usual tropical fruits. The inhabitants are lazy, generally idolaters, and take as many wives as they think fit. ANGORA, or ANGOURA, the ancient Ancyra, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, and a Greek archbishop's see. The castle, in a dilapidated state, occupies the summit of a high rock, perpendicular on three sides, and has a triple enclosure. It stands near a small river, 210 m. ESE. of Constantinople. The environs are rich in fruit and pasturage. Here, and for many miles around, are bred the finest goats, whose white and silvery coats, almost like silk, are worked into fine shawls. Near this place Tamerlane defeated Bajazet, and took him prisoner, in 1402; P. about 22,000: Lg. 32.36 E, Lt. 39.50 N.

ANGOSTURA, a town of Colombia, in the province of Carthagena, South America, on the Magdalena, at the influx of the Nures, 110 m. N. by w. of Bogota, 300 s. of Carthagena.

ANGOULEME, a town of France, capital of the dept. of the Charente, and the see of a bishop. It is seated on a hill, by the river Charente, 66 m. s. by w. of Poitiers. It has manufactures of woollen, earthenware, and

paper; also a royal foundry of cannon, and numerous forges. Balzac, whose letters were once greatly admired, and Ravaillac, the assassin of Henry IV., were both natives of this place; P. about 15,000: Lg. 0.9 E, Lt. 45.39 N. ANGOUMOIS, an old province of France, lying to the s. of Poitou, and E. of Saintonge. It now forms the department of the Charente.

ANGRA, the capital of the island of Terceira, one of the Azore islands, fortified and defended by a strong castle. It is a bishop's see, and the residence of the governor of the Azores. The town is well built, and populous; and here are royal magazines of naval stores. It stands on a bay, between two mountains, on the s. side of the island; Lg. 27.14 w, Lt. 38.39 N.

ANGRA DE LOS REYS, a seaport of South America, in Brazil, and province of Rio Janeiro, 70 m. w. of St. Sebastian: the harbour is much larger than that of Rio, and has three entrances, formed by two islands, two of which will admit vessels of the largest size; a great number of islands are scattered in the bay, most of which are inhabited. The town is defended by two redoubts, and has a considerable commerce.

ANGUILLA, or SNAKE ISLAND, in North America, the most northerly of the Caribbees, 30 m. long by 3 broad, and 60 m. Nw. of St. Christopher. It takes its name from its winding figure: Lg. 63.10 w, Lt. 18.12 N.

ANGUILLARA, a small city of Italy, in the states of the Church, on the lake of Braciano; also the name of a town on the Adige, north of Rovigo, in the Venetian territory, subject to Austria.


ANHALT, a small principality of Germany, 42 m. long, bounded on all sides by Prussia. It abounds in corn, and is watered by the Saale and Mulda. Zerbst is the largest town.

ANMOLT, an island of Denmark, in the Categat, surrounded by sand banks, but affording good anchorage and supplies of water. It was taken by the British in 1809, who defeated the Danes in their attempt to retake it in 1811. On it there is a lighthouse: Lg. 11.35 E, Lt. 56.41 N.


ANIMALAYA, a town of Hindostan, in Coimbetoor, with a fort, seated on the Alima, 21 m. s. of Coimbetoor. It has a trade in drugs, honey, and wax, collected in the hills to the s.

ANJAN, a town and fort of Hindostan, in the province of Cutch, capital of a small district, ceded to the British in 1816. It is situated on the side of a hill, 9 m. from the gulf of Cutch, and 40 SE. of Bhooj. The town is 2 m. in circuit, encompassed by gardens and cultivated fields: Lg. 70.11 E, Lat. 23.3 N.

ANJENJA, a town of Hindostan, in Travancore, at the mouth of a river, 46 m. wNW. of Travancore. It has a manufacture of excellent coir cables, and a trade in pepper and calicoes: L. 76.53 E, Lt. 8.37 N.

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ANJIER, a town and fort of Asia, on the w. coast of Java, on a bay, in the strait of Sunda, 18 m. w. of Bantam.

ANJOU, an old province of France, lying to the E. of Bretagne. It now forms the dept. of the Mayenne et Loire.

ANKOBER, a town of Africa, the capital of the province of Efat, 250 m. s. by E. of Antalo. The province of Efat, with that of Shoa on the w, are fertile and populous. The two provinces are now under one ruler, who resides at Ankober, and may be considered as an independent sovereign, who keeps up a friendly intercourse both with Gondar and Ontalo. Ankober is a place of traffic; and caravans pass thence to the N. coast of Adel: Lg. 42.27 E, Lat. 9.47 N.

ANAMABOR, a town of Africa, on the Goldcoast, which, during the prevalence of the home trade, was very flourishing. It was destroyed in 1808 by the Ashantees, when they made an ineffectual attempt to take the British fort of Cape Coast Castle: Lt. 5.14.

ANNABERG, a town of Saxony, noted for silver mines and the manufacture of lace, 17 m. s. of Chemnits.

ANNAPOLIS, a royal seaport of North America, in Nova Scotia, on the E. side of the bay of Fundy, protected by a fort. It has one of the finest harbours in the world, but the entrance is through a difficult strait, called the Gut of Annapolis. The town and fort are on the s. side of the harbour, at the mouth of a river of the same name, 86 m. w. by N. of Halifax Lg. 65.32 w, Lt. 44.49 N.

ANNECY, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Geneva, at the E. end of Lake Annecy. It lately belonged to Savoy, and was the see of a bishop, who also assumed the title of a bishop and prince of Geneva. It is 30 m. s. of Geneva; P. 3440.

ANNABON, or ANNOBOA, an island of Africa, in the gulf of Guinea, so called from having been discovered by the Portuguese on Newyear's-day, 1526. It is 24 m. in circuit, rising in two high hills; producing all the tropical fruits, and stocked with cattle and poultry: Lg. 5.30 E, Lt. 1.32 s.

ANNONAY, a town of France, in the dept. of Ardeche, 12 m. sw. of Vienne. It has manufactures of fine paper.

ANONE, or ANONIUM, a strong fort in Italy, situated in the duchy of Milan, on the Tanaro ; ANNABONA ISLAND, on the s. coast of Africa, it has endured several remarkable sieges. in Lt. 1.50 s, Lg. 5.30 E.

ANNAGH, an island on the w. coast of Ireland, 5 m. in circuit, between the isle of Achill and the coast of Mayo: Lg. 39 w, Lt. 53.58 N.

ANNAGOONDY; see BIJANGUR. ANNAMOOKA, or ROTTERDAM, one of the Friendly islands, in the Pacific ocean, discovered by Tasman in 1643, and visited by Cook in 1774 and 1777. In many places are plantations of yams and plaintains, enclosed with neat fences of reed; and the breadfruit and cocoa-nut trees are interspersed without order, but chiefly near the habitations. The other parts of the island, especially towards the sea, are covered with trees and bushes it lies in about 174.31 E. Lg, and 20.15 s. Lt.

ANNAN, a borough of Scotland, county of Dumfries, on the Annan, 3 m. from its mouth, which forms a good harbour for vessels of 250 tons. It is 14 m. ESE. of Dumfries, and 56 s. of Edinburgh. Here was a fine castle, built by one of the Bruces, the ruins of which still remain; P. 4492.

ANNANDALE, a district of Scotland, county of Dumfries, situated on both banks of the river Annan.

ANNAPOLIS, North America, in the United States, capital of Maryland. It is situated on the Severn; near its mouth is Chesapeak bay, 22 m. s. by E. of Baltimore, and 37 E. by N. of Washington. The state house stands in the centre of the city, from which point the streets diverge in every direction. Here also is St. John's college, which, with Washington college, at Chester, constitute one university, named the University of Maryland; P. 2623: Lg. 76.40 w, Lt. 39.2 N.

ANOPSHEHER, a town of Hindostan, in Delhi, with a brick fort. It stands on the right bank of the Ganges, 65 m. ESE. of Delhi, and is surrounded by a strong mud wall.

ANSBACH, or ONOBZBACH, a considerable district in Franconia, subject to Bavaria, which, by a distribution made in 1810, is included in the province of Rezat and the Upper Danube. It was added to Bavaria by Bonaparte in 1806, and confirmed to that kingdom by recent treaties.

ANSBACH, Bavaria, the capital of the province of Rezat, on the Rezat, 23 m. sw. of Nuremberg. The objects worthy of notice are, the prince's castle and gardens; the church of St. John, with the tombs of the princes; a well endowed orphan-house for 60 children, and a hospital; the prince's library and cabinet of medals, begun to be collected by the margrave William Frederic in 1720; and the academy. The principal manufactures are, woollen and cotton cloths, earthenware, white lead, and playing cards; P. about 11,000: Lg. 10.33 E, Lt. 48.12 N.

ANSTRUTHER, EAST and WEST, two boroughs of Scotland, on the SE. coast of the county of Fifeshire, 9 m. ssE. of St. Andrew. They adjoin each other; East Anstruther has a quay, and some trade in ship-building; P. of the first 1007, of the second 430.

ANTALO, or ANTALOU, a town of Abyssinia, in Africa, the capital of the province of Enderta; seated on the side of a hill, in a fertile district, 170 m. ENE. of Gondar. The ras of the empire exercises supreme authority, independent of the neguz or emperor, who resides at Gondar: Lg. 39.52 E, Lt. 13.22 N. ANTALIA, or ADALIA; see SATALIA.

ANTEQUERA, a town of Spain, in the pro

vince of Granada, divided into Upper and Lower. The Upper is seated on a hill, and has a castle; the Lower stands in a plain, and is watered by many brooks. In and around it are numerous ancient edifices in ruins; and in the vicinity are large quantities of natural salt, and quarries of excellent stone. The neighbouring hills produce the wine called Mountain or Malaga. It is 26 m. NW. of Malaga: Lg. 4.30 w, Lt. 37.1 N.

ANTEQUERA, in Mexico; see GUAXACA. ANTIBES, a town of France, in the dept. of the Var, with a strong castle and a harbour for small vessels. It is seated on the Mediterranean, 11 m. ssw. of Nice. The vicinity produces excellent fruit; and the anchovies caught in its vicinity are greatly esteemed Lg. 7.11 E, Lt. 43.35 N.

ANTICOSTI, an island of North America, at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 120 m. by 30. It is rocky, woody, and has no harbour.

ANTIGUA, one of the Caribbee islands, in the West Indies, 16 m. long by 12, and 60 E. by s. of St. Christopher. It has several good ports, and in that called English harbour, on the SE. side, are a royal naval yard and arsenal. It has no fresh water, excepting rain water, gathered in cisterns. The chief products are sugar, rum, cotton, and coffee. It was taken by the French in 1782, but restored in 1783. The capital is St. John; P. in 1817, white 2102; colour 1747; black 31,890. ANTILLES, the name which the French give to the Caribbee islands.

ANTIOCH, OF ANTAKIA, a town of Turkey, in Syria, in the pachalic of Aleppo, on the left bank of the Orontes, 12 m. from its mouth in the Mediterranean. It was formerly the capital of Syria, with a'P. of 800,000; but now very reduced. The ancient Roman and Greek walls, with square towers at every hundred yards, still mark its former extent. Its situation is beautiful, and it is noted as the place where the disciples of Christ were first called Christians: Lg. 36.8 E, Lt. 36.11 N.

ANTIOCHETTA, a town of Turkey, in Asia, on the coast of Caramania, and a bishop's see. It is seated on the Mediterranean, 88 m. s. of Konieh Lg. 32.20 E, Lt. 36.5 N.

ANTIOQUIA, a province of South America, in Colombia, bounded on the N. by Darien and Carthagena, E. by Bogota, s. by Popayan, and w. by Choco. It is famous for mines of gold and silver, and consists almost entirely of mountainous land, having part of the central ridge of the Andes within its limits.

ANTIOQUIA, a town of South America, and the capital of the province of the same name; it is also called St. Fe-de-Antioquia: it stands on the left bank of the Cauca, 170 m. NNW. of Bogota: Lg. 75.17 w, Lt. 6.46 N.

ANTIPAROS, the ancient Oleiros, an island of the Greek Archipelago, 2 m. w. of Paros. It is rocky, 16 m. in circuit; yet, in some parts, is well cultivated, and produces as much barley as supports a small village. It has a grotto, about 80 yards high and 100 broad,

which is descended into by ropes, from differ ent declivities; it contains a vast variety of figures, of a white transparent crystalline substance, in forms resembling vegetables, marble pillars, and a superb marble pyramid: Lg. 25.13 E, Lt. 37.2 N.

ANTIPOVSKAIA STANITZA, in Asiatic Russia, government of Saratof, a cosaque village on the Volga.

ANTISANA, one of the loftiest volcanos of the Andes, in the vicinity of Quito. On it, at the height of 3800 feet above the plain of Quito, and 13,500 above the sea, is a hamlet of the same name, which is deemed the highest inhabited spot upon the earth. Humboldt, in 1802, ascertained the height of a crater on this mountain, rising in the midst of permanent snow, to be 19,150 feet above the level of the sea.

ANTONGIL, a large bay in the Indian ocean, on the E. coast of Madagascar, much frequented by Europeans for commercial purposes.

ANTRIM, a county of Ireland, 46 m. long by 27; bounded on the N. and E. by the sea, s. by Down, and w. by Londonderry. It is divided into 77 parishes, and returns 2 county M.P.'s. It is much intersected with bogs and morasses, yet is healthy. It has a natural curiosity on the N. coast, called the Giants' Causeway, which projects 600 feet into the The linen manufacture is carried on here very extensively. The principal rivers are the Ban, Lagan, and Bush. The assizes are held at Carrickfergus; P. 314,608.


ANTRIM, a borough of the county of Antrim, standing on a rivulet, which a little below the town enters the NE. end of Lough Neagh, 16 m. w. of Carrickfergus, 107 of Dublin. It is now much decayed, but still carries on the linen manufacture; P. 2690.


ANTWERP, a fortified city of Belgium, lately a bishop's see, 26 m. N. of Brussels, and 80 s. of Amsterdam: it stands on the Scheldt, which is here 400 yards wide, and large ves‐ sels may come up to the quay, and into a large basin. On the opposite side is the strong Téte de Flandre, docks for building large vessels, and a canal that communicates with Brussels. In 1568, Antwerp was the chief mart of Flemish commerce, and then contained 200,000 inhabitants; but the civil wars, caused by the tyranny of Philip II., drove the trade to Amsterdam. The cathedral is a fine structure, and contains an assemblage of paintings by the greatest masters of the Flemish school, among which is the celebrated descent from the cross, by Rubens: there are many fine paintings in the other churches. The exchange, once so thronged, from which Sir Thomas Gresham took the model of that in London, now serves for the accommodation of an academy for painting, sculpture, architecture, and the mathematics. The townhouse, in the great market-place, is a noble structure. The citadel is very strong, and has several times sustained sieges;

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