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at the junction of the Gavenny with the Usk, over which is a bridge of 15 arches: it has Woollen manufactures, and iron-works, 3 m. s; 16 m. w. of Monmouth, and 145 m. wNw. of London; P. of parish 4230. Polling place. ABERGELEY, a town of North Wales, Denbighshire, situated on the N. coast, 7 m. Nw. of Denbigh, and 225 m. Nw. of London; a bathing place; P. 2506.

ABERGORLECH, a village of South Wales, Caermarthenshire, 16 m. NE. of Caermarthen. ABERGWILLY, a village of South Wales, Caermarthenshire, 2 m. E. of Caermarthen; here is a bishop's palace; P. 2675.

ABERILDUC, a haven 4 m. E. from Ushant; the extreme westerly part of France, forming the southern boundary of the Channel, the Land's End in England being the northern. ABERLADY, a village of Scotland, Haddingtonshire, near the coast, 16 m. ENE. of Edin. burgh, on the road to North Berwick; P. 973. ABERLEMO, a village of Scotland, Forfarshire, on the s. of the Esk, 4 m. s. of Brechin: here are two antique obelisks covered with rude sculptures; P. 1079.

ABERNANT, a village of South Wales, Glamorganshire, near the Neath canal, 12 m. NE. of Neath.

ABERNETHY, a town of Scotland, Perthshire, on the s. bank of the Tay, 7 m. SE. of Perth: it has a manufacture of linen, and an ancient tower 74 feet high; P. 1612.

ABERNETHY, a village of Scotland, Elginshire, 30 m. sE. of Inverness; P. 2092.

ABER RHIN, or BERIEU, North Wales, Montgomeryshire, 5 m. from Welshpool; it includes 12 townships; has an endowed free school, and lies close to the confluence of the Severn and Rhin; P. 2429.

ABERYSTWITH, a seaport of South Wales, Cardiganshire; the Ystwith and Rhydol fall together here into the sea; 38 m. NE. of Cardigan, and 207 m. by road Nw. by w. of London. It participates with Cardigan, Adpar, and Lampeter, in returning one M.P.: here are the ruins of a castle built by Edward I. It has manufactures of flannels, stockings, a fishery, and is a favourite watering-place; P. 4128. Polling place: Lg. 4.10 w, Lt. 52.18 N.

ABEX, a country of Africa, extending 400 m. along the Red Sea, which bounds it on the 2, while Abyssinia and Nubia limit it on the other sides: it is sandy and barren, being destitute of water: the inhabitants are Mahomedans: Suakem is the capital.

ABINEAU, a port of North America, in Upper Canada, situated on the N. side of lake Erie, 13 m. wsw. from fort Erie.

ABINGDON, a town of England, in Berkshire, at the junction of the Ock with the Thames, 6 m. s. of Oxford, and 56 m. w. by N. from London: market days, Mondays and Fridays; it returns one M.P.; it has several well-paved streets, a handsome town-hall, a spacious corn market, two churches, two dissenters', and a Quakers' meeting, two hospitals, a free and a

charity school, and manufactures of sacking; P. 5259. Polling place.

ABINGDON, a town of the United States, in the state of Maryland, county of Hartford, on the river Bush, 20 m. NE. of Baltimore: Cokesbury College was founded here by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1785.

ABINGDON, a town of the United States, in the state of Virginia, capital of the county of Washington, 310 m. w. by s. of Richmond: Lg. 81.59 w, Lt. 31.41 N.

ABINGER, a parish in Surrey, noted for a church of the early English architecture; 44 m. from Dorking; P. 767.

ABIPONES, a warlike tribe of Indians, in South America, inhabiting the country between the 28° and 30° of s. Lt. along the banks of the La Plata. Though once amounting to 100,000, they now scarcely exceed 5000. They live chiefly by hunting; their weapons are spears and arrows; they prize highly the flesh of jaguars, imagining it imparts strength and courage; their features are regular; they are a tall, robust, and martial race; their caciques are merely generals in time of war, and judges in time of peace.

ABISCA, a province of Peru, on the E. of the Andes, between the rivers Yetan and Amarumago, and s. of Cusco: it is little known: its plains are occupied by barbarous nations of Indians.

ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the s. side of which is Frederick settlement: Lt. 49. N, Lg. 79.40 w.

A BISCANE, LAKE, or ABICHECANE, in Asia, in the Russian government of Tobolsk.

ABKHAZY, Asia, one of the seven nations between the Black sea and the Caspian. Their principal establishments are on the southern slope of the mountains between the Cuban and the Black sea. They are in some degree tributary to the Turks, and are divided into two governments, the western and the eastern; each subject to a pasha, commonly chosen out of the principal native families, one of whom resides at Sokoum-kala fort; the language appears to have a remote affinity to that of the Circassians. They still preserve some traces of Christianity. Their chief town is Anacopia.

ABO, a seaport of Russia, capital of Finland, and a bishop's see; it has a castle and a university, and is seated on the river Aura, near its mouth, in the gulf of Bothnia, 170 m. ENE. of Stockholm. It contains several stone and brick houses, but the generality are of wood; its exports are coarse linen, grain, furs, pitch, and iron, but the principal trade is timber. A great fair is held here towards the end of January: it was taken from the Swedes by the Russians in 1808; P. about 12,000. Lg. 22.7 E, Lt. 60.27 N.

A BOMEY, Africa, the capital of the kingdom of Dahomy, on the slave coast; it consists almost wholly of mud houses, as in the other parts of central Africa; the climate is very hot and unwholesome; P. about 25,000: Lg. 0,55 E, Lt. 7.50 N.

ABOUKIR, castle, island, and bay, on the coast of Egypt, w. of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. The bay is famous for the defeat of the French fleet, by Admiral Nelson, in 1798. The island lies in the w. part of the bay, and the castle stands on a sandy peninsula 3 m. ssw. of the island, and 18 m. ENE. of Alexandria: Lg. 30.0 E. Lt. 31.0 N. The town of Aboukir is the ancient Canopus, about 10 m. NE. of Alexandria. It was here the British army under sir Ralph Abercrombie landed in 1801.

ABAUTIG, or ABUTIGE, a town of Upper Egypt, situated near the Nile, 170 m. s. of Cairo: the best opium is made here.

ABRANTES, a town of Portugal, province of Estremadura, seated near the N. bank of the Tejo or Tagus, 80 m. NE. of Lisbon, on elevated ground; the streets are irregular, but there are many good houses, and a palace and castle in ruins: it has a bridge of boats over the Tagus.

ABRUG, a town of Transylvania, near the source of the Aranias, 21 m. Nw. by w. of Weissenburg: there are gold and silver mines in the neighbourhood.

ABRUZZO, a province of Naples, bounded on the E. by the gulf of Venice, N. and w. by Ancona, Spoleto, and Campagna di Roma, and s. by the Terra di Lavora and Molise; it is divided by the Pescara into two parts, one called Ultra, of which Aquila is the capital, the other called Citra, with Chieti for its capital. The province of Abruzzo is very subject to earthquakes; it is surrounded with mountains whose summits are for a great part of the year covered with snow, yet it is fertile in corn, rice, fruit, wine, olives, and saffron; silkworms are reared in great quantities; the forests abound in game, also in wolves and bears; P. 587,719.

ABS, a town of France, dept. of the Ardeche, 8 m. NW. of Viviers, formerly the capital of Viviers and a bishop's see, but now much fallen into decay.

ABU ARISCH, a town of Arabia, principality of Abu Arish, 80m. N. of Leheia: Lg. 42.30 E, Lt. 16.45 N.

ABUCARA, a town of Peru, situated in a valley 150 m. s. by E. of Guamanza.

ABURY, AUBURY, or AVEBURY, a village of Wiltshire, 6 m. from Marlborough; it has some remarkable Druidical remains of great dimensions; 80 m. from London; P. 688.


ABUTIGE, a large town of Africa, Upper Egypt, the site of the ancient Abotis; it produces excellent opium; 170 m. s. of Cairo. Lt. 26.50 N.

towards Constantinople are searched here: Lg. 37.36 E, Lt. 40.16 N.

ABYSSINIA, a country of Africa, 770 m. long, and 550 broad, bounded on the N. by Nubia, E. by the Red sea, s. by Gingi and Alaba, and w. by Nigritia and Darfur; it is divided into two districts, Tigre and Amhara, which are subdivided into provinces. The surface is mountainous, and in the vales the soil is fertile. The rainy season continues from April to September, succeeded, without interval, by a cloudless sky, and burning sun; cold nights constantly follow. No country in the world produces a greater variety of quadrupeds, wild and tame; the hyenas are numerous, there are no tigers; a species of oxen, called sanga, is celebrated for the size of their horns, some of which are nearly 4 feet long, and 21 inches round at the base. Besides eagles, vultures, and other birds of prey, there is a species of glede, called haddayn, which comes punctually into Abyssinia after the tropical rains; storks are numerous in May, when the rains become constant; there are some few owls of enromous size and beauty. The most remarkable insect is the tsaltsal, a large fly, which is so fatal to cattle, that in some districts great emigrations take place in the beginning of the rainy season, to prevent the stock from being destroyed. There is a remarkable coincidence between the accounts of the customs in the court of ancient Persia and those of modern Abyssinia. The religion of the country is a mixture of Judaism and of the Christianity of the Greek church; the language bears a great affinity to the Arabic. The government is a despotism, but in an unsettled state; for the power of the neguz, or king, is weak, and the ras, or prince, and the chiefs of the provinces, are generally in enmity with one another. The Abyssinians are of a dark olive complexion; their dress is a light robe, bound with a sash, and the head covered with a turban. The houses are of a conic shape, built of clay, covered with thatch, and the churches are of a round form. The natives at their feasts are fond of raw beef, and the soldiers, when on a march, will cut out a piece from the buttock of a cow, near the tail, to eat; the wounds they sew up and plaster over with dung, and the maimed animal having performed the remainder of the day's journey, is killed. The chief rivers are the Nile and the Tacazze, which have their sources in the country. Gondar is the metropolis.


ACAPULCO, a city of Mexico, on the Pacific ocean, with a large and commodious harbour, defended by a castle, 180 m. ssw. of Mexico. Every year a ship was sent hence to Manilla, and another returned thence to this port laden with the most valuable Asiatic commodities. One of these ships, called galleons, valued at above 300,000l., was captured by commodore Anson in 1743: the situation one season of the year is very unhealthy; P. about 4000: Lt. 16.50 N.

ABYDOS, a town and castle of Turkey, in Natolia, situated on the Dardanelles; it is the scene of the story of Hero and Leander, and stands opposite to Sestos, which is on the European shore. Here, too, Xerxes crossed over a bridge of boats when he invaded Greece. The Dardanelles were anciently called the Hellespont. Ships proceeding Lg. 99.46 w,

ACASABASTLAN, a town of Mexico, in the province of Vera Paz, situated on the Acasabastlan, 70 m. ENE. of Guatamala: Lg. 91.20 w, Lt. 14.58 N.



ACCOMAC, in the United States; a county of that name in the province or state of Virginia; P. 19,656.—A second Accomac is the county town, with a court-house, 206 m. from Washington.

ACCRA, or ACRA, a British fort on the coast of Guinea, 60 m. ENE. of Cape Coast castle, one of the most healthy towns on the Gold coast. A little to the E. is Dutch Accra, and two miles further Danish Accra.

ACCRINGTON, NEW, a township in Lancashire; P. 4960: also old Accrington, a chapelry in the same county; P. 1328.

ACERENZA, a city of Naples, the capital of the Basilicata, an archbishop's see, at the foot of the Apennines, 97 m. E. by s. of Naples.

ACETRI, a village of Tuscany, where Galileo was confined by the Inquisition, for asserting the motion of the earth.

ACHALZICH, a town of Armenia, near one of the sources of the Kur; Lg. 60.40 E, Lt. 41.47 N.

ACHEEN, a country in the Nw. part of the island of Sumatra. It does not extend inland above 50 m. to the SE; and at its ports on the w. coast, the power of the Achenese Sovereign is little more than nominal. The government is hereditary, and more or less arbitrary, according to the disposition of the ruler, who usually maintains a guard of 100 sepoys from the Coromandel coast. The territory is populous, and comparatively healthy, being more free from woods and swamps than the other parts of the island: the chief products are tropical fruits, rice, cotton, gold-dust, and sulphur. The Achenese are taller, stouter, and darker complexioned than the other Sumatrans. They are more industrious than their neighbours, have more sagacity, and are expert navigators. They are Mahomedans.


ACHEEN, the capital of a kingdom of Asia of the same name, near the mouth of a river, on the NW. point of an island called Acheen Head, in a wild valley, formed by two lofty ranges of hills, 1000 miles SE. of Madras: the river is very shallow at the bar. town is open; in the centre is the Sultan's palace, surrounded by a wide deep moat, and strong walls; the houses are built of bamboo and rough timber, and raised some feet from the ground, the country being overflowed in the rainy season. The manufactures are a thick kind of cotton cloth, and of stuff for the short trowsers worn by the Malays and Achenese. Payments are commonly made in gold-dust, which is carried about in bladders. Crimes are punished with remarkable rigour; but the rod of justice generally falls only on the poor. The Achenese are reputed the

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most dishonest and flagitious people in the East: Lg. 95.26 E, Lt. 5.36 N.

ACHEN, or AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, a city of Prussia, and a bishop's see situated in the province of Cleves Julich Berg, in a hollow surrounded by mountains. Charlemagne chose it for his residence, and he was interred in the cathedral of Notre Dame, where they keep his sword. The city is large, and in general well built; but within the walls are many fields and gardens. Its mineral waters attract a great number of persons every year. It has manufactures of cloth, kerseymeres, needles, and pins. There are at Burscheid similar manufactures, and several warm springs; while in the vicinity are mines of iron, lead, calamine, sulphur, and coal. In 1668 and 1748 Aix was distinguished by two celebrated treaties of peace. It was taken by the French in 1792, retaken by the Austrians in 1793, and again taken by the French in 1794. In 1818, a congress of the sovereigns in Europe met there to adjust public affairs. The city is 26 m. ENE. of Liege; P. 27,164: Lg. 5.54 E, Lt. 50.52 N.

ACHESON'S HAVEN, a village of Scotland, in Haddingtonshire, on the Frith of Forth.

ACHILL ISLANDS, on the w. coast of Ireland, county of Mayo, forming the entrances to Clew bay; the w. point of the largest island is called Achill Head: Lg. 10.40 w, Lt. 53.50 N. ACHLEITEN, a town of Austria, on the Danube, 12 m. ESE. of Ens.

ACHLIN'S KEYS, two small islands of North America, 50 m. sw. of the Bahamas.


ACHMIM, a town of Upper Egypt, the ancient CHEMNIS, or PANOPOLIS; lying on a small eminence upon the right bank of the Nile, 200 m. s. of Cairo: Lg. 31.56 E, Lt. 26.40 N.

ACHMUNEIN, a large village of Upper Egypt; it has the magnificent ruins of the ancient Hermopolis.

ACLE, a market-town and parish in England, Norfolk county; P. 820.

ACOBAMBA, a town of Peru: Lg. 74.32 w, Lt. 13.16 s.

ACHONRY, a town of Ireland, in Sligo; it is a bishop's see united to Killala; and lies on the Shannon, 16 m. wsw. of Sligo; P. of the parish 12,334.

ACONCAGUA, a town of Chili, and capital of a province: it is rich in grain, fruit, silver, and copper. The town, sometimes called St. Philip, stands on the Aconcagua, 74 m. NNE. of St. Jago.

ACOURY, or ACKORU, a town of Hindostan, 12 m. Nw. of Attock, upon the Indus.

Acqs, a town of France, on the Arriege, dept. of that name, 20 m. ssE. of Foix; it is noted for its hot springs.

ACQUA, a town of Tuscany, 15 m. E. of Leghorn; noted for its warm baths.

ACQUACKNACK, a town of the United States, state of New Jersey, and county of Essex, 10 m. N. of Newark.

ACQUA DI PISCIARELLI, a celebrated stream

rising near the lake Agnano, in Italy. It is and so hot as to carry 45° of Reaumur: source is at the back of Solfaterra. ACQUAPENDENTE, a town of Orvietto, in Italy, situated on a mountain, 10 m. w. of Orvietto, and noted for a fine cascade; near it are many curious caverns of great depth. ACQUARIA, a town of Italy, 12 m. s. of Modena noted for its medicinal waters.

ACQUI, a town of Montferrat in Italy, on the south side of the Bormia: it has hot and cold baths, which are much visited, and is the capital of a small province in Piedmont.


ACRE, or ACCHA, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in Palestine, anciently Ptolemais; it stands on a plain, near the mouth of the Kardanah, or ancient Belus, 47 m. NNE. of Jerusalem, at the N. point of a bay, which extends in a semicircle to the point of Carmel, 10 m. w. of the city. In the time of the Crusades it underwent several sieges; and little is now to be seen of the ancient city, but the remains of buildings constructed in the earliest ages. The new city is distant a mile from the ancient, and is fortified by a wall and ditch. The palace, once that of the grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, is the residence of the pasha of Acre; it has seven mosques, four churches, and two synagogues. The port has been at all times the key to Palestine, and though not good, is better than any other along the coast: it trades in cotton, cattle, corn, olives, linseed, and rice, from Egypt. In 1799, aided by the British under Sir W. S. Smith, it withstood a siege by the French under Bonaparte, who retreated after failing in a twelfth assault. In 1191, Edward I. was wounded here by a poisoned arrow, but saved by his wife Elinor sucking the poison from the wound: Lg. 35.25 E, Lt. 32.48 N.

ACRON, a division of the Fantee territory, on the Gold coast of Africa. The Dutch possess fort Patience: Lg. 0.28 E, Lt. 5.10 N.

ACTON, a parish in Cheshire, near Nantwich; P. 3928; it comprises 16 townships: also, a township in Weavenham parish, Cheshire; P. 335.-A village in Middlesex, 8 m. from London, including East Acton and Friar's-place; P. 2453.-A township in Northumberland, 74 m. from Alnwick; P. 101, with Old Felton.-A parish sometimes called Aketon, in Suffolk, 3 m. from Sudbury; P. 565.-A township in Ambersley parish, Worcestershire.-A hamlet in Colehill, lathe of Scray, Kent.

ACTON AGAR, a parish of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire.

ACTON BEAUCHAMP, 21 m. from Bromyard, Worcestershire.

ACTON BURNELL, a village of England, county of Salop, 8m. s. of Shrewsbury, including Acton Pigot, a chapelry: it has considerable remains of a castle, in which a parliament was held by Edward I, in 1283; P. 381.

ACTON GRANGE, Cheshire, in Runcorn parish; P. 149.

ACTON ILGAR, near Iron Acton, Gloucestershire.

ACTON REYNOLD, Salop. 8 m. from Shrewsbury; P. 173.

ACTON ROUND, Salop, 3 m. from Newby Wenlock; P. 203.

ACTON SCOTT, Salop, 4 m. from Church Stratton.

ACTON TRUSUL, Stafford, 3 m. from Penkridge; P. 551.

ACTOPAN, North America, capital of a district in Mexico, and 23 leag. NNE. of it.

ADALIA, or ANATALI; see SATALIA. ADAMPE, a district on the Gold coast, in Africa, extending from Accra to the Volta. ADAM'S BRIDGE, a sand bank, between Ceylon and the Coromandel coast.

ADAM'S PEAK, the highest mountain in Ceylon, 60 m. NE. of Columbo.

ADANA, a city of Turkey, in Roum, with a castle; 15 m. from the Mediterranean, and 170 SE. of Konieh: it trades in corn, wine, and fruit.

ADARE, OF ADAIR, a town of Ireland, 11 m. sw. of Limerick.

ADDINGTON, the name of five parishes in England, viz., near Wonslow, Bucks; P.72.-Kent, 7 m. from Maidstone; P. 206.-Surrey, 34 m. from Croydon; P. 463.-Great Addington, parish of Huxloe, Northampton; P. 282.(Little), same county, 34 m. N. of Higham Ferrers; P. 264.

ADDISON, a county of the United States, state of Vermont, 30 m. long by 37 wide, situate on the E. side of the lake Champlain : Middleburgh is the county town; P. 24,940.

ADEENAGUR, a town of Cabul, in Asia, near the left bank of the Kameh, 60 m. ESE. of Cabul.

ADEL, or ADAIEL, a kingdom of Ajan, about 400 m. in length, on the s. side of the gulf of Aden, in Asia. It seldom rains there; but the country is well watered by rivers, and abounds with wheat, millet, frankincense, and pepper. The inhabitants are Mahomedans: the capital is Zeila.

ADELFORS, a town in Sweden, 70 m. Nw. of Calmar; noted for its gold mines.

ADEN, a seaport of Arabia, in Yemen, on a peninsula, in the gulf of its name, 120 m. ESE. of Mocha: it trades in gums and coffee: Lg. 45.10 E, Lt. 12.56 N.

ADERBIJAN, or AZERBIJAN, a province of Persia, bounded on the N. by Armenia and Schirvan, w. by the Caspian sca and Ghilan, s. by Irak, and w. by Curdistan: it is mountainous, and contains many well-watered valleys: Tabrez is the capital.

ADIAZO, a town and castle on the w. side of Corsica; the territory around is fertile, producing excellent wine.

ADILABAD, Hindostan, in Kandeish, on the Poornal, 20 m. s. by E. of Boorhampoor; it is near a lake held in great veneration by the Hindoos.

ADLINGTON, a township in Cheshire, England, 5 m. from Macclesfield; P. 1066.-In Lancashire, 4 m. from Wigan; P. 1082.

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