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it was recently captured by the French, from the Dutch, for the Belgians: Lg. 4.22 E, Lt. 51.14 N.

ANVILLE, a town of Pennsylvania, on the eanal between the Susquehana and the Schuylkil, 65 m. wNw. of Philadelphia, in the United States of North America.

ANZERMA, a town of Colombia, in Popayan, South America, 140 m. NNE. of Popayan. ANZIKO, a kingdom of Guinea, lying E. of Gabon, and N. of Congou, in Africa; it is little known. The king is styled the Micoco, whence the country is sometimes so called: the capital is Monsol.

AOSTA or AOUSTA, a city of Sardinia, in Piedmont, and a bishop's see; it stands at the foot of the Alps, on the Doria, 45 m. NNW. of Turin.

APALACHLA, a town and harbor in North America, E. of Pensacola, in Lt. 29.43, Lg. 86.28.

APPINGADAM, or DAM, a town of Holland, in the province of Groningen, on the Damster, 3 m. from its entrance into the estuary of the Ems, and 15 m. NE. by E. of Groningen.

APPLEBY, a borough of England, in Westmoreland, with a market on Saturday, 20 m. NE. of Kendal, and 270 NNW. of London. It was twice destroyed by the Scots, and cousists of only one broad street of mean houses. At the s. part is the castle, and at the N. end is the church; it is governed by a mayor, and almost encircled by the Eden; P. 851. Polling place.

APPLEDORE, England. A town in Kent; P. 568 :—also, a village in Devonshire, at the mouth of the Torridge, in Barnstable Bay, 3 m. N. by E. of Biddeford.

APRICENA, a town of Naples, in the province of the Capitanata; P. 3650.

APT, a town of France, in the dept. of the Bouches du Rhone, 30 m. ESE. of Avignon:

APAMEA, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in its chief trade is in prunes, coarse serges, Syria, on the Osi, 35 m. s. of Antioch,


APANORMIA, a town of Turkey, in the island of Santorin, at the mouth of the Greek Archipelago, on the NW. coast, 7 m. NNW. of Scauro: Lg. 25.24 E, Lt. 36.37 N.

APEE, one of the New Hebrides in the Pacific ocean: Lg. 168.27 E, Lt. 16.42 s.

APENNINES, & chain of mountains, and a branch of the European Alps, which begins near Oneglia, on the gulf of Genoa, in the Mediterranean, passes round that gulf, at no great distance from the sea, then proceeds E. to the centre of Italy, and afterwards divides that country in a SE. direction to the extremities of the kingdom of Naples. Some of them are above 6000 feet high; on the border of Parma they turn to the SE, and in some places are so low that they may be regarded rather as hills than mountains. From them proceed all the rivers which water Italy.

APENRADE, a seaport of Denmark, in Sleswick, with a citadel; seated at the head of a gulf of the Little Belt, 27 m. NNW. of Sleswick; it has a considerable trade: Lg. 9.26 E, Lt. 55.3 N.

APHRIM, AFIOM, or AFRUIN KARAHISSAR, in Asia Minor, and Asiatic Turkey, the Black City of Opium, 162 m. E. of Smyrna. It is large and populous, the principal town of a district of Natolia; the chief trade is in opium.

APPOLLONIA, a kingdom of Africa, stretching along the gold coast, w. of the Ancobra. The country is flat, and produces abundance of rice, sugar, and palm trees: the exports are gold, ivory, palm oil, rice, and pepper.

APPENZAL, a canton in the NE. part of Switzerland, environed by the canton of St. Gall. It is a mass of hills and mountains, cold, and subject to sudden changes; P. 5510. APPENZAL, in Switzerland, the capital of the canton of the same name. It is large and populous, situated on the river Setter, 40 m. E. of Zurich: Lg. 9.31 E, Lt. 47.21 N.

and wax chandlery; it contains some fine Roman antiquities.

AQUAMBOE, a kingdom of Guinca, in Africa, occupying about 20 m. along the coast, on the E. side of the Volta, and extending above 100 m. inland. It is one of the largest monarchies in Guinea; and is divided into a number of petty royalties, all of them subject to the king of Aquamboe. The natives are turbulent, and warlike; and their power is formidable to the neighbouring kingdoms.

AQUASSIM, in Africa, a kingdom in the interior of the Gold coast, behind Acra, and w. of the Fantee territory.

AQUI, a town of Piedmont, in Montserrat, with a citadel, on the Bormida, 15 m. s. of Alexandria; it has mineral baths.

AQUILA, a city of Naples, the capital of Abruzzo Ultra, and a bishop's see, with a castle; it stands on a hill, near the Pescara, 93 m. N. of Naples. An earthquake destroyed here, in 1700, 2400 persons.

AQUILEIA, a town of Italy, in Friuli, formerly a large city, but demolished by the Huns in 452. Its ancient patriarch was once next in power to the pope. In 1750 the patriarchate was entirely abolished, and the archbishoprics of Gorz and Udine established in its stead; it is now a small place near the gulf of Venice, 20 m. ssE. of Friuli. Here Richard Cœur de Lion was shipwrecked, on his return from the Holy Land, 1191.

AQUINO, a town of Naples, in Terra-diLavoro, near the Garigliana, 20 m. s. by E. of Sora; ruined by the emperor Conrade. It was the birth-place of Juvenal.

ARABIA, & country of Asia, extending 1430 m. in length and 1200 in breadth; bounded on the w. by the Red Sea and the isthmus of Suez, NE. by the Euphrates, which divides it from Diarbeck, E. by the gulfs of Persia and Ormus, and s. by the Indian ocean. It is divided into three parts, Arabia Petrea, Deserta, and Felix. Arabia Petrea, much the smallest of the three, lies to the s. of

Syria, along the E. coast of the Red sea. The N. part is mountainous, and in general stony, sandy, and barren; but some parts yield sufficient nourishment for cattle, whose milk and the flesh of camels are the chief food of its few inhabitants. Arabia Deserta lies s. of Syria, and E. of Arabia Petrea; it is mostly desert, being intersected by barren mountains. Many of the plains are sands and heaths; but there are some plains and valleys that feed large flocks of sheep and goats; in them also are great numbers of ostriches, and a fine breed of camels. Mecca is the capital. Arabia Felix, so called on account of its fertility with regard to the rest, lies to the s. of Arabia Deserta, between the Red sea, the Indian ocean, and the Persian gulf. It is by far the most extensive part, and though the centre is occupied by very dry deserts, there are many rich provinces on the coasts, producing a variety of fruit, honey, wax, cinnamon, cassia, manna, spikenard, frankincense, myrrh, and coffee, of which latter prodigious quantities are exported. Sana is deemed the chief city. The Arabs are of middle stature and brown complexion; and have a grave and melancholy air, which, aided by the imposing aspect of their beards, gives a dignity in their manner that is very striking. They live in tribes amicably, consider hospitality as a religious duty, and always act with kindness to their slaves and inferiors. Selfishness, the vice of civilised nations, seldom degrades an Arab; and drunkenness and gaming are unknown among them. They derive their subsistence from their flocks, from hunting, and from what they acquire by plunder. They acknowledge no sovereign but the emir, or leading sheik of their tribe, who is their natural prince, and to him alone they pay obedience. They have also sheiks or chiefs, of an advanced age, whom they often consult. The dress of the Arabs consists of a white robe, bound round with a broad leathern girdle, fastened by a strong buckle or clasp. Their drawers are made of linen, and descend to the lower part of the leg. They wear a red cap on the head; and sometimes they put on slippers, after the manner of the Turks, but are ge nerally in half boots, that they may be ready to get on horseback. Winter and summer they wear a large cloak, striped black and white. Their emirs dress in the same manner, except that their cloaks are for the most part black. The Arabs in the deserts live in tents, and remove from place to place, partly for the sake of pasture, and partly to lie in wait for the caravans, which they often rob, as they travel over from Bassora to Aleppo, and from Cairo to Mecca. The famous Mohammed was a native of this country, as well as his first followers.

ARACAN, a fertile country, part of the Burman empire, extending along the E. side of the bay of Bengal, and bounded on the N. by Chittagong, E. by Burmah, and s. by Pegu. The rainy season continues from April to

October; and the rest of the year is called summer. The interior of the country is little known; but seems to be a continuation of the Chittagong plain on the seacoast, bounded on the E. by a high range of mountains, which, toward the s, approaches to within 10 m. of the sea; its length may be 500 m. It is well timbered, and there are plenty of elephants and buffaloes, but few horses. The principal exports are bullion, salt, elephant's teeth, wax, and rice; but its trade is inconsiderable. Aracan was long an independent nation, governed by a king, but subdued by the Burmans in 1783, and is now a province of that empire.

ARACAN, in Asia, the capital of Aracan, with an extensive fert, 230 m. wsw. of Ava. The river Aracan runs through the city, and waters the streets by means of several arms or canals, into which it is divided: Lg. 93.5 E, Lt. 20.38 N.

ARAD, a town of Austria, in Hungary, with a fortress, on the river Marosh, 32 m. N by E. of Temeswar.

ARAGON, a province of Spain, bounded on the N. by the Pyrenees, w. by Navarre and the two Castiles, s. by Valencia, and E. by Valencia, and Catalonia. The country, though abounding in rivers, is in want of good water. It

is fertile in wine, corn, flax, and fruit, near the rivers, but in other places dry and sandy; it also produces saffron, and there are many mines of salt. Saragossa is the capital.

ARAICHE, in Africa, a seaport of the kingdom of Fez, with a castle, and several batteries on the banks of the river; it is 40 m. ssw. of Tangier. The larger vessels of the emperor generally winter in a cove of the river, where there are magazines of naval stores: Lg. 6.2 w, Lt. 35.11 N.

ARAL, or SINEE-MORE, in Asia, 200 m. E. of the Caspian sea. It is 200 m. long by 70

wide: the water is salt.

ARANDA, a town of Spain, in the province of Old Castile, on the Douro, 42 m. s. of Burgos.

ARANJUEZ, a town of Spain, in the province of New Castile, with broad streets, intersecting each other at right angles. The great square is surrounded by porticos, and has a fountain that supplies the town with water. Here are three churches, a royal palace with beautiful gardens, and a theatre for the bull fights. It is seated on the Tagus, 30 m. s. by E. of Madrid.

ARARAT, a detached mountain of Asia, in Persian Armenia, on the confines of Turkey. It has two peaks, which are generally surrounded by clouds; their summits are always covered with snow. Ararat rises from a spacious plain, and its height is estimated at 9500 feet. Various attempts have been made to ascend to its summit; but the snows and glaciers were insurmountable obstacles. The Armenians venerate this mountain, from a be lief of its being that on which Noah'sark rested.

ARASSI, a small trading town in the territory of Genoa, remarkable for its Muscadine wine, and the fine coral found in its neigh bourhood.

ARAU, a town of Switzerland, and capital of the canton of Argau. It is seated on the Aar, over which it has two bridges, 27 m. w. of Zurich: and has manufactures of cotton, printed linen, velvet trimmings, and cutlery. ÁRAVACOUCHY, a town of Hindostan, in Coimbetoor, with a neat fort, 24 m. E. of Daramporan.

ARAUCANIANS, or ARAUCANOS, in South America, a fierce tribe of Indians in Chili, whom the Spaniards have never been able to subdue. They inhabit the country between the Andes and the rivers Bobbio and Valdivia. Though the sworn enemies of the Spaniards, they carry on some trade with them. They are a robust, handsome race, and remarkable for their bravery. It is said there is amongst them a tribe of European whites.

ARAUCO, a fortress and town of South Amcrica, in Chili, situated in a fine valley, on the river Arauco, 40 m. s. by w. of Conception.

ARBERG, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern, on an island formed by the Aar, 10 m. Nw. of Bern.

ARBIL, OF ERBILLE, a town of Asia, in Kurdistan. It is seated in an extensive plain, 80 m. E. of Mosul; and is the ancient Arbela, near which Alexander defeated Darius. Here are the remains of an ancient castle, and in the vicinity are naphtha pits.

ARBOIS, a town of France, in the dept. of the Jura, 22 m. sw. of Besançon; fainous for its wines; it was the birth place of General Pichegru.

ARBOGA, a town of Sweden, in Westmania, on the Ulvison; upon a canal of communication with the lakes of Hielmar and Maclar, 25 m. ENE, of Orebro.

ARBON, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Thurgau, with a castle; it is seated on the lake of Constance, 12 m. sE. of Constance.

ARBROATH; see ABERBROTHOCK. ARBURG, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Arau, with a citadel on a rock, on the Aar, 8 m. sw. of Arau.

ARCA, or CAPE D'ARCA, on the coast of Africa, ESE. from the island of Forteventura, one of the Canaries: Lt. 27.15 N., Lg. 12.10 w. ARCADIA, the ancient CYPARISSA, a seaport of the kingdom of Greece, in the Morea. It stands at the foot of a rocky hill, on which is a castle, and on the s. part of a gulf of its name, 22 m. N. of Navarino: Lg. 21.34 E, Lt. 37.22 N.

ARCHANGEL, or ARKHANGEL, in Russia, an extensive government, lying between Lg. 37.40 and 53.50 E, and Lt. 61.00 to 71.00 N; bounded N. by the White sea, E. by the government of Tobolsk, s. by the government of Vologa and Olonetz, and w. by Sweden. Its length is about 2650 m. by 530 broad. Its chief rivers are the N. Dwina, Mezen, Pet

chora, Onega, Oudor, Vaga, Pinega, Outcha, Elma, and Pijma, most of them falling into the Frozen ocean. The islands are Vardelouss, Calgouief, Vaigatch, Matveif, Dolgoi, and Novaia-Zemlia, commonly called Nova Zembla. This government is divided into seven districts, each named after its chief town; viz. Archangel, Chenkoursk, Mezen, Cola, Onega, Pinega, and Kholmagory. The church is governed by an archbishop; P. 170,300.

ARCHANGEL, a city of Russia, capital of the government of Archangel; seated on the Dwina, 4 m. from the White Sea, and 400 m. NE. of Petersburg; formerly it was the only seaport of Russia, and was first resorted to by the British in 1553. The trade is yet considerable, though greatly diminished since the building of Petersburg. In 1793 a fire destroyed great part of the city and suburbs: but they have since been rebuilt: Lg. 40.47.30 E, Lt. 64.31.40 N.

ARCHIDONA, a town of South America, in Quito, chief of the district of Quixas, 130 m. ESE. of Quito. It was almost ruined in 1744, by an eruption of Cotopaxi, and is now a small place.

ARCHIPELAGO, anciently called MARE ÆGEUM, a part of the Mediterranean sea, having Romania on the N, Natolia on the E, the isle of Candia on the s, Macedonia and the kingdom of Greece on the w. It is partly in Europe, and partly in Asia, containing the islands of Rhodes, Negropont, Lemnos, Tenedos, Sciros, Metelin, Scio, Samos, Patmos, Paros, Antiparos, Cerigo, Santorini, Andros, Tina, Naxia, Milo, Delos, Hydra, Argentiera, and many others.

ARCHIPELAGO, the NORTHERN, a part of the Pacific ocean, having the peninsula of Kamschatka on the w, and Oonalaska on the E. It includes a number of islands, among which are four principal groups. The first, called Sasignan, contains 5 islands; the second, called Khoa, includes 3; and both these groups together are styled the Aleutian Islands. The third group, called the Andreanoffski Ostrova, comprises 16 islands; and the fourth is the Lissie Ostrova, or the Fox Islands, 16 in number. They all belong to Russia, and are valuable chiefly for the skins of animals found there, particularly the sea-otter.

ARCIS, a town of France, in the dept. of the Aube, on the river Aube, 13 m. N. by E. of Troyes; P. 2656.

ARCO, a town and castle of Austria, in the Tyrol, taken by the French in 1703, and abandoned soon after: 15 m. wsw. of Trent.

ARCOS, a town of Spain, in the province of Andalusia, with a castle, seated on a craggy rock, 38 m. sse. of Seville.

ARCOT, a city of Hindostan, the nominal capital of the Carnatic, on the s. bank of the Palar, 73 m. w. by s. of Madras, and 217 E. by N. of Seringapatam. The citadel is large, and a place of some strength; but the nabob often resides at Madras. In the vicinity are celebrated temples, visited by numerous pil

grims. It has a manufacture of coarse cotton cloth: Lg. 79.29 E, Lt. 12.52 n.

ARCUEIL, a village of France, on the Bievre, 3 m. s. of Paris; noted for a magnificent aqueduct built by queen Mary de Medicis, to convey water to that city.

open plain, called, from the magnificence displayed on the occasion, Champ du drap d'or, for between this town and Guisnes, took place the interview between Francis I. of France and Henry VIII. of England, in 1520.

ARDSLEY, a township of England, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 24 m. from Barnsley; P. 1029.

ARDAGH, a town of Ireland, in the county of Longford, 7 m. sE. of Longford; united to Kilmore it gives name to a bishopric. AREBO, or ARBON, a town of Africa, on the ARDEA, a small town of Italy, in the states Slave coast, 60 m. from the mouth of the Forof the Church. mosa, and of the Niger: Lg. 5.8 E, Lt. 5.58 N. AREKEA; see ARKEEKO.

ARDEBIL, a town of Persia, in Aderbijan, 100 m. E by N. of Tabriz; the residence and burial-place of many kings; particularly of sheik Sefi, the author of the Persian sect. Pilgrims resort to this place from all parts of Persia; and caravans are frequently passing thither to and from Constantinople and Smyrna.

ARDECHE, a dept. of France, 70 m. long by 35 broad, including the old province of Vivarez. It is bounded on the E. by the Rhone, and on other sides by the departments of the Loire, Haute Loire, Lozere, and Gard. It takes its name from a river, which flows into the Rhone, at the SE. extremity of the depart


ARDEE, OF ATHERDEE, a borough of Ireland, in Louth, on the Dee, 15 m. NW. of Drogheda. Here is a large mount, apparently artificial; some suppose it to have been a burial place of the Irish kings.

ARDENNES, a dept. of France, 65 m. long by 30 broad, containing the N. part of the old province of Champagne. It is bounded by Belgium, and the depts. of the Meuse, Marne, d Aisne. It is named from a famous forest, extending along the Meuse, or Maas, and the Aisne crosses it towards the s; area about 1,029,000 square acres. Mezieres is the capital, but the principal town is Sedan; P. 266,000.

ARDFERT, a borough of Kerry in Ireland; seated on a river 7 m. Nw. of Tralee. It is a bishop's see united with Aghadoe to Limerick; and was formerly the capital of the county, but is now a poor place, with extensive ruins.

ARDMORE, a town of Waterford, in Ireland, anciently a bishop's see. It stands on a bay of its name, 10 m. ssw. of Dungarvon. Here are the remains of two churches; the chancel of one of them is roofed, and used for divine worship.

ARDOCH, a village of Perth, in Scotland, on the Allan, 6 m. NE. of Dumblane. The vestige of a large Roman camp, supposed to be the most perfect in Great Britain, is found here; it has been enclosed with a wall to preserve it from demolition.

ARDRA, a kingdom of Guinea, in Africa, on the Slave coast, E. of Whidah. The country is fertile in maize, palm wine, plants and fruits; and it has lakes that produce a great deal of salt.

It contains a town of the same name. ARDKES, a town of France, in the dept. of the Pas de Calais, 8 m. SE. of Calais; on an

ARENA, a town of Abyssinia, in Africa, with a port on the w. side of Howakil bay; 60 m. SE. of Arkeeko. The chief exports are slaves, horses, cattle, and goats.

ARENDAL, a small town of the province of Christiansand, near the sea, 10 m. NNE. of Christiana. It trades chiefly in timber, and has rich iron mines in its vicinity.


ARENSBERG, a seaport of Europe, in Russia, in the government of Riga, capital of the isle of Oesel, a bishop's see; 211 m. from Riga: Lg. 22.48 E, Lt. 58.15 N.

ARENSHARD, a district of Denmark, in the duchy of Sleswick, containing the greater part of the famous rampart built by king Gotric, in the beginning of the 9th century, as a defence against the irruptions of the Saxons. It extends across the country about 9 m.

AREQUIPA, a city of South America in Peru, founded by Pizarro, in 1539. It stands in a valley, on the skirt of the mountain Omate, a volcano, 60 m. from the sea, and 460 SE. of Lima: it has been four times laid in ruins by earthquakes, the last in 1785; but its edifices were soon rebuilt; the houses, chiefly of stone, have only one floor, with arched roofs. It has a beautiful fountain in the chief square, and a fine bridge over the Chile, of which the waters are let off by sluices to irrigate the environs; P. about 40,000: Lg. 71.20 w, Lt. 16.17 s.

AREZZO, a town of Italy, in Tuscany. It stands on a hill, at the conflux of the Chianna with the Arno, 42 m. ESE. of Florence.

ARGENTAN, a town of France, in the dept. of the Orne; seated on the Orne, 12 m. NW. of Seez, and 110 w. of Paris. It has a considerable trade in lace.

ARGENTEUIL, a town of France, on the Seine, 5 m. NW. of Paris. It has a fine vineyard, and quarries of gypsum.

ARGENTIERA, a barren island in Greece, in the dept. of the Cyclades, so called from its silver mines. There is but one village, and it has no water but what is gathered in tanks: Lg. 24.33 E, Lt. 36.50 N.

ARGENTIERE, a town of France, in the dept. of Ardeche, 5 m. sw. of Aubenas, and 17 w. of Viviers; P. 2000.

ARGENTON, a town of France, in the dept. of the Indre, on the Creuse, 37 m. sw. of Bourges.

ARGIROCASTRO, a city of Europe and Turkey, in Albania, capital of a pashalic, 50 m.

NW. of Janina. It is built upon three eminences, on the side of a mountain, which is part of a lofty chain that forms the w. boundary of a luxuriant vale. On the central ridge is a modern castle of great extent. The principal trade is in grain, tobacco, and wool; P. about 20,000, chiefly Turks: Lg. 20.28 E, Lt. 40.18 N.

ARGHISH, a town of Asia, in Kurdistan, on the N. side of lake Van, 30 m. NW. of Van.

ARGOS, a town of the Morca, in Greece, in the dept. of Argolid and Corinthia, on the Xera, near the head of the gulf of Nauplia, anciently a large city and the capital of a kingdom, and still the see of a bishop; 32 m. ENE. of Tripolizza. It has four Greek churches, and two mosques. The citadel is on a high rock, called Larissa. Its productions are corn, figs, grapes, rice, tobacco, and silk. Many vestiges of temples, and other structures, evince its former grandeur; 6 m. to the NE. are some massive remains of Mycena, a city laid waste by the Argives, 466 years B. c.: Lg. 22.41 E, Lt. 37.38 N.

ARGOSTOLI, a town of the Ionian islands, in Cefalonia, with a good harbour; P. 5000. ARGUIN, a bay, island, and fort of Africa, on the coast of Zaara, 30 m. SE. of Cape Blanco Lg. 17.5 w, Lt. 20.30 N.

ARGYLE, a county of Scotland, bounded on the N. by Invernesshire, E. by Perth and Dumbarton, and s. and w. by the Atlantic, which has broken it into islands and peninsulas. It is 114 m. long, from the mull of Cantyre to its NE. extremity; its breadth is very unequal, about 40. m. where greatest. It is divided into 49 parishes, and returns 1 M.P. To the NW. is a peninsula nearly detached from the rest of the county, containing the districts of Ardnamurchan, Morven, Sunart, and Ardgower: the peninsulas of Cantyre and Cowal are also very large. The chief islands are Mull, Islay, Jura, Tirey, and Col. The soil of Argyleshire, in the high grounds, affords excellent pasture; but the only crops cultivated to any extent are bigg, oats, and potatos. Many sheep and beeves are bred here, which, with the fishery, are the principal produce; and there are mines of copper, iron, and lead. The chief town is Inverary, near which the Duke of Athol has a magnificent seat; P. 101,425.

ARICA, a seaport of Peru, South America, in the province of Arica, in the s. extremity of Peru, 170 m. NW. of Potosi. It is badly fortified, and has been much injured by earthquakes. Here the treasure brought from Potosi was formerly shipped; in Guinea pepper it has a great trade: Lg. 70.19 w, Lt. 18.27 s.

ARICATY, a town of South America, in Brazil, the largest and most commercial in the province of Seara. Cotton and hides are the principal exports. It stands on the right bank of the Jaguaribe, 8 m. above its mouth, and 70 SE. of Seara.

ARIPO, a town of Asia, in the island of

Ceylon, on the gulf of Manara, 120 m. N. of Columbo. Here is the residence of the officers who attend the pearl fishery: Lg. 79.47 E, Lt. 8.42 N.

ARISPE, a city of North America, in Mexico, with two forts, 330 m. N. by w. of Cinaloa; L. 108.58 w, Lt. 30.36 N.

ARKANSAS, a government of the United States, in North America; bounded on the N. by the Missouri; E. by the Mississippi; s. by Louisiana; sw. and w. by Mexico: its chief waters are the Arkansas, White river, St. Francis, and Wasshita; the soil is fertile, particularly in the extensive alluvial meadows : it is divided into 23 counties: Little Rock is the capital, 1068 m. from Washington: the governor is appointed by the president of the United States, for three years; P. 30,383, of of whom 4578 are slaves.

ARKANSAW, a town of North America, a military post of the Arkansas territory, on the left bank of the Arkansas, 65 m. from its mouth; P. 1423.

ARKEEKO, or AREKEA, a town of Africa, in the N. part of Abyssinia, at the head of a bay of its name, in which is the island and port of Masuah. It is 4 m. s. of Masuah, and 160 N. of Antalo: Lg. 39.38 E, Lt. 15.34 N.

ARKLOW, a town of Ireland, in the county of Wicklow, with the remains of a castle, and a haven for small craft, 13 m. s. of Wicklow, and 46 from Dublin; P. 11,398.

ARKOPOLIS, a town of the United States, in the Arkansas territory, situated on the right bank of the Arkansas: Lg. 92.13 w, Lt. 34.40 N.

ARLES, a city of France, in the dept. of the Bouches du Rhone. It is seated on the Rhone, 20 m. SE. of Nismes. The country around produces good wine, oil, and fruits. It has many antiquities, of which the amphitheatre and obelisk are the most remarkable: Lg. 5.43 E, Lt. 43.40 N; P. 19,869.

ARMAGH, a county of Ireland, 32 m. long by 19, bounded on the E. by Down, w. by Tyrone and Monaghan, N. by Lough Neagh, and s. by Louth. It contains 20 parishes, and returns 3 county M.P.'s. The soil is reckoned the richest in Ireland except one tract called the Fowes, and some considerable bogs. The chief rivers are the Blackwater, Bann, and Newry. Good marble is found in the county: and the linen manufacture flourishes in all its branches; P. 220,651.

ARMAGH, a city and county town of Ireland, in Armagh, the see of an archbishop, who is primate of all Ireland. The cathedral stands on a hill, built in the form of a cross, with a square tower rising from the points of intersection. The public buildings are modern, and the city is deemed the neatest inland town in the island. Here is an archiepiscopal palace; a school founded by Charles I.; an observatory, and a public library. It has a great linen market, and many bleaching grounds in the vicinity. It is seated near the river Callen, 52 m. sE. of Londonderry,

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