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ASOLA, a town of Italy, in the Brescian, 30 m. SE. of Brescia.

ASOLO, a town of Italy, in Trevisan, sur rounded by walls, with a spacious citadel on a hill, 17 m. Nw. of Treviso, between Padua and Feltri,

ASOPH, AZOF, or SEA OF ZABAK, anciently the Palus Mæotis, lying N. of the Black sea, with which it communicates by the strait of Taman, or Jenikala; it extends 240 m. from Sw. to NE, and is 60 broad, containing many banks which cause strong and irregular currents, and render the navigation intricate.

ASOPH, or Azor, a fortified town of Asiatic Russia, government of Ecatherinoslaw; formerly the capital of a large tract of territory, ceded by the Turks in 1774: the town lies in a swampy district, upon a high ridge, on the s. bank of the Don, 20 m. from its entrance into the sea of Azof: the fort is in ruins, and the town is become of very little commercial importance, for the river will now scarcely admit the smallest vessel; it is 363 m. s. of Ecatherinoslaw: Lg. 39.12 E, Lt. 46.58 N.

ASPATRIA, and BRAYTON, a village and parish of England, in Cumberland, situate near the coast of the Solway Frith, 7 m. NE. of Maryport; P. 761. Polling place.

ASPEREN, a town of Holland, in the province of South Holland, seated on the Linghe, 13 m. s. of Utrecht, and 25 m. E. of Rotterdam; famous for a long siege that it held out against the Geldrians in 1517.

ASPERN, a small town of Austria, on the Danube, below Vienna; famous for a battle between Napoleon and the Archduke Charles, in 1809.

by their language, for the Bengalee is generally spoken in Assam. Ghergong is the capital.

ASSANCALE, a town of Turkish Armenia, 22 m. E. of Erzerum; its hot baths are much frequented.

ASSARPOOR, a town of Hindostan, in Cutch, at the most eastern mouth of the Indus, 38 m. w. of Bhooj.

ASSENS, a seaport of Denmark, in the island of Funen, 17 m. sw. of Odensee; it is the common passage from the duchy of Sleswick to Copenhagen: Lg. 10.2 E, Lt. 55.17 N.

ASSINE, ASSENE, or ALBINE, Africa, on the w.coast; there are two towns of the name, Grand, and Piquins, and the Gold coast begins at the last or most western: Lt. 5.30 N, Lg. 2.25 w.

ASSISI, a town of Italy, in the duchy of Spoleto, on the side of a hill, 22 m. Nw. of Spoleto; it has a magnificent church, and many convents with valuable paintings; it is the birthplace of St. Francis, who died in 1226, and of the celebrated dramatic poet Metastasio, who died in 1782.

ASSODNAGUR, a town of Hindostan, in Bejapoor, 68 m. SE. of Poona, 82 nw. of Bejapoor.

Assos, a seaport of Turkey, in Natolia, on a bay of the Archipelago, 12 m. SE. of Troas; Lg. 26.36 E, Lt. 39.22 N.

ASSUMPTION, a city of Brazil, in South America, capital of the province of Parana, and a bishop's see, seated in a fertile district on the river Paraguay; it has a hospital, several convents, and a seminary once a jesuitical college, but there are no fine edi

ASPREMONT, a town of Savoy, on the Lake fices, and the greater part of the houses are of Bourget.

ASQUES, a small town in France, dept. of the Gironde, 64 leagues ENE. of Libourne; P. 700.

ASSAM, a province of Asia, bounded on the N. by Bootan and Tibet, E. by a country unknown, s. by Cassay, and sw. and w. by Bengal: the river Brahmapootra divides it into two parts longitudinally; the northern, which is the richest, being called Uttercul, and the southern Dachincul; it has above 60 other rivers, which admit of a commercial intercourse at all seasons, and it is intersected by several remarkable military causeways, which must have been made with great labour. Among the products are many kinds of valuable fruit, with silk, musk, pepper, tobacco, beetle, sugar-cane, and ginger: the open parts are marked with population and tillage; the woods abound with elephants; the mountains are inhabited by a savage tribe called Nanacs, who go naked, and eat dogs, mice, locusts, and any thing they can find. The other inhabitants of Assam have no fixed religion, nor any rule but their inclination; they eat all flesh but human, and even animals that die a natural death; and are enterprising, savage, and fond of war. The affinity of the Assamese to the Hindoos is sufficiently ascertained

built of earth: the chief trade is in hides, honey, sugar, tobacco, and Paraguay tea: Lg. 59.35 w, Lt. 24.47 s.

ASTABUT, a town of Persian Armenia, 3 m. from the river Aras, and 32 SE. of Naksivan.

ASTERABAD, a city of Persia, în Mezanderan, the capital of a country, at the SE. part of the Caspian sea, 60 m. E. by N. of Sari; it is governed by a Persian prince, and a great part of the royal treasure is said to be deposited there; it stands near the mouth of the Aster, which forms a bay convenient for trade: Lg. 54.0 E, Lt. 36,48 N.

ASTI, a city of Italy, in Piedmont, with a citadel, seated on the Tanaro, 24 m. E. of Turin; beside the cathedral, it contains up-ward of 30 other churches, and was the birthplace of the celebrated poet Alfieri: Lg. 8.17 E, Lt. 44.56 N.

ASTON, England, Warwickshire, 24 m. from Birmingham, NE. by E, of which it forms a suburb: it is a separate parish; P. 32,118.

ASTORGA, a fortified city of Spain, in the province of Leon, seated in a plain, on the river Tueria, 25 m. sw. of Leon, the see of a bishop: in 1812, the French, then in possession of the city, were besieged by the Spaniards, to whom they surrendered: Lg. 6.25 w, Lt. 42.33 n.

ASTRABAD, a town of Chorasan, in Persia, on the borders of Balk, 70 m. ENE. of Herat.

ASTRAKHAN, an Asiatic government of Russia, bounded on the N. by Saratof, E. by Orenburg, and the desert of the Caissak-Kirguiss, s. by the Caspian sea, and w. by the country of the Cosaques of the Don: it is divided into four districts, each named after its chief town-1st, Astrakhan; 2nd, Crasnoi-iar; 3rd, Enotaevsk; 4th, Tchernoi-iar: it has many salt lakes, the surface is flat, and the soil generally barren: it produces very little corn and no timber, but abundance of mulberry, tobacco, vines, and licorice; cattle are plentiful; it exports wine, raisins, grapes, fish, caviar, isinglass, cattle, tallow, and leather: the principal rivers are, the Wolga, Gachoume, Oural, and the three Ouzenes, which latter fall into a lake: the inhabitants are Russians, Tartars of Boukaria, of Guillan, and of the Noguis; Armenians, Persians, and Calmouks; P. 62,000.

ASTRAKHAN, a city of Russia, the capital of the government of Astrakhan, one of the most important of the empire, situated at the mouth of the Wolga, in the Caspian sea, on a small island called Zaietchy-bougor, 818 m. SE. of Moscow; it is an archbishop's see: its favourable position renders it the entrepot between the south of Asia and Russia; its commerce is extensive; it is neither well nor regularly built, the streets are badly paved and muddy, it has but few handsome buildings; there are 2 convents, 25 Russian churches, 2 Armenian, 1 Lutheran, and 1 Roman Catholic chapel, and several mosques; here are a Russian and an Armenian archbishop's palace, a naval establishment, a dockyard, a seminary, a gymnasium, 22 silk manufactories, 57 of cotton goods, 18 for dyeing, and several tanneries; P. about 20,000: Lg. 48.22 E, Lt. 46.21 N.

ASTURIAS, a province of Spain, 120 m. long by 45, bounded on the E. by Biscay, s. by Old Castile and Leon, w. by Galicia, and N. by the Atlantic: it is divided into two parts, Asturias d'Oviedo and Asturias de Santillana, so named from their chief towns: this province is full of mountains and forests; its wine and horses are excellent, and it has mines of gold, lapis lazuli, and vermillion. The eldest son of the king of Spain is styled prince of Asturias.


ATACAMA, a town of South America, capital of the province of Charcas, lying between the Andes and the ocean, and between Peru and Chili. The province is in some parts very fruitful, but intermixed with deserts, particularly toward the south, where there is an immense untenanted tract to the frontiers of Chili. The seacoast is remarkable for the fish called tollo, which is an article of great trade with the inland provinces. The town is situated in a barren plain, surrounded by mountains, 60 m. from the ocean, and 250 m. sw. of Plata: Lg. 69.30 w, Lt. 21.20 s. ATACAMES; see TACAMES.

ATALAYA, a town of Portugal, in the province of Estremadura, with a fort on an eminence, 5 m. s. of Tomar.

ATCHINSK, a town of Asiatic Russia, in Siberia, and in the government of Tobolsk, 1298 m. SSE. of Tobolsk, on the Tchoulim, which flows N. to the Oby: Lg. 90.0 E, Lt. 56.22 N.

ATER, or ATARA, a town of Hindostan, in the province of Agra, on the river Chumbul, 50 m. SE. of Agra.

ATESCH-JAH, ATESCHGAN, or ATASH KUDDA, Asia, "The place of Fire," on the peninsula Abscharou, in the Caspian sea, about a mile in diameter, from the centre of which a strong yellowish flame is emitted in dry weather.

ATH, a fortified town of Belgium, in the province of Haynau, on the Dender, 12 m. NW. of Mons.

ATHABASCA LAKE, or LAKE OF THE HILLS, in Upper Canada, North America, 250 m. long by 40. It receives the waters of Lake Wollaston by the Stone River, as also those of the Athabasca or Elk River, and of the Unjijan or Peace River: Lg. 108 w, Lt. 69 N.

ATHABOLI, a town of European Turkey, in Romania, on the coast of the Black sea, 70 m. NE. of Adrianople.

ATHBOY, a borough of Ireland, in the county of Meath, 34 m. Nw. of Dublin.

ATHELNEY, an island of England, in Somersetshire, at the conflux of the Thone and Parret, memorable for having afforded shelter to king Alfred: here he collected some of his retainers, on which account he called it Ethelingay, or the Isle of Nobles.

ATHENRY, a borough of Ireland, in Galway: it has the ruins of a strong castle and a monastery, part of which last was taken down to erect the present barracks: it is 13 m. E. of Galway.

ATHENS, ATINIAH, or SETINES, a celebrated city of Greece, capital of ancient Attica, in Livadia, and dept. of Attica and Bætia, situated near the gulf of Agia, 60 m. E. of Corinth. After many revolutions, the Turks finally wrested it from the Venetians, in 1688. It is the sec of a Greek archbishop, and has a large citadel on the summit of a rock. There are numerous magnificent ruins, which testify its former grandeur; and the temple of Theseus, built 480 years before Christ, is at this day the most perfect ancient edifice in the world.

Three-fourths of the inhabitants are of the Greek church; the remainder are other Christians. The chief articles of trade are silk, wax, wool, honey, and oil: Lg. 23.43 E, Lt. 37.58 N.

ATHENS, a town of North America, in the United States, and state of Georgia, capital of Clark county, on the Oconee, 66 m. N. by w. of Milledgeville. It is the scat of Franklin college; P. 1100.

ATHENS, a town of North America, in the United States, and state of Ohio, capital of the county of Athens, situated on an eleva

tion within a large bend of the Hockhocking, 73 in. SE. of Columbus. It is the seat of the Ohio university; P. 729.

ATHERSTONE, a town of England, Warwickshire, 10 m. N. of Coventry, and 107 NW. of London. It has a market on Tuesdays, and manufactures hats, ribands, and shalloons. Richard III. held a council with his nobles here the night before the battle of Bosworth; P. 3970.

ATHLONE, a borough of Ireland, partly in West Meath and partly in Roscommon, 55 m. w. of Dublin. It stands on both sides of the Shannon, over which it has a long bridge, the grand pass between the provinces of Leinster and Connaught; on the w. bank of the river are extensive barracks, with all the surrounding eminences strongly fortified, so that it forms an important military station nearly in the centre of the island. The town, with its castle, was consumed by fire in 1641; but it is now an opulent place, and carries on a considerable inland trade. It returns one M.P.; P. 12,107: Lg. 7.50 w, Lt. 53.20 N.

ATHOS, OF MONTE SANTO, a high mountain of Turkey, in Macedonia, on a peninsula at the s. entrance of the gulf of Contessa, 70 m. SE of Salonika; it is inhabited by Greek monks, who have 22 monasteries, 7 of which are fortified, and they cultivate olives and vines: Lg. 24.20 E, Lt. 40.8 N.

ATHY, a borough of Ireland, in the county of Kildare, on the Barrow, 12 m. s. of Kildare, and 19 sw. of Naas, where the assizes are held alternately with Naas. Part of the ancient castle is now a prison. Two miles to the sw. are some remains of the city of Reban; P. 3418.

ATLANTIC, OF ATLANTIC OCEAN, takes its name from mount Atlas, in Africa, and extends between the w. of the continents of Africa and Europe, and the E. of the continent of America. Its least breadth, from Guinca ia Africa to Brazil in South America, is 2300 ID. On one side of the equator it is called the North Atlantic ocean; and on the other the South Atlantic.

ATLAS, a chain of high mountains in Africa, extending upward of 2000 m. from the coast of the Atlantic to the border of Egypt. Another chain, called the Little Atlas, extends from the strait of Gibraltar to Bona in the state of Algiers. These mountains have different names, according to the various countries they pass through, and the plains and valleys by which they are intersected. They are inhabited almost in every place where the extreme cold will permit.

ATLISCO, a town of Mexico, in North America, seated on an extensive plain, 20 m. wsw. of Puebla.

Arool, one of the Sandwich islands, in the Pacific ocean. It is 30 m. long, and contains a great portion of gently rising land. On the sw. side is a good road and anchoring place, called Wymoa: Lg. 159.40 w, Lt. 21.57 N. ATRI, a town of Naples, in Abruzzo Ultra,

on a craggy mountain, 4 m. from the gulf of Venice, and 10 m. SE. of Teramo.

ATTLEBOROUGH, a town of England, in Norfolk, with a market on Tuesday, 14 m. NE. of Thetford, and 93 of London; P. 1939.

ATTOCK, or ATTOCK BENDRES, a town of Hindostan, in Lahore, with an old fort built by Akbar, and a modern one in which the governor of the province resides. It stands on the left bank of the Indus, 10 m. below the influx of the Kameh, or Attock river, and on the supposed site of the Taxila of Alexander, where he crossed that river, 220 m. NW. of Lahore: Lg. 71.57 E, Lt. 33.56 N.

ATTORE, a strong fortified town of Hindostan, in the Carnatic, which defends a pass of the Ghauts. It is 60 m. N. of Trichinopoly, and 80 wsw. of Pondicherry.

AUBAGNE, a town of France, in the dept. of the Bouches du Rhone, 12 m. E. of Marseilles.

AUBE, a dept. of France, containing the sw. part of the old province of Champagne. It is surrounded by the depts. of the Marne, Haute Marne, Cote d'Or, Yonne, and Seine et Marne. It takes its name from a river, which passing by Bar sur Aube and Arcis, joins the Seine above Nogent. Troyes is the capital; P. 230,688.

AUBENAS, a town of France, dept. of the Ardeche, with manufactures of woollen cloths, silks, and red cottons. It stands on the Ardeche, at the foot of the Cevennes, 135 leagues SSE. of Paris; P. 5000.

AUBIGNY, a town of France, dept. of the Cher, with a castle; seated in a fine plain, 23 m. N. of Bourges; P. 2600.

AUBONNE, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Vaud, with a castle, seated on the Aubonne, 10 m. w. of Lausanne.

AUBORN, or AUBOURNE, a township of England, in Lincolnshire; P. 356.

AUBURN, a village in Ireland, in Roscommon, the scene of Goldsmith's poem of the "Deserted Village."

AUBUSSON, a town of France, in the dept. of the Creuse, with a manufacture of silk and tapestry; seated on the river Creuse, 37 m. ENE. of Limoges; P. 6000.

AUGAGUREL, in Africa, the capital of the kingdom of Adel, seated on an eminence near the river Hawash: Lg. 44.25 E, Lt. 8.56 N.

AUCH, a city of France, and capital of the dept. of Gers and of Gascony. The cathedral and the ancient archiepiscopal palace are the only edifices worthy of note. It has manufactures of velvet, serges, crapes, hats, and leather, and is seated on the side of a hill, by the river Gers, 43 m. w. of Toulouse; P. 9700.

AUCKLAND, ST. ANDREW, a parochial chapelry, in Durham, England, abounding in coal and limestone; P. 11,137.

AUCKLAND, BISHOP, a town in Durham, on the river Wear, once a residence of the bishops; P. 2859.

AUDE, a dept. of France, containing the s. part of the old province of Languedoc. The E. end borders on the Mediterranean, and other parts are bounded by the depts. of the Pyrences Orientales, Arriege, Haute Garonne, Tarn, and Herault. It receives its name from a river, which rises in the Pyrenees, and flowing by Quillan, Alert, Limoux, and Carcassone, enters a bay of the Mediterranean, near Narbonne. Carcassone is the capital; P. 253,194.

AUDIERNE, a town of France, in the dept. of Finisterre, seated on a bay of the same name, with a good haven for coasters, 18 m. w. of Quimper ; P. 1050.

AUDLEY, England, a parish in Staffordshire, comprising 6 townships and a liberty; P. 3617.

AUGILA, Africa, a territory of Sahara, lying to the s. of Barca, between Fezzan and Egypt. It abounds in dates; and many of the inhabitants engage in the caravan trade. The capital is of the same name, 220 m. w. of Siwah, and 540 E. by N. of Mourzouk: Lg. 23.40 E, Lt. 29.33 N.

AUGSBURG, a fortified city of Bavaria, in the province of Donau, lately a bishop's see. It has a variety of manufactures; and is one of the principal trading towns in Bavaria. The cathedral, town-house, and other public buildings, are magnificent. In the bishop's palace the Lutherans presented their confession of faith to Charles V. in 1550; hence called the confession of Augsburg. The city was taken by the French in 1703, and again in 1796. It is seated between the Werdach and Lech, 40 m. NW. of Munich: Lg. 10.55 E, Lt. 48.17 N.

AUGUSTA, or AGOSTA, a scaport of Sicily, in the Val di Noto, with a fine harbour, defended by a citadel and forts. The town, rebuilt since the earthquake in 1693, covers a low island, joined to Sicily, on the N. by a long causeway. The principal article of export is salt. It is 20 m. sse. of Catania.

AUGUSTA, a town of North America, in the United States, and state of Georgia, and capital of Richmond county. It is seated in a fine plain, on the right bank of the Savannah, 90 m. from Milledgeville, and 100 NNW. of Savannah. It has the advantage of a central trade between the upper and lower countries; P. 6696: Lg. 81.54 w, Lt. 33.28 N. AUGUSTOW, a town of Russia, in the province of Poland, near the border of a fine lake; the houses are all of wood; it has a large square in the centre; the streets are long, straight, and dirty; P. 1200.

AULENDORF, a town of Wurtemberg, 22 m. wsw. of Memingen.

AULNAY, two towns of France, about 1 m. distant from each other, in the dept. of Calvados, 14 m. sw. of Caen; P. of both 3500. AULTEN, a town of Holland, in the province of Gelderland, 2 m. s. of Lichtenvoorde; P. about 3600.


AUMONT, a town of France, in the dept. of Lozere, 15 m. NW. of Mende.


AURAS, a town of Prussia, in Silesia, on the river Oder, 14 m. NW. of Breslau.

AURAY, a town of France, in the dept. of Morbihan, 8 m. w. of Vannes; P. 3020.

AURILLAC, a town of France, in the dept. of the Cantal, with lace and velvet manufactures, 30 m. sw. of St. Fleur; P. 9580.

AURIOL, a town of France, in the dept. of the Bouches du Rhone, 12 m. SE. of Aix, and 12 NNE. of Marseilles; P. 5190.

AURORA, an island, one of the New Hebrides, in the Pacific ocean. It is 36 m. long by 6, affords plenty of wood and water, and has a small bay on the NW. coast: Lg. 160.18 E, Lt. 15.8 s.

AURUNGABAD, a province of the Deccan, in Hindostan, 300 m. long by 160; bounded on the N. by Guzerat Khandesh and Berar, E. by Beeder, s. by Bejapoor, and w. by the sea. It is also known by the names of Ahmednagur and Dowletabad, each of those towns having been its capital formerly. The surface is very irregular, and in general mountainous, particularly towards the w. Ghauts, where the hills rise to a great elevation; and it abounds with natural fortresses and strong holds; it is fertile in the low districts. The seacoast (excepting the islands of Bombay and Salsette) with three-fourths of the province are possessed by the Mahrattas, and the remainder by the Nizam.

AURUNGABAD, a city, capital of Aurungabad. It stands in a fertile plain, almost surrounded by mountains, 110 m. ssw. of Boorhampoor, and 250 SE. of Surat. It was originally a village called Gurka, and owes the greater part of its magnificence to the great Aurungzebe, who resided there, and gave it the present name. The city is within the Nizam's territories, and has an extensive bazaar: Lg. 76.3 E, Lt. 19.54 N.

AURUNGABUNDER, a town of Hindostan, in Sinde, on a branch of the Indus, to which it gives name, 40 m. ssw. of Tatta.

AUSSIG, a town of Bohemia, seated on the Elbe, 11 m. NNW. of Leutmeritz.

AUST, a village of England, in Gloucestershire, 10 m. N. of Bristol, noted for its ancient ferry over the Severn; P. 203.

AUSTEN'S, bay and town, in the West Indies, on the s. side of the island of Barbadoes.

AUSTERLITZ, or SLAWKOW, a town of Moravia, near which, in 1805, a great victory was obtained by the French over the Austrians and Russians, 12 m. E. of Brunn, and 30 ssw. of Olmutz.

AUSTRALASIA, one of the five great divisions of the world, bounded N. by the equator, E. by 120° w. Lg., extending s. to the South Pole, and w. by a line departing from the equator at 133" E. Lg., passing w. of the island of Wageeroo, and proceeding in a direction nearly sw, and including the islands

of Mysol, Ceram, Ombay, Panter, St. Paul, and Amsterdam, whence on reaching 60° E. Lg. in Lt. 40, it runs due s. to the South Pole, including Kerguelen's Land. This division embraces a considerable portion of the South Pacific ocean, as also of the Indian and Southern oceans, containing Australia, Papua, or New Guinea, New Zealand, the New Hebrides, Solomon's isles, and all those groups, the Friendly and Society isles, and the Marquessas. Ducie's island is the nearest to the E. boundary.

AUSTRALIA; see TERRA AUSTRALIS. AUSTRIA, an empire of Europe, bounded N. by Sexony, Prussia, and Russia, E. by Russia and Turkey, s. by Turkey, the Adriatic sea, the states of the Church, Modena, and Parma, and w. by Sardinia, Switzerland, and Bavaria. The empire is politically divided into the Archduchies of Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Moravia, Sclavonia, Styria, Transylvania, Tyrol, Saltzburg, the kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, and the kingdom of Illyria: area, about 300,000 geographical square m.; P. nearly 30 millions.

AUSTRIA, an archduchy, in the empire of Austria, bounded on the N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, s. by Styria, and w. by Bavaria and Saltzburg; divided by the Ens into Upper and Lower Austria, and is traversed near its centre from w. to E. by the Danube: Vienna is the capital of the Lower, and Lintz of the Upper. The inhabitants are polite, and gay; there is no country in Germany where foreigners are more courteously entertained. Austria excels all Germany in the fertility of its soil: corn, wine, and fruit are plentiful, and the saffron is better than that of the East Indies: the principal rivers are the Danube, Inn, Drave, and Save. In 1806 Francis II., emperor of Germany, renounced that title in a formal manner; and erected his own dominions into an hereditary empire, being crowned emperor of Austria.

AUTUN, the ancient Bibracta, a city of France, and a bishop's see; dept. of the Saone et Loire, on the Arroux, at the foot of three mountains, 45 m. E. by s. of Nevers, and 162 SE. of Paris. It contains many vestiges of Roman magnificence, particularly the temples of Janus Cybele. Its manufactures are tapestry, carpets, coverlets, and glue: the cathedral, college, and seminary, are worthy of notice; P. 9940.

AUVERGNE, an old province of France, s. of Bourbonnois, and w. of Forez and Velay. It now forms the depts. of the Puy de Dôme and Cantal.

AUVILLAR, a town of France, dept. of the Lot et Garonne, on the river Garonne, 13 m. SE. of Agen; P. 2150.

AUXERRE, a city of France, capital of the dept. of Yonne; once a bishop's see; containing many fountains and squares; the episcopal palace is deemed one of the most beautiful in France. Its chief trade is in wine, hemp,

cotton, iron, and drugs; it stands on the side of a hill, by the river Yonne, 75 m. www. of Dijon, 90 SSE. of Paris; P. 16,000: Lg. 3.34 E, Lt. 47.48 N.

AUXON, a town of France, dept. of the Aube, 13 m. s. of Troyes.

AUXONNE, a town of France, in the dept. of the Cote d'Or; with a castle, arsenal, and a foundry for cannon; it stands on the Saone, 17 m. E. of Dijon; P. 5420.

AVA, a city of Asia, formerly the capital of a kingdom of Ava, now called Burmalı; about 4 m. in circuit, with a lofty wall, mouldering to decay. The materials of the houses, consisting chiefly of wood, were removed, about 1783, to the new city; and its numerous temples, on which the Birmans never lay sacrilegious hands, are dilapidating by time. Clumps of bamboos, a few plantain trees, and tall thorns, occupy most of the area of this once flourishing capital; situated on the s. side of the Irrawaddy, 4 m. sw. of Ummerapoor, the present capital.

AVALLON, a town of France, in the dept. of the Yonne; it trades in grain, wine, wood, and cattle; and is situated on the Cousin, 24 m. ssE. of Auxerre; P. 3260.

AVATCHA, or PETROPAULOVSK, a port and town of Asiatic Russia, in the government of Irkoutsk, canton of Okhotsk, district of Nijne Camtchatsk, or Kamtschatska, in the bay of Avatchinskaia; it has an excellent harbour; its churches and government buildings are very good it was formerly called Niakine.

AVATCHINSKA1A, in Asia, a volcano, on the N. side of the bay of Awatsk, or Avatscha, E. of Russia; district Nejne Kamtschatska; the most considerable irruption was in 1737, which continued 24 hours, and terminated by expelling a vast quantity of ashes.


AVEIRO, a town of Portugal, in Beria, with a good harbour for vessels of a moderate size. Its chief trade is in salt, of which great quantities are made in the vicinity; it is situated 33 m. s. of Porto: Lg. 8.30 w, Lt. 40.40 N.

AVEIRON, a dept. of France, including the old province of Rouergue; bordered by the depts. of the Cantal, Lozere, Herault, Tarn, and Lot; its soil feeds numerous cattle, and its mines supply copper, iron, alum, vitriol, and sulphur. It is named from a river which rises near Severac, flows by Rhodez, Villefranche, and Montauban, and then joins the Garonne. Rhodez is the capital; P. 339,422.

AVELLA, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro; noted for its honey and apples; 15 m. NE. of Naples.

AVELLINO, a town of Naples, in the Principato Ultra; it was almost ruined by an earthquake in 1805. Near it is the celebrated convent of Monte Virgine, on a wild mountain, which formerly had a sumptuous temple of Cybele: famous for dyeing of cloth; also for nuts and macaroni. Between it and Benevento is Val di Gargano, celebrated in history

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