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Some deny the resurrection.

grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which 11 was with me. Therefore whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.



Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there 13 is no resurrection of the dead? But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is 14 not risen. And if Christ be not risen, then our preaching is vain, and your faith also is vain. 15 Yea, and we are found false witnesses concerning God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not 16 up, if the dead rise not. For if the dead rise 17 not, then Christ is not risen: And if Christ be not risen, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your 18 sins. Then they also that are fallen asleep in 19 Christ, have perished. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men the most miserable.




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10. But I laboured, yc. See Rom. xv. 19-21. All his gifts, and all his success he ascribed to the free and sovereign grace of God. By this labour in preaching, many had been brought to believe.

12-19. No resurrection, &c. That it is an impossibility. If it be so, then Christ is not risen-and our preaching of it vain and false, and we are false witnesses concerning God-“your faith" in this doctrine is vain, aud even in the atonement, so that ye are in your sins-and those in Christ have utterly perished, so that there is no hope, either as to soul or body-and to what a miserable state are we reduced, having only persecution here, and nothing to expect hereafter.

20. But now is Christ risen, &c. The apostle boldly asserts the resurrection of his Lord as first-fruits, the earnest and pledge of that of all believers. 21-23. By man. By the sin of Adam. Rom. v. 12-19.-By man also, &c. By the second Adam, who was truly man, and yet "God blessed for ever." By Christ shall all, &c. The whole of mankind are subject to death by Adam's sin, and the whole will be raised by Christ; but it is only of all believers that the apostle is speaking here, as they are said "to be Christ's at his appearing."

24. Cometh the end, &c. The end of the world, as it is then either to be utterly destroyed, or so changed as to be a new earth. 2 Pet. iii. 11—13,Deliver up, &c. The kingdom which he has had among men, or those who have been subjected to him, he will deliver up saved from all their enemies, having done away all opposing rule, &c.\

25, 26. Put all enemies, &c. See Ps. cx. 1, which the apostle appears to have had in his miud.—The last enemy, &c. of his people which will be so done away for ever, is death.

27. For he hath, &c. Ps. viii. 6. For He, the Father, hath put all things,

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The apostle maintains it.

by Adam all die, even so by Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own 23 order: Christ the first-fruits; afterwards they that are Christ's at his appearance. (Then 24 cometh the end, when he shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have done away all rule and all authority and power: For he must reign, 25 until he have put all enemies under his feet, The last enemy who will be done away, is 26 death. For "he hath put all things under 27 his feet." his feet." But when it is said, "all things are put under him," it is manifest that he is excepted, who did put all things under him. Now when all things are put under him, 28 then will the Son also himself manifestly appear to have been subject to him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.) Otherwise, what shall they do who 29 are baptized in the place of the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized tized in their place? place? And why stand we 30 in danger every hour? I protest by my glory- 31 ing on your account, which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, that I die daily. If to 32

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&c. He promised this to him, and then it will be manifest that the promise has been fulfilled.

28. The Son himself, &c. As our Lord declared himself the servant of the Father, both as man and mediator, and in all he did and suffered, was subject to his will and authority, I know not how he can be more subject, when he has put down all rule, &c. but in the version given, it will be manifest in that day that he has been subject and has fulfilled all right ɔusness and accomplished the purpose of the Father's love and mercy. If this be not the sense of the apostle, I do not know his meaning. God may be, &c. That the deity, including each divine person, may be considered the author, finisher, and end of this salvation.

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29-30. Otherwise, &c. This verse is connected with the 23d, and the intermediate verses, which describe some of the effects of the coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead, are parenthetical.—In the place or, ĝe. As many were put to death for their profession, and yet others were continually coming forward, and by submitting to baptism, taking their place in the church and the world. What shall such do if the dead rise not at all! Why are, &c. For this sense of us see Parkhurst and Schleuser. Others think that as the resurrection of the dead was one of the distinguishing truths of the gospel, and which the apostles stated in their ministry, "being baptized for the dead," is an elliptical phrase for "being baptized for the resurrection of the dead." This being one of the truths, those who were baptized professed to believe. See Macknight.———And why stand, &c. Why do we apostles expose our lives, if there be no resurrection? See verses 12-19.

31. On your account, &c. So Estius, Wall, and others explain rapat. —Which I have, &c. As a believer in him, and an apostle, and minister of the gospel, that I die, or am exposed to die daily; and am ready to die for the name of Jesus.

32. With wild-beasts, &c. With men as fierce as wild-beasts. There is

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Resurrection being glorious,


Death will be conquered.

speak after the manner of men, I have fought | body. There is an animal body, and there is with wild-beasts at Ephesus, what advantage will it be to me, if the dead rise not? let us 33 eat and drink; for to-morrow we die. Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good 34 manners. Awake truly, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this 35 to your shame. But some one will say, "How are the dead raised up? and with what body 36 do they come?" Foolish man! that which thou sowest is not made alive, unless it die: 37 And as to that which thou sowest, thou sowest not the body that shall be, but bare grain; 38 perhaps of wheat, or of some other grain. But

a spiritual body. And so it is written, "The 45 first man Adam was made a living person; but the last Adam is a life-giving spirit. However 46 that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is animal; and afterwards that which is spiritual. The first man was from the earth, 47 earthy the second man is the Lord from heaven. As was the earthy, such are they 48 also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such will they also be that are heavenly. And 49 as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall bear the image of the heavenly also.

God giveth it a body, as it hath pleased him, 39 and to every seed its own body. All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, another of 40 fishes, and another of birds. There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies: but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory 41 of the earthly is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: (for one star dif42 fereth from another star in glory.) So is the resurrection of the dead also. It is sown in 43 corruption; it is raised in incorruption: It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is 44 sown in weakness; it is raised in power: It is sown an animal body; it is raised a spiritual

Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood 50 cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor doth corruption inherit incorruption. Behold, I show 51 you a mystery: We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the 52 twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet will sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, 53 and this mortal must put on immortality. So 54 when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, "Death is swallowed up in victory." "O death, where is thy sting? 55 O grave, where is thy victory?" Now the 56 sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is

no reason to think that the apostle had fought with wild-beasts literally, as
he does not mention this in the catalogue of his own sufferings and dangers.
2 Cor. xi. 22-28. . Ignatius said, απο Συριας μέχρι Ρωμης θηριομαχῶ. 6. From
Syria to Rome I fought with beasts," yet it is certain he did not do so literally,
but he so calls cruel men.-
a.—Let us eat, &c. This has been the favourite
maxim of the profane and sensual in all ages.

33. Be not deceived. By such a maxim of such characters; but avoid them and their discourse, knowing "that evil communications, &c." Paul is thought to have quoted the poet Menander; but Macknight considers the words proverbial.

34. Awake truly. From your dreams and errors, respecting the resurrection and a future state. Knowledge of God. Such a knowledge of his power and other excellencies as they should have had, &c.

35-38. With what body, &c. When their bodies are dissolved into dust, how are or can they be raised? And if they be, what kind of body will it be? -Unless it die. John xii. 24. Some part of it wasting away, but the germ abiding and springing up. Pleased him. When he created each seed, and formed the laws of nature, he gave to each its appropriate form and body.

39-41. All flesh is not, &c. There is a variety in the qualities of the flesh of men, beasts and birds, &c. and so there is in bodies, some being earthy and others heavenly. Bodies also differ as to their intrinsic nature and glory; so that one is more glorious than another.

42–44. A spiritual body. Having so far the nature of a spirit, as not

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to be subject to dissolution, nor to need support, rest, &c. This is opposed to the "animal body," which is now subject to corruption, dishonour, and weakness; but the raised body will be incorruptible, glorious, and possessing immortal vigour.


45-49. A living person. I prefer this version, as being, I think, that sense which the Hebrew most properly suggests. See Gen. ii. 7. It might be rendered, "a living animal;" and the antithesis with him who is a life. giving spirit, would be more strongly marked.That was not first. Adam was formed long before Christ appeared; and their origin was different, one being made from the dust of the earth; the other is the Lord from heaven. Our relation to the former makes us earthy, and subjects us to mortality; and our relation to the latter inspires the hope of being like him in body and mind for ever. 50. Flesh and blood, &c. Such a body as ours now is cannot inherit or possess the future spiritual and glorious kingdom of God, where there is nothing to satisfy its appetites and passions; and as it is subject to corruption, it would be wholly unfit for a state of incorruption and immortality.


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Stedfastness in the faith..


Charitable collection.

57 the law. But thanks be to God, who giveth || treasuring up according as he prospereth, that


us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ. 58 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.

there may be no collections when I come. And 3
when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve,
them will I send with letters to carry the fruit
of your liberality towards Jerusalem. And if 4
it be worthy of my going also, they shall go
with me.
Now I will come unto you, when I 5
shall pass through Macedonia: (for I intend to
pass through Macedonia.) And perhaps I shall 6
remain, yea, and winter with you, that ye may
conduct me on my way whithersoever I go.
For I do not desire to see you now on the way 7
only; but I hope to remain a while with you,
if the Lord permit. But I shall remain at 8

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A. D. 57. Exhortation to be charitable; Timothy commended; and after

friendly admonitions, Paul concludes with various salutations.

T Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have appointed to the churches of Galatia, 2 even so do ye. Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay up something by him,

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! REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XV. 1. We learn what the apostle esteemed one of the chief truths of the gospel, and how forcibly the resurrection of our Lord is attested. The love and grave of the Father in giving his Son, and the love and grace of Jesus in coming into the world, appear from the glorious designs he had in view. He came not merely to reveal more fully the purposes of God, and to preach the way of righteousness, but to die for our sins according to the scriptures. His atoning death had been exhibited in the typical sacrifices offered under the law, and the prophets had expressly predicted it. This is the foundation of the hope and comfort of sinners; of pardon, peace, and reconciliation. May our souls be rescued from the bondage of guilt by this infinitely meritorious sacrifice; and our persons and services be accepted in him. As he died for our sins, so he rose again for our justification. And what stronger evidence of this fact can be given, than what the apostle states? His most intimate friends saw him, ate and conversed with him at different times for the space of forty days; and then witnessed his ascension to heaven. Paul could state that five hundred brethren had seen him, a great part of whom were then living witnesses of the truth. Now is Christ risen and become the first-fruits of them that sleep in him. Joyful truth, as it gives us the fullest assurance that his sacrifice was accepted, and redemption effected by his blood.

2. We may learn what awful consequences result from the denial of this doctrine. In this case the apostles and other christian brethren in Judea, were either all deceived or deceivers. They could not be the first without rendering it impossible to know or be sure of any thing; for to be deceived in a case like this, implies that their own eyes, ears and hands, and the powers of their minds imposed on them, and not for once, or for a short period, but repeatedly, and for above a month together. As to the second, their upright, holy conduct, their sted


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sin and death, by the merits of our Lord and Saviour.—Wherefore, &c. Being assured of these things, let no dangers move you from your stedfastness; but ever be glorifying the Lord Jesus, who will amply reward all his faithful


CHAP. XVI. 1. The saints. These believing Jews, who resided at Jerusalem. See Rom. xv. 26.- -The churches, &c. In the various towns and cities of Galatia. Acts xvi. 6.; xviii. 23. 2. On the first day, &c.

The Lord's day, as it was also called, because

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fast adherence to this truth amidst persecutions, sufferings, and labours, is a sufficient refutation. Such men give invincible proof that they believed what they taught; and the glorious hope of a resurrection and of eternal life was the support of their own souls. Whatever men of corrupt minds may suggest, there is a future state of happiness and glory; and when Christ shall have put down all opposing rule and authority, and accomplished the number of his elect, he will as suredly destroy the last enemy death, and rescue the sleeping dust of his redeemed.

3. We are taught how great and glorious will be the raised bodies of the saints. Their weaknesses and infirmities will be all left in the grave; and that almighty power which called all things into being will again be exerted, to give beauty, splendour, and immortality to them. They are corruptible, weak, animal and mortal bodies, bearing the image of fallen Adam; but they will then be made incorruptible, glorious, powerful, active, pure and immortal bodies, bearing the image of the glorious body of Christ. This great and amazing change of their present qualities, is absolutely necessary to fit them for the heavenly state and kingdom: for flesh and blood, as they now are, cannot inherit that kingdom. Hence those believers, who shall be alive at the appearing of Christ will be changed in a moment; and in respect to them as well as those dead, what is mortal must put on immortality. Let us then, in the believing and realizing view of this great truth, like the apostle, joyfully triumph over death and the grave, as conquered enemies, disarmed of their sting, and of their power, through the merit and victory of our dear Lord. And how should the prospect of life and immortality, animate us to the utmost stedfastness and perseverance in the ways of the Lord; and with what holy resolution should we go on in his strength, and abound in his work, knowing that we shall not labour in vain.

of his resurrection, and of the worship rendered on that day.—Lay up something, &c. First let him lay by some little for this express purpose, and then let it be given to the deacons, that there may be no need of making collec tions when I come.

5-9. For I intend to pass, &c. Paul had before intimated his intention of visiting them; and tells them when they might expect him.

10. If Timothy come. He had sent Timothy, (Ch. iv. 17) to visit them; and now requests that they would treat him as his character justly demanded;

Timothy commended.

9 Ephesus until Pentecost. For a great and effectual door is opened to me; yet there are many adversaries.


10 Now if Timothy come, see that he may be with you without fear: for he worketh the 11 work of the Lord, as I also do. Let no man therefore despise him: but conduct him on his way in peace, that he may come unto me: for 12 I expect him with the brethren: And concerning our brother Apollos, I earnestly desired him to come to you with the brethren; but he was by no means willing to come now, but he will come, when he shall have convenient time. 13 Watch; stand fast in the faith, acquit your 14 selves like men, be strong. Let all things be done among you with love.


Have regard to the family of Stephanas, because they are the first-fruits of Achaia, and have addicted themselves to the service of 16 the saints. Now I intreat you, brethren, to

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XVI. 1. We are taught that it is the duty of christians to exercise charity, thus bearing one another's burdens, and so fulfilling the law of Christ. From various causes some good men are poor; and whole churches may be so, through some particular dispensation of providence. In this case, the more prosperous should cheerfully assist them. Good ministers will do all they can to encourage and promote this exercise of benevolence, and see that the liberality of churches under their care be duly and properly applied. In this work of love all should unite; and the mites and pence of the industrious should be laid up in store for such purposes. Nor can such contributions be considered as a violation of the sanctity of the Lord's day; but rather as an act of service, pleasing and acceptable to God. We here see that it was the practice of believers to assemble on the first day of the week, or the Lord's day. Let us constantly imitate them, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves to

for though young he ought not to be despised, but honoured as a faithful servant of Christ.

12. Apollos, I earnestly, &c. He had left Corinth, and must now have been with Paul. Probably the divisions of that church had induced him to leave them, and go to Paul. He was not willing at that time to visit them again. = 13, 14. Watch, &c. Against your enemies; maintain the faith delivered to you, and let every affair, respecting you as a church, be managed with prudence and order.

15. Have regard, &c. To avoid the parenthesis, I have, with many other critics, transposed the first clause to the end of the verse, or rather to the beginning of the 16th. Indeed the construction strongly requires this change. The whole family of Stephanas were devoted to God, and showed it by their kind attentions to christians in general.

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Various salutations.

submit yourselves to such as Timothy, and to every fellow-worker and labourer with me. I 17 rejoice at the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus: for that which was wanting on your part they have supplied. For they 18 have refreshed my spirit and will yours: wherefore acknowledge those that are such.

The churches of Asia salute you. Aquilla and 19 Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house. All the brethren 20 salute you. Salute ye one another with a holy kiss. The salutation of me Paul written with 21 mine own hand. If any man love not the Lord 22 Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maran-atha. [ACCURSED. OUR LORD COMETH.] The grace 23 of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My 24 love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.

The first epistle to the Corinthians was written from Philippi by Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, and Timothy.

gether as the manner of some is; and we may hope for the enjoyment of his presence, and his blessing in his ordinances.

2. We learn that brotherly love and esteem should be constantly exercised among fellow-labourers in the gospel. They should be free from all jealousy and envy, and be ready to honour and promote each others usefulness. The aged should encourage their younger brethren; . and all employ their talents in advancing the work of the Lord. And christian churches should ever be ready to receive and acknowledge those as brethren, who are properly recommended. Both need exhortations to watchfulness and holy courage in the cause of the Redeemer; and in the exercise of faith and love. And if any discover enmity to Christ, let us leave them to his own righteous. sentence; but may it ever be our prayer, and may we find by happy experience, that grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, may be, and is, with all them that love him in sincerity and truth.


fore-mentioned.They have supplied. By giving me a full account of your state and affairs.

18. And will yours. By giving you such information as will greatly encourage you. Treat them with christian kindness.

19. Aquilla, &c. These persons lived Corinth, while Paul preached there; but on his departure they accompanied him to Ephesus, where they abode for some time. See Acts xviii. 18.The church in their house. See Rom. xvi. 5.

21. Written with mine, &c. Paul usually dictated, and another wrote his letters for him. He wrote this salutation as a proof that the whole was his 22. Let him be anathema. Doddridge supposed that after the Jews had lost the power of life and death, it was usual with them to pronounce anathema on such as ought to have suffered according to the law, and that they expected the Lord would come and inflict it in some way in his providence. Paul adopts their language towards such as professed, but were without love to our Lord Jesus Christ. For the version given of these Syro-Chaldiac words, see Schleusner.






PAUL having received, by Titus, an account of the state of the Corinthian church, and what effects his first epistle had produced, wrote his second about a year after the other. As they had observed his directions in many things, he commends them; and vindicates his own apostolic character more fully and boldly. He relates his own sufferings and persecutions; and as he was compelled by opposition, his own extacy, and other things. The whole is interspersed with many illustrations of the gospel; important advice and practical admonitions are every where interwoven.


A. D. 58. Encouragements under troubles; Paul assigns the reason of his not coming to them so soon as they might expect, &c.


PAUL, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth, and to all 2 the saints who are in all Achaia: Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.


Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and 4 the God of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our affliction, that we may be able to comfort those who are in any affliction by the comfort, with which we ourselves are comforted 5 of God. For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our comfort also aboundeth by Christ. 6 And whether we be afflicted, it is for your comfort and salvation; or whether we be comforted, it is for your comfort, which worketh in the patient enduring of the same sufferings,

CHAP. I. 1. Timothy our brother. Timothy was Paul's son in the gospel, and his brother in the faith.—In all Achaia. This shows that there were believers in other parts of Achaia, as well as in the capital.

36. Blessed be God, &c. Afflictions every where came upon Paul and his fellow-labourers; but they had also comfort in Christ for their support, and to teach them with what, and in what manner, they should comfort others. Or whether we be comforted, &c. For this arrangement of the text, see Griesbach. Which worketh, &c. Which comfort worketh, shows its energy, in the patient enduring of the same, &c.

8-11. For brethren, &c. What Paul refers to, unless to the commo

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which we also suffer. And our hope concern- 7 ing you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers of the sufferings, so are ye of the comfort also. For brethren, we would not 8 have you ignorant of our affliction which befel us in Asia; that we were exceedingly pressed, above our strength, so that we despaired even of life: But we had the sentence of death 9 in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God who raiseth the dead: Who 10 delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver us: in whom we trust that he will still also deliver us; You also helping together 11 by prayer for us: that because of the benefit bestowed upon us by the means of many persons, thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

For our glorying is this: the testimony of our 12 conscience, that in simplicity and sincerity towards God, (not with carnal wisdom, but by the grace of God,) we have behaved ourselves in the world, and more abundantly towards

tions at Ephesus, Acts xix. I cannot conjecture. Although he did not go into the theatre, his life might be in danger in other respects; and he, as well as other christians, might on that occasion suffer much, and even expect their own martyrdom. Of the benefit, &c. The deliverance granted him in answer to the prayers of many, might excite many to give thanks for it.

12. Sincerity towards God. If any man could make such an assertion surely Paul might, and his fellow-sufferers too. Behaved ourselves, &c. Keeping a good conscience in the sight of all; but showing great affection and disinterestedness to the Corinthians.

13. Ye know, &e. So the Syriac renders; and it is well known that

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