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Paul's purpose not to

II CORINTHIANS II.

visit them in grief.

13 you. For we write no other things unto you, || the glory of God by us. Now he who establish- 21 eth us together with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God: Who hath also sealed 22 us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.

than what ye know and acknowledge; and I trust ye will acknowledge even to the end; 14 As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your glorying, even as ye also will be our's in the day of the Lord Jesus.

15 And in this confidence I was desirous of

CHAPTER II.

them; advice as to the excommunicated person; the success of his preaching.

coming to you formerly, that ye might have A. D. 58. Paul's solemn appeal to God, and the reasons of his not coming to 16 a second benefit; And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to return to you from Macedonia, and to be conducted by you on my way 17 towards Judea. When I therefore thus When I therefore thus purposed, did I use any lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea, yea, 18 and nay, nay? But as God is faithful, our preaching towards you was not yea and nay. 19 For Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was preached among you by us, (even by me and Silvanus and Timothy,) was not yea and nay, 20 but in him was yea. For all the promises For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER I. 1. We learn how important it is, to the success of the gospel, that the characters of Christ's servants should be blameless. And what support, and even pleasure, do they find, amidst the base calumnies and reproaches cast upon them, from the testimony of their consciences, that in simplicity and sincerity, not with fleshly carnal wisdom, have they conducted themselves in the world; and can make the most soleinn appeal to God in respect to their integrity and uprightness. Whatever the sufferings of such may be, God in the exercise of his abundant mercy, will afford them comfort; not only on their own account, but that they be able to comfort others in similar suffering circumstances. To what extremities may they sometimes be brought? And how seasonable the deliverance wrought for them! in answer to prayer, which should and will excite the praises and thanksgiving of many.

compound verbs are often used in the sense of simple. See Kypke. This sense here makes the whole plain.

14. Us in part, &c. So as to follow the directions given to you, by correcting the abuses which had crept in among you; so that we are your glorying, &c.

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15. To you formerly. See 1 Cor. xvi. 5. A second benefit. By my preaching and labours.

17. Any lightness? Did it arise from mere levity of mind? From inconstancy, as some affirm, so that with me there is now yea, yea, and then nay, nay?

18-20. Our preaching was, &c. We never varied in our doctrine, but constantly preached the same thing, Christ and him crucified, in whom all the promises are firmly ratified and sure.

21, 22. He who establisheth, &c. He who establisheth both us and you in Christ, as to our faith, love, and stedfastness, is God.———Anointed us. Rr3

MOREOVER I call God as a witness against 23 my soul, if I speak falsely, that to spare you I have not as yet come unto Corinth. (Not 24 that we have dominion over your faith, but are fellow-helpers of your joy for by faith ye stand.) But I determined this with myself, that 1 I would not come again to you in grief. For 2 if I grieve you, who maketh me glad, but he that is grieved by me? And I wrote to 3 you for this very reason, that when I come, I may not have grief from those on whose account I ought to rejoice; having confidence

2. We learn also how affectionately desirous are faithful ministers of the happiness of their people! While it is their fervent prayer, that grace and peace may be multiplied to them, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ; they anxiously desire to be instru mental both in their conversion and edification, that they may have joy in them here, and rejoice with them in the day of Christ. For this all possessed of the spirit of their sacred office, labour with the greatest diligence, prudence, perseverance and tenderness. And how delightful it is to them to exhibit the rich provision of the gospel, for the comfort of all believers. The promises of the covenant are confirmed and sure in Christ; and believers are established and confirmed in him, being partakers of the sanctifying and sealing influences of the Holy Spirit, as the earnest of future bliss; and having received the earnest they shall receive the full possession.

Set us apart as apostles, and sealed us as his own property, by the gifts of the
Spirit ;
and by his comforting influences and graces in our hearts, he has given
us an earnest of our future happiness and glory. See 1 John ii. 27. Eph. i.
13.; iv. 30.; and i. 14. I end the chapter here, as what follows is so con-
nected with the next, that it forms evidently a part of it.

23. Moreover I call, &c. This is a strong asseveration, and shows that some at Corinth had imputed Paul's change of mind to some base and unworthy motives.

24. Not that we have, &c. Not that we pretend to lord it over you, or your faith; but to assist you and promote your joy: still remember that by faith ye stand. Rom. xi. 20.

CHAP. II. 1-3. In grief. On account of your conduct and divisions.

And I wrote for, &c. Lest by finding my children in so unhappy a state,

I should have grief instead of being excited to joy. Having confidence, &c.

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Forgiveness commended.

in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all. 4 For out of much affliction and distress of heart I wrote to you with many tears; not chiefly that ye might be grieved, but that ye might know the love which I have most 5 abundantly for you. But if any one have caused grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part; that I may not charge you all." 6 Sufficient to such a man is that rebuke, which 7 was given by many. So that, on the contrary, ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest such an one should be swal8 lowed up by excessive grief. Wherefore I beseech you to confirm your love towards him. 9 For to this end also I wrote, that I might

know the proof of you, whether ye be obedi10 ent in all things. But to whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive also: for what I have forgiven, if I have forgiven any thing, for your sakes forgave I it in the person of Christ;

II CORINTHIANS

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER II. 1. The directions of the apostle teach us how tender and forgiving should pastor and flock be towards an offending brother. When obliged to exercise christian discipline, and to censure or even to expel from their communion and fellowship, such as walk disorderly, it should be done with meekness, with evident feelings of compassion, and with prayer that God may give such repentance, that they may be recovered from the snare of the devil. And when such offenders manifest that they are sensible of their offences, and humbled for them, how readily and joyfully should the church encourage and comfort them, lest they should be swallowed up by too much grief. To be inexorable and unforgiving, would, in this case, be the sin of the church, and Satan would get an advantage over them. What need have believers of spiritual wisdom, to discern and avoid the devices of the subtle enemy; and in nothing more than in exercising discipline. The great design of it is, to preserve purity both in doctrine and morals, so that the holy nature of the gospel, may be displayed and established.

Especially now from what I have heard, that ye would promote my joy by obeying me.

4. Not chiefly that ye, &c. It was not to occasion grief or sorrow, but to avoid it, and as a proof of my tender regard for your welfare.

5. If any one have, &c. If the incestuous person have caused grief, he has not grieved me but in part, and in common with many of you; that I may not charge you all.

6-8. That rebuke, &c. Public censure of the church.—Lest such an one, &c. Seeing his proper and penitential behaviour, ye ought to be satisfied, and endeavour to comfort him, by the expression of your christian love.

II.

The effects of the ministry.

Lest Satan should gain an advantage over 11 us: for we are not ignorant of his devices.

Now, when I came to Troas to preach the 12 gospel of Christ, and a door was opened unto me by the Lord, I had no rest in my spirit, 13 because I found not Titus my brother: but taking my leave of them, I went thence into Macedonia. Now thanks. be to God, who 14 always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the odour of the knowledge of him by us in every place. (For we are 15 a sweet smell of Christ unto God, among those that are saved, and among those that are lost. To these we are the odour of death 16 unto death; but to the others the odour of life unto life. And who is sufficient for these things?) For we are not as many, who adul- 17 terate the word of God; but as of sincerity, but as of God, as in the sight of God we speak in the name of Christ.

9-11. The proof of you. That by the directions given, and your conduct in respect to them, I might have a proof of your disposition, &c.-To whom ye forgive, &c. This refers to verse 7. As to what I have forgiven in other offenders formerly, if I can be said to have forgiven any thing, the occa

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2. Whatever grief the offences of professors may occasion to ministers and to the brethren, they experience peculiar pleasure in the growing success of the gospel. They can give God most hearty thanks for causing them always to triumph in Christ, and for enabling them to spread the odour of the knowledge of him in every place, where they reside or have an opportunity to preach. How awful on the one hand is the effect of the gospel, when not cordially believed: it is the odour of death unto death; but how delightful on the other, as it becomes to all believers the odour of life unto life. Thus to the unbelieving and impenitent, the gospel as well as the law, however good in itself, is made death to them. Who can think on this without trembling. Conscious of weakness and inability to win souls to Christ, may all who preach the word rely on the all-sufficient grace of God, to crown their labours with success; and may they have the testimony of their own consciences, that, whatever may be their success, they preach the unadulterated doctrine of Christ, and speak in Christ, as in the sight of God, to whom they must give an account.

sions being so few, and so inferior to the present, for your sakes I did it, in the name and by the authority of Christ. 1 Cor. v. 4.--. – Lest Satan, by his children and instruments, wicked men, should gain advantage, &c.—Of his devices. Had we used rigour towards any, he would, by his instruments, have represented the gospel, as a system of cruelty, and not of grace and mercy, and thus prevented its success.

12, 13. To Troas, &c. See Acts xx. 5, 6.A door was, &c. Au occasion or opportunity was afforded by the overruling providence of God,

-Had no rest, &c. Titus had been sent to Corinth, and Paul expected him to have returned and met him at Troas, but not finding him here, he was much distressed in his mind in reference to the affairs of that church. Hence he went into Macedonia, supposing that he might meet Titus there, which he actually did. See Ch. vii. 5-7.

14. Thanks be to God, &c. Paul, affected by what Titus related, and

New covenant more

II CORINTHIANS III.

glorious than the old. so that the children of Israel could not sted

CHAPTER III.

ministry of the law and the gospel; the latter proved to be far the more excellent.

A. D. 58. A commendation of Paul's ministry; comparison between the fastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance: which glory was to be done away; Shall not the ministry of the 8 spirit be rather glorious? For if the ministry 9 of condemnation was glorious, much more doth the ministry of righteousness abound in glory. For even that which was made glorious had 10 no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth. For if that which was to be 11 done away was glorious, much more must that which remaineth be glorious.

Having therefore such hope, we use great 12 freedom of speech: And are not as Moses, 13 who put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the end of that which was to be done away. (But 14 their minds were blinded: for until this day the same veil remaineth in the reading of the old covenant, it not being discovered, that it is done away in Christ. Yea even unto this 15 day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their

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Ye

Do we begin to commend ourselves again? or need we, as some, epistles of commendation 2 to you, or of commendation from you? are our epistle, written on our hearts, known 3 and read by all men : Since ye are manifestly are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, not written with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not on tables of stone, but on the fleshly tables of the heart. 4 Now such confidence have we through 5 Christ towards God. Not that we are sufficient Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to reckon upon any thing as from ourselves: but our sufficiency is from God; 6 Who hath even made us able ministers of the new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit 7 giveth life. But if the ministry of death, engraven in letters on stones, was glorious,

at the success of the gospel in other places, gives thanks to God as the glorious cause. The odour of the, &c. Having mentioned "triumphing in Christ," the apostle beautifully alludes to the custom observed in triumphs, of strewing the streets with flowers, and burning incense.

15, 16. A sweet smell of Christ, &c. By our preaching and labours in the gospel, making known Christ, we are as acceptable to God as a sweet smell is to the senses. Among those, &c. God accepted their labours, not only in reference to such as were saved, but in respect to such as were lost, by rejecting the gospel, and persisting in their sins.- -To these we, &c. The last, an odour of the most affecting kind, producing the most awful ruin; but to the others a vivifying odour, and ending in everlasting life. Who is sufficient, &c. For preaching Christ to all? No one, in and of himself. Ch. iii. 5.

17. Adulterate. Debase for their own advantage and gain, as vintners adulterate their wines.As of sincerity, &c. Paul and his fellow-labourers used no arts to gain this world's goods by their ministry. They preached the truth in the love of it, and in purity.

CHAP. II. 1. Commend ourselves again. This shows that he had been charged with commending himself. See I Cor. iv. 1-4. ; v. 3.; ix. 1.; xiv. 18. -Or need we, as some, &c. This proves that those persons who had caused divisions at Corinth, had obtained influence by recommendatory epistles; and had received such from the Corinthian church.

2,3. Our epistle. Our epistle of commendation as apostles and ministers of Christ," written on our hearts" in the love we have for you as our spiritual children; and this is seen and read by all who knew us and you. The epistle of Christ, ministered, &c. We have been the instruments which he has employed in making you his epistle, "not written with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God," which Spirit, by the gospel, has impressed upon your hearts, and formed there in legible characters, his own holy image, as well as inscribed the blessed truths of the gospel. Such seems to me the sense of this difficult and highly figurative passage. Their conversion, by his ministry, was a striking proof both of his apostolic mission, and of the power, grace, and love of Christ. See I Cor. vi. 9-IT.

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4-6. Such confidence, &c. Such confidence we have towards God through Christ that he will still bless and succeed our labours; "not that we are sufficient, &c."- --To reckon upon, &c. Others render, “to reason out,” and some, "to place any thing to account as from, &c." For the version given, see Doddridge's note. Of the new covenant. See Heb. viii. 7.—Not of the letter. The Mosaic law, which, by its innumerable rites, multiplied offences, and subjected to the curse and to death.- But of the spirit. Of the new covenant, which is spiritual in its nature, and attended with the Holy Spirit, which giveth life.

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7—11. Ministry of death, &c. This is the same as the letter in verse 6. If the ministry of the law was glorious, and Moses, who discharged that ministry, received such a glory on his countenance from conversing with God, so that the children, &c. which glory of his countenance was to be done away, as well as that of the law of which it was an emblem; how shall not the ministry of the Spirit, &c.- -Ministry of condemnution, &c. Spirit in the former verse, and ministry of righteousness in this, evidently refer to the gos pel covenant, as opposed to the law; and this so far exceeds the glory of the faw, as like that of the sun, in respect to the stars, to throw into shade and darkness that dispensation. The gospel excels it in another particular, it is to remain and not be done away. Macknight follows Hallet, and renders the last verse, "If that which is abolished is abolished by glory, much more that which remaineth, remaineth in glory." I prefer the common version, as F think, with Doddridge, that ♪ız doğng refers to the glory on the face of Moses,' as the emblem of the dispensation of which he was the minister; and that die signifies the same as ev, as the Syriac translator has rendered.

12. Such hope. Or persuasion of the glory of the gospel as a spiritual dispensation, as giving life, and as what will cadure, we use great freedom of speech in unfolding its nature and privileges, and in pressing its obligations

on men.

13. That the children, &c. As if thereby he had intended to intimate that they could not see what was the end of that dispensation, which we know to have been Christ, and which consisted in types and figures of him, and which was to be done away by his appearance, ministry, and death.

Influence of the gospel.

16 heart. Nevertheless when the people shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken 17 away. Now the Lord is the spirit of this dispensation: and where the Spirit of the Lord 18 is there is freedom.) But we all, with uncovered face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord.

II CORINTHIANS IV.

CHAPTER IV.

A. D. 58. Paul asserts his own sincerity and diligence in preaching; the troubles and distresses which he had to endure, and the benefit of them.

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WHEREFORE having this ministry, according vants for Jesus' sake.

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER III. 1. The conversion of sinners and their growing holiness, are the most honourable testimonials to the labour and acceptance of ministers. Such need not letters of commendation; their fervent piety, holy zeal, and usefulness are sufficient vouchers for their sacred calling. Yet however God may bless their labours, they abide humble, being assured that all their sufficiency for their work is not from themselves, but from God. All the saving effects of the gospel are wrought by the Spirit. He impresses the word with life, power and energy on the heart, and turns the heart of stone to flesh, so that a man becomes the living epistle of Christ, bearing his holy image, and exhibiting in the most legible characters to all around, the power and the holy influence of the gospel.

2. What a glorious dispensation is that of the gospel! and how far does it excel any preceeding one! Even the law given by Moses cannot bear a comparison with it. That was full of darkness and bondage; this is full of light and holy freedom; that was the ministry of death and condemnation; this is the ministry of life and righteousness, through Jesus Christ; that was only typical; this exhibits the substance; that was a carnal dispensation, consisting in various outward

14. The same veil, &c. As covered the face of Moses and his dispensation, now remains upon it, when his writings are read, "it not being discovered" by the Jews as yet through their ignorance and unbelief, "that it is done away in Christ, he being the substance of its shadows.

15. Yea, to this day, c. The veil of ignorance and unbelief is as much upon their hearts as one was formerly upon the face of Moses, when his law is read.

16. The people shall, &c. Some supply heart. To the Lord Jesus as their promised Messiah, then will their ignorance be removed; the veil which covered the spiritual designs of their law taken away, so that they shall see and confess them to be fulfilled in Christ.

17. Now the Lord, &c. Having mentioned "the people turning to the Lord," I observe that the Lord Jesus is that Spirit, or the author of that spiritual dispensation above described, (verses 6—9); and "where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom;" from bondage to ceremonies, to sin, and to death.

It is covered to unbelievers. as we have received mercy we faint not; But 2 have renounced the hidden things of shame, not walking in craftiness, nor corrupting the word of God; but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man's conscience, in the sight of God. But if our 3 gospel be covered, it is covered among those that are lost: Among those that believe not, 4 whose minds, the god of this world hath blinded, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine into them. For we preach not ourselves, but 5 Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your ser

For God, who com- 6

18. But we all, c. This verse is connected with the close of the 13th. While the Isrealites could not see the end of that dispensation, which was to be done away, we believers on Christ see in the gospel, with uncovered face, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, and are transformed into the same image from

ceremonies; this is a spiritual one, and the Lord Jesus whom it reveals in all his glory, was indeed the spirit of the law of Moses; that was appointed for a season, and was to be, and, by the coming and work of the Saviour, has actually been done away; this is to remain until the final consummation of all things. How much should we prize and value the gospel, and stand fast in the liberty, with which Christ has made us free,

3. How terrible must be the state of those, who living under this dispensation of light, grace, and love, still abide in their native and contracted state of blindness and hardness of heart! Such hate the light, and will not come to the light, lest their deeds should be made manifest; they love the bondage of sin, and reject the holy freedom of the gospel. It is however consoling to reflect, that, by the operation of the Spirit, the veil which is upon the heart, can be removed, and obstinate sinners are changed and brought to enjoy the comfort, freedom, and privileges of the glorious gospel of the grace of God. And while with adoring wonder, gratitude and love, they behold the Saviour, in his word, and by the eye of faith, they are transformed into his lovely image, from glory to glory, as by his Spirit.

glory to glory, &c. from oue degree to another, increasing in knowledge, holiness, and joy. As by the Spirit, &c. Doddridge, "as from the Lord the Spirit." See verse 17. Newcome, "as by the Lord, who is that Spirit." Macknight, "as from the Lord of the Spirit" With Dr. Middleton, I prefer the common version, which is that of the Vulg. old Italic and the Latin fathers ; and the "Spirit of the Lord" is mentioned in the 17th verse.

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CHAP. IV. 1. This ministry, &c. See Ch. iii. 6-9. God had compassion on him, and when a persecutor, called and made him an apostle, and had hitherto encouraged and supported him.

2. Things of shame. The things which follow, "walking in craftiness and corrupting the word of God by their errors, to suit the taste or flatter the vices of men; but we by a faithful display of the truth, commend ourselves to every man's conscience, &c. and require not letters of commendation as some persons do.

3, 4. Be covered, &c. Like the law, Ch. iii. 13, 14, it is covered among those that are lost in ignorance and vice. Among those that believe not, &e. For the construction, see Beza, whom Grotius follows. Doddridge, "among whom are all they, whose unbelieving minds, the god, &c."—The devil, called "the prince of this world." John xii. 31, whose subjects wicked men are, and whose example they follow.--Hath blinded by alluring them with

The sufferings and

manded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined into our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of his glory in the face of Jesus Christ.

II CORINTHIANS IV.

7 But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellency of the power may be of 8 God, and not of us. We are every way afflicted, but not distressed; we are perplexed, but 9 not in despair; Persecuted, but not forsaken ; 10 cast down, but not destroyed; Always bearing about in our body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made 11 manifest in our body. For we who are alive are always delivered unto death for the sake of Jesus, that the life also of Jesus may be 12 made manifest in our mortal flesh, So that 13 death worketh in us, but life in you. Yet having the same spirit of faith, as it is written,

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IV. 1. What an honour is it to be put into the holy ministry, qualified for it and made faithful and successful in it. The apostle esteemed it a mercy, a distinguished favour conferred on him, that he was sent to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ. It is the duty of all engaged in this work, to renounce the hidden things of shame, craft or guile, and by the clear manifestation of the truth, to commend themselves to the con-ciences of all who hear them. And should some abide in a lost state and condition, and the glories of the gospel be covered to them, the reason is they believe it not, but willingly give up themselves to their idols; yet many such as these, by the faithful

worldly advantages, pleasures, &c. and his design is to prevent the success of gospel.Glorious gospel of Christ. See, for its glory, Ch. iii. 7—11. -Who is the image of God. In his perfections and glories, see Phil. ii. 611. Some give a very different turn to these verses. "But if our gospel be veiled, it is veiled among the things abolished, by which the God of this world, &c." They refer is amokupirals to Jewish ceremonies, which contained the substance of the gospel, but which the carnal minds of Jews could not perceive. I prefer the usual sense, as I think the text will not so naturally bear this version; and it is unsupported by any of the old translators.

5. For we preach, &c. We do not seek our own advantage, or reputa tion, or are solicitous to obtain power over vou, but we preach Christ Jesus as the supreme Lord of his church, and ourselves as your servants for his sake. 6. God who commanded, &c. We are qualified to preach the glorious gospel of Christ, for God hath shined into our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge, &c. Several good mss. and some versions have avts, his, which I prefer. His glory in the face, &c. Not as it appears in the face of Moses, but in the face of Christ, who is the brightness of the Father's glory, and the express image of his person. Heb. i. 3.

7. This treasure. Of divine knowledge, comprehending the counsels of divine grace and love. In earthen vessels. So he calls himself and other preachers, because of their weakness and frailty Of the power, &c. We had no power arising from our rank, wealth, or influence in the world; and could not have succeeded in the conversion of so many, if the power of God had not supported us, and efficaciously accompanied our labours.

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comforts of the apostle.

"I believed, and therefore have I spoken;" we also believe, and therefore speak; Know- 14 ing that he who raised up the Lord Jesus, will raise up us also by Jesus, and will present us with you. For all these things are for your 15 sakes, that the grace which hath abounded,、 may, through the thanksgiving of many, abound to the glory of God. For which 16 cause we faint not; but even though our outward man perish, outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day. For our present light 17 affliction, worketh out for us a far more exceeding and everlasting weight of glory; While we look not at the things which are 18 seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are for a short season; but the things which are not seen are everlasting.

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ministry of the word, have been enlightened, sanctified and saved. While ministers preach not themselves, do not preach to display their own wisdom, knowledge, or cloquence; but preach Christ Jesus the Lord, as the only Saviour, exhibiting the glories of his person, grace, love, and infinite ability, they may humbly hope that God will shine into the hearts of their hearers, and give testimony to the word of his grace.

2. We learn why God makes use of men to make known the riches of his grace, and that whatever their sufferings are they enjoy support and comfort, in the assured hope of future happiness and glory. The precious treasure of the gospel is committed to men, in themselves weak and frail earthen vessels, that the success of it may evidently

8-11. Afflicted, but not distressed, so as to be overcome and vanquished. -Not in despair of God's favour and support; and though "persecuted, we are not forsaken" of him, but when cast down in our minds, he still preserves us, and does not permit us to be destroyed. Indeed I may say, that our condition is like the "dying of our Lord Jesus ;" the same cruelties are exercised towards us; but God's design is, "that the life of Jesus Christ, &c." the life of Jesus, since his resurrection, being above the power of persecutors and death; and so we are preserved, as if to show to men his restored life in our bodies.

12. So that death, &c. We are always, as it were, dying for Christ; but you being called to the enjoyment of spiritual life, live to him.

13-15. Having the same, &c. As David had, we preach the gospel,. because we firmly believe it, notwithstanding the danger which we incur.—— Knowing that, &c. Having an assured hope of a blessed resurrection, and that God will finally present us, with you, as our spiritual children in his own presence. For all these things, &c. Arc ordered for your advantage, “that the grace which hath abounded" in your conversion from a state of idolatry and sin, may, by your thanksgiving, abound, &c.

16. For which canse, &c. Since we know that we shall be raised to the enjoyment of eternal life. For if the body, the outward man, daily suffer, and wil! at length perish; yet the mind, the inward man, is renewed and invigorated by the hope of future life and immortality.

17, 18. For our present, &c. We do not faint, because our present light affliction is under the sanctifying influence of grace, working out for, &c. In speaking of his present sufferings, in comparison with what he hoped to

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