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Peter denies Christ.


Barabbas released.

; : 'maid-servánt saw him again, and began to say | king of the Jews?" And he answering said to

to them that stood by, “ This is one of them.” him, “Thou sayest truly.And the chief 3 70 And he again denied it, and a little after, those priests accused him of many things, but he

that stood by said again to Peter, “Surely thou answered nothing. And Pilate asked him again, 4

art one of them: for thou art a Galilean, and saying, “ Answerest thou nothing? behold how 71 thy speech showeth it.” But he began to curse many things they testify against thee.” But 5 1. and to swear, saying, “I know not this man of || Jesus answered no more, so that Pilate wondered. 72 whom ye speak.” And the second time the Now at that feast he was wont to release to 6

cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. that Jesus said to him, “Before the cock crow And there was one named Barabbas, who lay 7 twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.” And when bound with those who had made insurrection he thought thereon, he wept.

with him, and who had committed murder in

the insurrection. And the multitude crying 8 CHAPTER XV.

aloud desired him to do as he had ever done to

them. But Pilate answered them saying, “ Will 9 A. D. 33. Jesus brought und accused before Pilnte ; Barabbas preferred to

him ; delivered to be crucified; beiny crowned with thorus is insulted; is ye that I release to you the king of the Jews ?” nailed to the cross and crucified between two robbers ; reproached by the

(For he knew that the chief priests had through 10 Jews, confessed by the centurion, and buried by Joseph.

envy delivered him up.) But the chief priests 11 ] And early in the morning the chief priests excited the people to ask that he would rather

held a consultation with the elders and scribes release Barabbas to them. And Pilate answered 12 and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and and said again to them, “ What will ye then

carried him away, and delivered him up to Pi- that I should do to him whom ye call the King 2 late. And Pilate asked him, “ Art thou the of the Jews?”. And they cried out again,“Crucify 13

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XIV. 1. We learn the high for future wants, or providing for those dependent on us. This vice regard of Mary for Jesus, and how properly and publicly she expressed led Judas to sell his Lord for thirty pieces of silver, and to deliver him it. She had sat at his feet and heard with equal plea-ure and profit his into the hands of his enemies by ihe deceitful token of a kiss. By divine instructions ; and had been enabled to choose the good part this vice the nanie of Judas is consigned to eternal infamy. Let us which should not be taken from her. While Jesus was enjoying the take heed ånd beware of covetousness; and let it not be once named hospitality of Simon, who had been a leper, and whom he had pro

or charged on us as becometh saints, bably healed, Mary came and poured on his head a very precious 3. We are reminded how much our Lord felt and suffered by öintment. She had doubtless prepared this to express her affection, the occurrences of this dark night. His soul might well be sorrowful her gratitude and confidence, and this deed is reeorded to ber honour. even unto death! Betrayed by one saithless disciple, denied with oail:s It is preserved in a record more durable than brass. If the least by another, and then deserted by all ? Seized as if a robber, and token of regard to him should not lose its reward, it could not be ex- treated with indignity and contempl. . The foresight of all this made pected that so signal a one as Mary showed should be forgotten. Let him say, “ Take away this cup from me;" yet recollecting the design every Christian show his faith by his works ; and by acts of kindness of his incarnation, and the holy purposes to be accomplished by his and charity to the servants and cause of Jesus, manifest their love to him. death, he added, “ Not what I will, but what thou wilt." How ten

2. While we are taught to admire and emulate the piely of derly must he have felt when charged with blasphemy, a crime most Mary, we are admonished to guard against the temper and crimes of abhorrent to his holy nature. He might have appealed to the whole Jodas. "The love of money appears to have been the ruling passion tenor of his ministry in refutation of it; and to his miracles as the of his soul; and this is the root of all evil. Hence his inviduous seflec. testimonies of heaven in favour of his claims. He knew such an appeal tions. Wly all this waste? Might not this ointment have been sold would be in vain; and he foretells his own suture glory and majesty. for three hundred pence?" Covetousness is often disguised both from He who thus suffered is worthy to reign, and may we be subject to him ourselves and others under some specious pretence ; such as laying up and share in the happiness of bis kingdom.

Galileans. Different districts of the same country often vary in their accent and tones of voice. See Judg. xii. 6.

CHAP. XV. 1-3. And early in the, &c. See note, Matt. xxvii. I, &c. 5. Answered no more. The common version is pot true in fact, as Jesus

had answered the former question of Pilate; but on beivg asked a second be
did not reply.

9-11. Barabbas, fc.' See notes, Matt. xxvii. 16, 21.",
15. Willing to gratify, $c. Mark has omitted many particulars in this

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Jesus crucified and insulted.

MARK XV. After having prayed he expired. 14 him.” Then Pilate said to them, “Why, what | heads, and saying, “ Ah, thou that destroyest

evil hath he done?” But they cried out ex- the temple, and buildest it in three days, Save 30 ceedingly, “Crucify him.”

thyself, and come down from the cross.” In 31 15

And so Pilate, willing to gratify the people, like manner also the chief priests, with the released Barabbas to them, and when he had scribes, said among themselves, “He saved

scourged Jesus, he delivered him up to be cru- others, himself he cannot save. Let the Christ 32 16 cified. And the soldiers led him away into the the King of Israel, descend now from the cross,

hall, called Pretorium ; and they call together that we may see' and believe.” And those who 17 the whole bånd. And they clothed him with were crucified with him reproached him. And 33

purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put when the sixth hour was come, there was dark18 it about his head, And began to salute him, ness over the whole land until the ninth hour, 19 “Hail, king of the Jews!” And they smote him

And they smote him: And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud 34 on the head with a reed, and spat upon him, voice, saying, “ Eloi, Eloi, lama sabacthani ??? 20 and bowing their knees did him liomage. And which being interpreted is,

which being interpreted is, "My God, my God, when ihey had derided him, they took off from why hast thou forsaken me??' And some of 35

him the purple robe, and put on him his own those who stood by, when they heard it, said, 21 clothes, and led him out to crucify him. And “ Behold, he calleth for Elijah.” And one ran 36

they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed and filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it on

by, coming out of the country, the father of Alex- a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, “For22 ander and Rufus, to bear his cross. And they bear, let us see whether Elijah will come to

bring him to the place called Golgotha, which, take him down." And Jesus cried with a loud 37 23 being interpreted is, 'The place of a scull. And voice and expired.

they gave him to drink wine mingled with And the veil of the temple was rent in two 38 myrrh ; but he received it not.

from the top to the bottom. And when the cen- 39 24

And when they had crucified him, they part- turion, who stood over against him, saw that he ed his garments, casting lots for them, what thus cried out, and expired, he said, “ Truly 25 every man should take. And it was the third this man was the Son of God." There were also 40 26 hour when they crucified him. And the in- women beholding at a distance; among whom

scription of his accusation was written over, was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of 27 “ THE KING OF THE JEWS.” And with James the younger, and of Joses and Salome;

him they crucify two robbers; the one on his l (Now these, when he was in Galilee, followed 41 28 right band, and the other on his left. Thus him, and ministered to him;) and many other

that scripture was fullilled, which saith, “ And women who came up with him to Jerusalem. 29 he was numbered with the transgressors.” And And when the evening was come, because it 42

they that passed by reviled him, shaking their was the preparation, that is, the day before the

uarrative which the other Evangelists have noticed. Pilate resisted for some time their demands; and only consented lest a tumult should be made, and himself accused as an enemy to Cæsar. Comp. Matt. xxvii. and John xix. Had scourged. Matt. xxvii. 26.

17. Clotheri him with purple. This and what follows was done after that Pilate had departed: Having pronounced the sentence he withdrew.

21. d Cyreniun. A native or inhabitant of Cyrene, a city of Africa ; many Jews dwelt in that city, and the other parts of the country called Pentapolis. 2 Kings svi. Acts ii.- - Father of Alexander, &c. These became christians of some eminence. Rom. xvi. 13. This incidental mention of names is one strong proof of the reality of scripture' facts.

22—24.. Called Golgotha, 8c. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 33–36. and notes.

25. When they crucifici him. That is, when they nailed him to the cross. To crucify implies the whole time from a persons being nailed to the cross until he expired.

26–32. His accusation, &c. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 37–44. ,

33. Darkness over, &c. See note, Matt. xxvii. 45. If this darkness was confined to the land of Judea, and wholly miraculous, it might not affect any other country, and on this account be unnoticed by heathen writers. To suppose that darkness could not be produced without some heavenly body covering the disk of the sun is absurd; and to reject revelation, as Gibbon did, because such an event is not noticed by Pliny, or other writers, is irrational. The testimony of the Evangelists is as worthy of credit as that of others; and more so as one of them was a witness of the fact, and wrote in the language of the country, and who would doubtless have been contradicted, if the fact had not been true.

34–38. Ninth hour, &c. See notes, Matt. xxvii. 46–50.

38-41. T'he veil of the, &c. Mark has omitted what Matthew relates respecting the graves of some saints being opened, and their bodies arising and appearivg to many.

Joseph begs the body.


Jesús rises again, 43 sabbath, Joseph of Arimathea, a senator of rank, || go and embalm him, Very early in the morning 2

who also waited for the kingdom of God, came, of the first day of the week, about the rising of

and went in boldly to Pilate, and asked for the sun, came to the sepulchre. And they said 3 44 the body of Jesus. And Pilate wondered that among themselves; Who shall roll away the

he was already dead; and calling to him the stone for us from the door of the sepulchre ?

centurion, he asked him whether he had been (For it was very large.) And when they looked 4 45 any while dead. “And when he knew it from the they saw that the stone was rolled away; And 5 46 centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young

he bought fine linen, and took him down, and man sitting on the right side clothed in a white wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a se- robe, and they were astonished. And he saith 6

pulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rol- to them, “Be not astonished: Ye seek Jesus of 47 led a stone to the door of the sepulchre. And Nazareth, who was crucified : he is risen; he is

Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses not here: behold the place where they laid him. beheld where he was laid.

But depart, tell his disciples, and Peter, that he 7 goeth before you into Galilee ; there ye


see him, as he said to you.” And they went 8 A. D. 33. An angel announceth to three women the resurrection of Christ ;

out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre ; for he appeareth to Mary Magdalene ; to two going into the country, and trembling and amazement seized them; nor said then to the Apostles ; and having commissioned them to preach the gospel

, they any thing to any one; for they were afraid.

Now early on the first day of the week, Jesus 9 1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Mag- arose, and appeared first to Mary Magdalene,

dalene, and Mary the mother of James and Sa- out of whom he had cast seven demons. And 10 lome, having bought sweet spices, that they might she went and told those who had been with him,

ascended to heaven.

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER Xv. We see prophecy ful- 1 pity of the people, to soften the spirit of his persecutors, or to

infilled in the malice of the Jewish priests and in the sentence pronounced terest the judge in his favour. He made no protestation of his innoon him by Pilate. He was then the servant of rulers, and despised cence; took no legal objections against the crime with which he was of men,” (Is. xlix. 7.) He was subject to the civil power of Pilate, charged; nor did he defend himself before Pilate as he could and and arraigned before him; and to him he submitted, that the purposes might have done. He was meek under the greatest provocations ; of God's merey wight be accomplished. “In his humiliation, his patient under the accumulated load of his sufferings ; and no contemptjudgment was taken away.' There was no justice for him,—there uous treatment excited resentment or provoked him to speak with was none to take his part and to support his cause. Innocence was no bitterness and wrath. He had a joy set before him, which enabled security against malice, on the one hand, and mean compliant policy on him to endure the cross and to despise the shame ;-the joy of displaythe other. Of a truth both Herod and Pilate, and the people of ing the perfections of deity in the salvation of men. Placid and resigned, Israel rose up against him; but while gratifying their different views only one emotion seemed to rule in his heart, that of pity for his inur. they only did what God's hand and counsel had before determined to derers. “ Father, forgive them,” was his prayer, and in respect to be done. O the depth of the wisdom of God!

many it was heard, and they were forgiven and saved by the blood 2. In the arraignment, condemnation and sufferings of Jesus, which was shed. May my Reader look to this slain lamb, and obtain we see his greatness and dignity. He uses no mean arts to move the and enjoy the same blessings.

42. Evening was come, &c. The Jews used the term evening with some latitude, signifying the time after three to six, as well as the close of the day. As the sabbath commenced at six o'clock, it is probable that the former evening is meant here. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 62. and vote 57.

CHAP. XVI. 1, 2. And when the sabbath, $c. The order and construction of the text is confused; but by a small transposition of the last clause, it becomes clear. “ About the sun rising," is often taken for the dawn of the morning, as Matthew and Luke express it, and when according to John it was yet dark, or comparatively so. should read, “ The sun not having yet risen," as some Latin mss. of the Vulg. read. This would render Mark more direct and consistent with the other Evangelists; but the text may be supported.

3. For it was very large. With Campbell and others, I have transposed this clause from the end of the next verse, as it contains the reason for what they said. Pearce includes the chief part of the fourth versé in a parenthesis, to join this clause with the words to which it refers.

4. Stone was, &c. See how this was done, related Matt. xxviii. 2–4.

5. A young man, &c. An angel in the form of a young man. Both Matthew and Mark only mention one angel, but Luke and John two. From Matthew I think it is clear that one only appeared at first, whose appearance

Pearce suspects that we alarmed the soldiers, and who addressed the women ; but after another ap

peared in the sepulchre. John xx. 12. See note, Matt. xxvii. 5.

7. As he said to you. Jesus had told them that he would go before them into Galilee. Ch. xiv. 28. comp. with Matt. xxvi. 32.

He appeared to many.


His last commission. 11 as they mourned and wept. And when they had shall be saved ; but he that believeth not

heard that he was alive, and had been seen by shall be condemned. And these signs shall fol- 17 her, they believed not.

low those who believe; In my name shall they cast 12 After that he appeared in another form unto out demons; they shall speak in new languages;

two of them, as they walked, and went into the They shall take up serpents; and if they drink 18 13 country. And they went and told it to the rest ; any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they but they believed them not.

shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall re14 Afterwards he appeared to the eleven as they cover.”

were at meat, and upbraided them with their So then, after the Lord had spoken to them, 19 unbelief and hardness of heart, because they be- he was received up into heaven, and sat on the

lieved not those who had seen him after he was right hand of God. And they went forth, and 20 15 risen. And he said to them, “Go ye into all preached every where, the Lord working with

the world, and preach the gospel to every them, and confirming the word with signs fol16 creature. He that believeth and is baptized lowing. Amen.


REFLECTIONS UPON Chapter XVI. 1. In the conduct of to his disciples. When he mentioned his own death sorrow filled their Mary Magdalene, and the other pious women, we have a proof of their hearts; and doubtless on witnessing it, they felt a thousand anxieties, gratitude and unabated attachment to their Lord. They had followed and mingled emotions of pity, love, and grief. They spent the night him from Galilee; and as their sex did in some degree preserve them of the sabbath in deep affliction and sorrow, When they first heard from insult, they had witnessed with the most painful emotions, his that he was risen they could not believe it; bùt by degrees the evi. crucifixion. They had followed his corpse, when conveyed to the dence of the fact became overpowering, and even Thomas, the most tomb of Joseph, and saw where it was laid. Having bought sweet incredulous, admitted it. How must this event have affected their spices for embalming the body, they appeared so anxious to perform ininds! Grief and sorrow were turned into joy and gladness ; mourn. this last office of affection, that they had employed the night after the ing and heaviness, into songs of praise and thanksgiving; and disapsabbath, in getting all things ready; and before it was fully light, they pointment and despondency, into lively hope and assuranee. On that posted to the sepulchre. Happy women, you were rewarded by hav- morning the sun rose upon them with new splendour; and the clouds ing the first sight of a risen Saviour! Ye sought Jesus who was and darkness fled away. Thus is it when we are first led to believe on crucified; and had the happiness first to hear that he was risen, and a erhoified and risen Saviour ! 0 what pleasure the soul experiences, then to behold hini! So may we seek him, and he will appear to our from the well-grounded hope of pardon, peace, and happiness! And joy, and finally to our salvation.

what will be the pleasure, the bliss, when we shall behold Jesus in 2. What pleasure must the resurrection of Jesus have afforded all his power and glory.

8. Trembling, 8c. seized them. As they went to carry the news to the Apostles. Matt. xxviii. 8, 9.

9-11. Now early on, &c. John relates how Jesus addressed Mary, and the kind and encouraging language he used. John xx. 16.

12. In another form. Under a different appearance from what had been usual. Pearce supposes only another dress may be intended, as he had before appeared in that of a gardener. John xx. 15. Luke relates the particulars of this appearance to the two disciples going to Emaus. Ch. xxiv.

17, 19. These signs shall, &c. These miracles were wrought by our Lord's disciples. See Acts v. 16.; viji. 7.; xvi. 18. for casting out demons ; and for speaking in pew languages: Acts ii. 4.; X. 46.; xix. 6. and i Cor. xiv. 18. Paul took up a serpent without injury : Acts xxviii. 15. Laying hands on the sick was usual: Acts v. 16.; xxviii. 8. We have no instance recorded of their drinking poison without receiving injury, but doubtless. even this might occur.

19. So then after, &c. This was sometime after; for as what Mark relates occurred in Galilee, and as Jesus ascended from Bethany, near Jeru. salem, the disciples must have had time to return there. Comp. Luke xxiv. 50, 51. with Acts i. 4.--Sal on the right, &c. So had David predicted Ps. cx. 1.; and so had Jesus said it would be, Ch, xiv. 62.

20. By signs following. That is, by divers kinds of miracles; so that the evidence of the divine authority of what they preached was sufficient to justify the belief of it, and to condemp every man who should not believe.

13, &c.

14. Appeared to the eleven. John mentions three appearances to the eleven, Ch. xx. 19, 26, and xxi. 1.; hut Luke only relates one, Ch. xxiv. 36, &c. which seems to be the same as Mark refers to here.

15, 16. Go ye into all, &c. See note, Matt. xxviij. 19.- -Be saved. From everlasting punishment, John iii. 18, 36.; while those who resist the evidence of divine truth, and reject the Saviour shall suffer the due reward of tbeir sins.

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LUKE, the author of the third account of the life of our Lord and Saviour, was not an Apostle, but an. Evangelist, or an attendant the apostles, and especially of the apostle Paul. It does not appear that he had seen or heard Christ ; but had derired his information from those who had, from such as had been with him from the beginning,--the ministers of his word. As an Evangelist, he was endowed with the gists of the Holy Spirit; and we have as much reason to give credit to his narrative as to those of Matthew and John. He has supplied us with many interesting particulars which the preceding writers had omitted ; as the account of the birth of the baptist--the annunciation, and other circuinstances concerning the nativity. These events would be recorded and communicated by Mary, Joseph and other branches of the holy family, and as to the truth of them, they are supported by historical data, by prophecy, and by the testimony of other sacred writers. See Introd. Vol. i. page 6, &c. CHAPTER I.

was a certain priest named Zechariah, of the A.. D. 33."Preface to his Gospel; conception of John and of Christ; prophe,

course of Abijah, and his wife was of the daughcy, of Elizabeth and Mary concerning Christ; the birth of John ; pro- ters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. phecy of Zechariah respecting Christ and John.

And they were both righteous before God, walk- 6 1 FOR ASMUCH as many have undertaken to com- ing unblameably according to all the command

pose a narative of those things which have been ments and ordinances of the Lord. And they 7 2 accomplished among us; Even as they deliver

Even as they deliver- had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, ed them to us, who from the beginning were and they were both far advanced in years. eye-witnesses, and then ministers of the word

; Now it came to pass, that while he executed 8 3.It seemed good to me also, having gained exact the priest's office before God in the order of his knowledge of every thing from the very first, course, According to the custom of the priests 9

to write a particular account to thee, most excel- office, his lot was to go into the temple of 4 tent Theophilus, That thou mayest know the

That thou mayest know the the Lord to burn incense. And the whole 10 a certainty of those things in which thou hast multitude of the people were praying withi been instructed.

out, at the time of incense. And there ap- 11 5. In the days of Herod, the king of Judca, there peared unto him an angel of the Lord,


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CHAP. I. 1. To coinpose a narrative, &c. These narratives might in the 'main 'be true, though very defective; and on this last account Luke might' form the desigu of composing his gospel. From what he here says, he could not have seen either Matthew's or Mark's Gospel.- Been accomplished. For this sense of the Greek term, see Campbell's excellent bote.

2. Even as they, 80. Pearce applies what is here said to the narratives composed by those to whom Luke before refers; but with Campbell and others. I think this only relates to “ things which had been accomplished among them,” Even as they delivered them to us, who, &c. Hence Luke meant to state that he had received his information from those who had first been eye-witnesses of the things and then ministers of the word,

3. Haviny gained exact, 8c. Campbell renders, “having exactly traced every thing," which nearly agrees in sense. A particular account. I agree with those critics who consider rabekis as not refering to time, but as opposed to incoherence and obscurity. For Luke bas not followed the exact order of events in his gospel. Most escellent Theophilus. We have no information who this person was, or where be lived. Theophylact asserts

that he was a person of Senatorian rank, and perhaps a prefect or governor, as Paul called Felix, “ most excellent."

5. Herod the king. See note, Matt. ii. 1. Zechariah, 8c. This was the eighth of the twenty-four courses appointed by David. I Chron. xxiv. 10.

7. Far advanced, &c. See Gen xviii 11. It is a mere Hebraism for, (they were both aged.'

9. His lot was, &c. Each course' served a week at Jerusalem; and the course was divided into seven classes, so that each class had its day of attend. ance at the temple. The priests of this attending class were appointed by log to their part of the service. See Jos. Antiq. vii 14. 7.- Temple, fc. The holy place, or sanctuary, where the altar of incense stood before the veil. Exod. xxx. 1-8.; xl. 26,

10. Praying without. That is, in the court of Israel. When the priest began to burn the incense, notice was given to the people without by the sound of a bell; and they then silently poured out their requests to God. Revel. viii. 1-4.

13. Thy prayer, $c. Which he had formerly offered up, that he might

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