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that this treatment is applicable to dry poor soils; but even in good rose soils it is almost necessary; for it will give such increased vigour, and such a prolongation of the flowering season, as amply to repay the labour bestowed. If the soil is prepared, as directed, they will twice in the year require pruning: in November, when the beds are dressed, and again in the beginning of June. In the November pruning, cut off from every shoot of the preceding summer's growth about two thirds; if they are crowded, remove some of them entirely. If this autumnal pruning is attended to, there will be, early in June, the following summer, a vast number of luxuriant shoots, each crowned with a cluster of buds. Now, as June roses are always abundant, a little sacrifice must be made to ensure a fine autumnal bloom; therefore, leave only half the number of shoots to bring forth their summer flowers, the remainder shorten to about half their length. Each shortened branch will soon put forth buds; and in August and September the plants will again be covered with flowers. In cultivating Perpetual Roses, the faded flowers ought immediately to be removed; for in autumn the petals do not fall off readily but lose their colour and remain on the plant, to the injury of the forthcoming buds. Though I have recommended Perpetual Roses to be


grown on their own roots, in dry soils, yet, on account of the autumnal rains dashing the dirt upon their flowers when close to the ground, wherever it is possible to make grafted roses grow, they ought to be preferred; for, on stems from one and a half to two feet in height, the flowers will not be soiled; they are also brought near to the eye, and the plant forms a neat and pretty object.

The Crimson, and, indeed, nearly all the Perpetuals, force admirably: for this purpose, it is better to graft or bud them on the Dog Rose, as it is so easily excited. It requires, also, but small pot-room; as, previous to potting, its roots may be pruned to within two inches of the stem, and, apparently, with advantage; for, if placed in gentle heat, an abundance of fibres are immediately put forth, and the whole plant will soon have an appearance of great vigour. Those who wish for the luxury of forced roses, at a trifling cost, may have them by pursuing the following simple method:-Take a common garden frame, large or small, according to the number of roses wanted; raise it on some posts, so that the bottom edge will be about three feet from the ground at the back of the frame, and two feet in front, sloping to the south. If it is two feet deep, this will give a depth of five feet under the lights, at the back of the frame,

which will admit roses on little stems as well as dwarfs. Grafted plants of any of the Perpetual Roses should be potted in October, in a rich compost of equal portions of rotten dung and loam, in pots about eight inches deep, and seven inches over, and plunged in the soil at bottom. The air in the frame may be heated by linings of hot dung; but care must be taken that the dung is turned over two or three times before it is used, otherwise the rank and noxious steam will kill the young and tender shoots; but the hazard of this may be avoided, by building a wall of turf, three inches thick, from the ground to the bottom edge of the frame. This will admit the heat through it, and exclude the steam. The Perpetual Roses, thus made to bloom early, are really beautiful. They may also be forced in any description of forcing house with success, by plunging the pots in old tan, or any substance that will keep their roots cool. It will at once give an idea how desirable these roses are, when it is stated that, by retarding and forcing, they may be made to bloom for eight months in the year.

Perpetual Roses do not bear seed in this country freely, but Louis Philippe may be planted with the common Bourbon, as may the Rosa Pæstana; they both bear seed abundantly, which would probably give some fine high-coloured varieties. Grande et Belle

trained to a south wall, with Gloire de Rosomène, and Lodoiska with the Common Bourbon Rose, would possibly be the parents of some large flowering and splendid varieties.

An attempt to obtain a Mossy Crimson Perpetual might be made by planting Louis Philippe with the Single Crimson Moss. To roses, and many other gardening operations, the hacknied motto may justly be applied, "Nil desperandum."



It is now, perhaps, about twelve years since a beautiful semi-double rose, with brilliant rose-coloured flowers, prominent buds, and nearly evergreen foliage, made its appearance in this country, under the name of the "L'Ile de Bourbon Rose," said to have been imported from the Mauritius to France, in 1822, by M. Noisette. It attracted attention by its peculiar habit, but more particularly by its abundant autumnal flowering: still such was the lukewarmness of English rose amateurs, that no attempts were made to improve this pretty imperfect rose by raising seedlings from it, though it bore seed in large quantities. This pleasing

task has been left to our rose-loving neighbours the French, who have been very industrious, and, as a matter of course, have originated some very beautiful and striking varieties, and also, as usual in such cases, have given us rather too many distinct and fine-sounding names attached to flowers without distinctive characters. In a little time we shall be able to rectify this very common floricultural error. Many fables have been told by the French respecting the origin of this rose. The most generally received version of one of these is, that a French naval officer was requested by the widow of a Monsieur Edouard, residing in the island, to find, on his voyage to India, some rare rose, and that, on his return to L'Ile de Bourbon, he brought with him this rose, which she planted on her husband's grave it was then called Rose Edouard, and sent to France as "Rose de L'Ile de Bourbon." This is pretty enough, but entirely devoid of truth. Monsieur Bréon, a French botanist, and now a seedsman in Paris, gives the following account, for the truth of which he vouches:-" At the Isle of Bourbon, the inhabitants generally enclose their land with hedges made of two rows of roses, one row of the Common China Rose, the other of the Red Four Seasons. Monsieur Perichon, a proprietor at Saint Benoist, in the isle, in planting

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