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HUNMANBY, a town of England, county East-York, with a market on Tuesday, 34 m NE York, and 209 N London; P. 1079.

HUNSLET, a town of England, county West-York, 1 m s, and in the liberty of, Leeds; P. 12,074.

HUNTERDON, a county of North America, United States, state New Jersey, Trenton is the county-town and capital of the state; P. 31,066′ in 1830.

HUNTINGDON, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state Pennsylvania, w district, Huntingdon countytown; the country mountainous; abounds in limestone, iron, and lead; P. 27,159. -2nd, a town, state New-York, Suffolk County, Long-Island, 25 m E by N NewYork; P. 5582, both in 1830.

HUNTINGDON, a borough of England, capital of county Huntingdon, on a rising ground, on the Ouse, over which is a stone bridge to Godmanchester, 16 m WNW Cambridge, and 59 N by w London; governed by a mayor, and returns 2 M.P. It has a market on Saturday, with a great trade in corn, formerly much more considerable. It is said to have had 15 churches, but are now reduced to 2; there are the cemeteries of two other parishes, in one of which is an ancient steeple. It is the birth-place of Oliver Cromwell, in 1599; P. 3267: Lg. 0.5 w, Lt. 52.17 N. Polling-place.

HUNTINGDON, a county of England, bounded on the NW and N by Northamptonshire, E by Cambridgeshire, and sw by Bedfordshire, 25 m long by 20, containing 36,800 acres, and is divided into 4 hundreds and 106 parishes. It has 6 markettowns, returns 2 county M.P., and has 2 polling-places. The principal rivers are the Ouse and Nen. The SE part consists of meadows; the middle and western are fertile in corn, and has some woods; the upland part was anciently a forest, well adapt ed for hunting; the NE part consists of fens, which join those of Ely, are well drained, so as to afford rich pasturage, and even large crops of corn. Here are some shallow pools, abounding with fish, and two lakes called Whittlesey-mere and Ramsey-mere. The chief produce is corn, malt and cheese, and it fattens abundance of cattle; P. 37,568 in 1801, and 53,149 in 1831.

HUNTLEY, a town of Scotland, county Aberdeen, on a point of land formed by the junction of the Bogie with the Deveron, 35 m NW Aberdeen, with the magnificent remains of a castle. It has a considerable manufacture of linen cloth; P. 3545.

HUNTSPILL, a town of England, county Somerset, at the mouth of the Parret, in

Bridgewater-bay, 7 m N Bridgewater, and 143 w by s London; P. 1503.

HUNTSVILLE, a county-town of North America, United States, state Alabama, Madison county, a flourishing place, in a fertile country, on Indian-creek, 155 m Tuscalovsa, and 726 Washington.

HURON, a county of North America, United States, state Ohio, Norwalk countytown; P. 13,345 in 1830.

HURDWAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, where the Ganges first enters the plains. It is a celebrated place of Hindoo pilgrimage, and visited also by immense numbers of traders at its annual fair in April, held in the bed of the river, which at this period is nearly dry. It is 104 m NNE Delhi; Lg. 78.2 E, Lt. 29.57 N.

HURREFOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, capital of district in the Seik territories, near the Sankinee, 100 m E by N Lahore: Lg. 75.31 E, Lt. 32.6 N.

HURRIANNA, or HISSAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, capital of Hurriana, celebrated for its verdure, though bordering on the sandy deserts of Ajmeer, and for its camels, horses, bullocks, and sheep. Formerly a flourishing city, the remains of which are of great extent. It is WNW Delhi: Lg. 75.24 E, Lt. 28.57 E.

HURST-CASTLE, England, county Hants, 4 m s Lymington. In stands on the extreme point of a neck of land, which extends 2 m into the sea toward the isle-of-Wight, from which it is a mile distant. Here Charles I was confined previously to his being brought to trial: Lg. 1.33 w,

Lt. 50.38 N.

Hus, or Hussu, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Moldavia, on the Pruth, 70 m sw Bender, the see of a Greek bishop. Here Peter the Great made peace with the Turks.

HUSSEINABAD, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Khandesh, on the Nerbudda, 47 m NE Hindia.

HOSSEIN POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, 64 m E Delhi.

HUSUм, a seaport of Denmark, duchy of Sleswick, with a citadel, at the mouth of strand, 20 m w Sleswick. It has a trade in the Hewer, opposite the island-of-Nordhorses and oxen, and manufactures of leather, cotton, and linen: Lg. 9.20 E, Lt. 54.36 N.

HUTTANY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bejapoor, 35 m w by s Bejapoor. It has manufactures of silk and cotton, and an extensive commerce, particularly in grain.

Huy, a town of Belgium, with a strong modern fort, many paper-mills, and ironfoundries, on the Maas, 12 m sw Liege.

HYDRA, an island of the kingdom of Greece, department Cyclades, on the SE Coast of the Morea, 15 m long by 3, mountainous and without a stream of water. It carries

on an extensive commerce. The chief town is Hydra, and one of the most considerable in the Archipelago, with a harbour on the NW coast; P. 25,000: Lg. 23.24 E, Lt. 37.01 N.

HYDRABAD, a province of Asia, Hindostan, in the Deccan, a name which extends to the nizam's dominions collectively, 270 m long by 120, bounded on the w and N by Bede, E by Gundwana and the Circars, s by the Kistna, and sw by Bejapoor. This territory, lately called Golconda, composed a considerable portion of ancient Telingana. It is an elevated table land, which renders it colder than the surrounding provinces. The surface hilly, but fertile, and tolerably well watered.

HYDRABAD, a walled city of Asia, Hindostau, capital of province Hydrabad, and metropolis of the Deccan, in a plain, on the Musah, which flows to the Kistna, 310 m NNW Madras. The suburbs, which are very large, are occupied by merchants and tradesmen. About 6 m to the w is the celebrated fortress of Golconda; and in the same direction, a mile from the city, is a noble tank, which, when full, is nearly 17 m in circuit. The city contains a considerable number of mosques, having long been the principal Mahomedan station in the Deccan. The nizam's palace is extensive; and he possesses large magazines, which are filled with the presents received at various times from the different native and European powers. The streets are narrow, crooked, and badly paved; and the houses, mostly of one story, are built of wood or other combustible matter; P., including suburbs, about 200,000: Lg. 78.33 E, Lt. 17.15 N.

HYDRABAD, a city of Asia, Hindostan, capital of province Sindy, on the E side of an island, 24 m long by 6, formed by the Indus and a branch called the Fulalee The fortress is on a rocky hill, by the Fulalee, and surrounded by a high brick wall, flanked with round towers. On the N side is a dry ditch, hewn out of the rock, over which is a bridge opposite the gate. Among the inhabitants are numerous and skilful artizans, particularly the armourers, and those who embroider on leather. It is 380 m ssw Moultan: Lg. 68.41 Lt. 25.22 N; P. about 15,000.

E,

HYPSILI, an island, kingdom of Greece, Morea, department Cyclades, NE side of the gulf-of-Nauplia, about 2 m long by 1, 3 m from the coast of province Nauplia: Lg. 23 E, Lt. 37.26 N.

HYTHE; see HITHE

I

IACOBSTAD, a small town of Russia, Finland, province Vasa, partly on the island of Bocholm and on the main.

IACOUBSTAD, a small town of Russia, government Courland, on the right bank of the Dvina, 95 m Mittau. It has 3 churches. The inhabitants are poor, and their chief pursuit is training bears to dance at fairs in Germany and Poland.

It

IAMBOURG, a small town of Russia, government Petersbourg, chief of disgulf-of-Finland, 74 m Petersbourg. trict, on the Louga, which falls into the has manufactures of cloth, silk-stockings, handsome, terminating in and cambric. The principal street is very an octagon, where is an obelisk, in the centre of the town: Lg. 29.00 E, Lt. 59.22 N.

IANIKOUL, OF JANI-KALCH, a small seaport town of Russia, government Taurida, Crimea, protected by a fort, on the road to Theodosia. It was taken by the Russians in 1771, and confirmed to them by the treaty of peace of Koutchouk-laïnardji. It contains naphtha in abundance, and their fishery is productive. It has 3 churches, Lt. 45.02 N. and about 100 houses: Lg. 36.46.30 E,

IAROSLAVL, a government of Russia, 132 m long by 85, bounded N by governments Vologda and Novgorod, w by those of Tver and Novgorod. It is divided into 10 districts, viz., Iaroslavl, Rostof, Ouglitch, Mychkine, Rybinsk, Mologa, Pochekonie, Lubime, Danilof, and Romanof. The principal rivers are the Volgar Cheksna, Mologa, which fall into the Volga on the left bank. The surface is flat, in places swampy, and not fertile; produce insufficient for the native consumption. The people are proverbially handsome. It has manufactures of paper, silk, and linen-cloth; P. 800,400.

IAROSLAVL, capital of a government and chief of a district of the same name, Russia, on the right bank of the Volga, whence it is joined by the Cotorots, 160 m NNE Moscow, and 490 m Petersbourg: an archbishop's see. It is large, and handsomely built. It has manufactures of silk and woollen stuffs, linen-cloth, leather, plate goods, kitchen utensils, copper articles, bells, hats, glovelinings, worsted-stockings, and wooden shoes, to a great extent: the export trade exceeds in value 1,000,000 of rubles. Has 3 convents, 1 seminary for 500 young clergy, 1 cathedral, 43 parish churches, 1 college for young men of family, 1 gymnasium, 1 grammar-school, 1 foundlinghospital, 1 house of correction, 1 hospital, and 2 houses of charity; also 10 manufactures, and 2700 houses, chiefly of wood,

but many of brick; P. 20,000: Lg. 40.30 E, Lt. 57.37.30 N.

IBARRA; see ST. MICHAEL-DE-IBARRA.

IBERVILLE, a county of North America, United States, state Louisiana, E district, Iberville county-town; P. 7050 in 1830.

IBILA, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Albania, on the Drino, 55 m E Scutari.

IBRIM, a town of Africa, Nubia, lately the capital of the country of the Barabas, with a citadel on the summit of a mountain. In 1811 it was destroyed by the Mamelukes, who here made their last stand against the pacha of Egypt, and were compelled to retreat into Dongola. It is situated at the s extremity of a ridge of mountains, on the right bank of the Nile, 20 m sw Dehr, the present capital.

the

Snæfell, a promontory on the w coast, is esteemed the highest, being computed at 4560 feet. Mount Hecla is 18 m from the s coast, about 4000 feet in height, and a noted volcano; but there are several other volcanos, and many sulphurous and hot springs. Some of the latter, called geysers, frequently throw up boiling water: principal one has a basin 51 feet in diameter, and in the centre an orifice 17 feet over, in which the water rises and falls; and from this pipe, in violent eruptions, a column of boiling water is frequently, by a sudden jet, shot up perpendicularly 130 feet, or thrown out diagonally to a great distance. In 1783, the most tremendous volcanic eruption on record, accompanied by violent wind and rain, took place in this island. On mount Skapta, 49 m NE of Hecla, three fire-spouts broke out in the Nw part, which, after

IBURG, a town of Hannover, province rising to a considerable height in the air, Osnabrück, 13 m s by E Osnabrück.

ICELAND, an island w of Norway, 260 m long by 180, lying between 16 and 24 w Lg., and 63 and 67 x Lt. The earliest discoverer on record was Naddod, a famous pirate, who was driven here by a tempest, in 861, while on a voyage from Norway to the Feroe islands. The first settler was Ingulf, a Norwegian of great opulence, who, dreading the tyranny of his king, emigrated in 874. He was followed by such numbers that, in the course of 60 years, the whole coast and most of the habitable parts are said to have been occupied. The chiefs of the different colonies, notwithstanding intestine broils, continued as a republic till 1260, when they became subjects of Norway, and subsequently of Denmark in 1387 to the present time. The climate of Iceland is very unsettled; in winter there are frequent and sudden thaws, and in summer almost as frequent snow and frost; but the N part of the island has more severe weather than the s. For two months together the sun never sets; and in the winter it never rises for the same space, at least not entirely. The island is mountainous, stony, barren, and destitute of trees; but in some places there are excellent pastures. The animals are small horses, beeves, and sheep; and there are no wild quadrupeds except rats, cats, and white and brown foxes. Birds are very numerous; and there are several kinds of falcons, swans, and eider-ducks, which furnish the inhabitants with eggs and valuable down. On all parts of the coast the bays and harbours are both numerous and safe. The chief rivers are in the E part; the Skalfanda, Oxarfird, and Bruna, all flowing from s to N; and there are extensive fresh-water lakes. The highest mountains, clothed with perpetual snow and ice, are called yokuls; and of these

formed a torrent of red-hot lava that flowed for six weeks, and ran a distance of 60 m to the sea, in a broken breadth of above 12 m; by which 12 rivers were dried up, 21 villages totally overwhelmed by fire, or water, and 34 very materially injured; of the inhabitants, 220 perished by fire and 21 by water, numerous cattle were also destroyed, and the fish driven from the coasts: this horrible calamity was naturally followed by famine and pestilence; and within two years not less than 9336 human beings, 28,000 horses, 11,461 beeves, and 190,488 sheep, perished in the island. The men are rather tall, of a frank open countenance, a florid complexion, and yellow flaxen hair. The women are shorter in proportion, and more inclined to corpulency; but many would appear handsome in an English dress. From the nature of their food, neglect of personal cleanliness, and being often obliged to sit long in wet woollen clothes, they are greatly exposed to cutaneous diseases; and many are annually carried off by obstinate coughs and pulmonary complaints. Their predominant character is unsuspecting frankness, pious contentment, and a steady liveliness of temperament, combined with a strength of intellect rarely to be met with in other parts. They adhere most rigidly to whatever has been adopted as a national custom; and their dress and mode of life have been invariably the same during a period of nine centuries. They are strongly attached to their native soil, and live under the practical influence of one of their common proverbs: "Iceland is the best land on which the sun shines." In the towns, particularly along the coasts, most of the houses are constructed of wood, previously framed in Norway; but in other parts the dwellings are at a distance from each other, many of them little above the level of the ground, and chiefly miserable huts, covered with turf or skins. The

principal articles of food are fish and butter; the former mostly eaten in a dry state and uncooked; mutton, beef, and rye-bread, are only brought to the table of the higher classes. The chief exports are dried fish, mutton, beef, butter, tallow, train-oil, coarse woollen cloth, stockings, gloves, wool, sheep and fox-skins, eider-down, and feathers. The imports are timber, fishing-tackle, implements of iron, tobacco, bread, spirits, wine, salt, linen, and other necessaries of life, with a very few superfluities. Iceland once abounded in learning and science, at a time when the greater part of Europe was involved in ignorance. The language was the old Gothic or Teutonic, the vernacular tongue of the Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians, before it branched into the several dialects since spoken by the natives of the three kingdoms. The religion of the early inhabitants was pagan: in 974 the Romish was introduced, and in 1540 the Lutheran, which in a few years became the established religion. Iceland is divided into four commercial districts, Reikiavik, Eskefiord, Eyafiord, and Isafiord, so named from the chief ports. The town of Reikiavik, where the governor and bishop reside, consists of about 70 wooden houses, with scattered huts in the outskirts, and a church of stone, covered with tiles. It is the principal place of traffic, and stands on the s side of a bay of its name, in the sw part of the island'; P. about 50,000.-TROIL's Account of Iceland. Lg. 21.52 w, Lt. 64.8 N.

ICHIME, a small town of Russia, government Tobolsk, chief of a district, on the right bank of the Ichime, 160 m Tobolsk. It has I church, and 100 houses.

ICOLMKILL, or IONA, a celebrated little island of Scotland, one of the Hebrides, near the sw point of the isle-of-Mull.

It is only

3 m long, and produces beautiful white marble. Here are the ruins of an august nunnery, monastery, and cathedral, said to have been founded by St. Columba, about the year 735; also a small chapel, dedicated to St. Oran, containing many marble tombstones of the great lords of the isles; and adjoining it is a cemetery, in which many ancient kings of Scotland, Ireland, and Norway, are buried. Other ruins of

monastic and Druidical edifices can be traced; and many places are pointed out, noted for particular acts of St. Columba. This island was the retreat of learning, during the Gothic ignorance which pervaded Europe, after the overthrow of the Roman empire, and the seminary whence issued those pious monks and laymen who again revealed learning, and propagated Christianity through many kingdoms of Europe. Although formerly so religious, divine service is now performed here only

4 times a-year.

The only village Sodor:

Lg. 6.20 w, Lt. 56.23 E.

IDA, a lofty and pointed mountain, in the middle of the island of Candia, Mediterranean, famous in ancient times as being the place on which Jupiter was brought up, and where there was a temple dedicated to Cybele; also for a remarkable cavern, at its foot, called the labyrinth of Crete.

IDA, a mountain of Asia, Tarkey, in Natolia, celebrated in ancient fable for the judgment of Paris, and the resort of the gods during the Trojan war; 140 m w of Olympus.

IDANHA-A-NOVA, a town of Portugal, province Beira, 3 m sw Idanha-a-Velha. IDANIA-A-VELHA, a town of Portugal, province Beira, 25 m E Castel-Branco.

IDRIA, a town of Austria, Carniola, celebrated for rich quicksilver mines, amid mountains, on the Idria, 20 m NNE Gorizia.

IENISSEISK, a town of Russia, government Tobolsk, chief of district, on the bank of the Ienisseï, here about 1400 yards wide, 1422 m Tobolsk; about 4 m in circumference. It has 4 churches, 1 convent for men and 1 for women, custom-house, powder-magazine, and 800 private houses; very commercial; P. 6000: Lg. 72.18.30 E, Lt. 58.27.17 N.

IF, an island in the Mediterranean, on the coast of France, the most E of the three before the harbour of Marseilles, with a castle.

IGLAU, a town of Austria, Moravia, capital of province, with 2 convents and a college. Good cloth is manufactured here; and the commerce in corn and hemp is considerable. It is 40 m WNW Brinn.

IGLESIAS, an island of Sardinia, and a bishop's see, 37 m wsw Cagliari; Lg. 8.39 E, Lt. 39.18 N.

IGLO, a town of Austria, Hungary, with rich copper-mines, on the Hernath, 5 m s Leutchau, and 32 wNw Kaschau.

IGOUMEN, a small town of Russia, government Minsk, chief of a district, 41 m Minsk. It has 2 iron-works and a glass manufactory.

IGUARASSU, a town of South America, Brazil, in Pernambuco, which exports sugar and cotton; situated on the Iguarassu, 2 m from its mouth, and 18 N by w Olinda. INOR; see JOHORE.

IJIGUINSK, a small fortified town of Asia, Russia, government Irkoutsk, chief of a district on the Ijiguina, 2 m from its mouth, 3277 E Irkoutsk. Fortifications, a square with 4 bastions, and mounted with artillery; and the garrison are always on the alert, in

fear of the Coriaks. It has 1 church; P. 500 the mouth of the Ilheos, 130 m ssw St.

to 600.

IKERY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Mysore, formerly the capital of a principality. It was of great extent, surrounded by 3 walls; but the court having removed hence to Bednore, the inhabitants followed, and devastation succeeded. Ruins, and a large temple in good repair, are all that remains. It is 18 m N by E Bednore.

ILA; see ISLA.

ILAK, or JALAK, a town of Africa, Nubia, supposed by some to be the ancient Meroe. It is seated on the Nile, at the influx of the Tacazze, 210 m SE Dongola: Lg. 34.30 E, Lt. 18.8 N.

ILANZ, a town of Switzerland, canton of Grisons, formerly capital of the GreyLeague, partly surrounded by walls, on the Rhine, 23 m sw Coire.

It is

ILCHESTER, or IVELCHESTER, a horough of England, county Somerset, with a market on Wednesday. It is of great antiquity, and once had 16 churches, but now only 1, at the w end of which is an octagonal tower, supposed to be built with Roman materials. Here are also various relics of monastic antiquities. It is the birth-place of the celebrated Roger Bacon in 1214. The election of the county members is held here, and here also is the county-goal. seated on the Ivel, 16 m s by w Wells, and 122 s by w London; P. 1095: Lg. 2.43 w, Lt. 50.56 N. Polling-place. ILDERTON, a village of England, county Northumberland, 4 m s Wooler. On a hill near it is a circular encampment, composed of 2 ramparts of earth, and a deep ditch, with an inner circle of stones, which appear uncemented. It is about 100 yards in diameter, and contains many remains of buildings; P. 125.

ILDINSKO-ZAVOD, copper and iron mines of Russia, government Orenbourg, district Birsk, worked from 1766 without falling off in produce: they are private property.

ILETZA, a town of Russia, province Poland, voevod Sandomir.

ILFRACOMB, a seaport of England, county Devon, governed by a mayor, with a market on Saturday. It has a spacious natural basin, that will admit the largest ships, with a good pier and quay, projecting into the Bristol channel. It is a fashionable bathing-place. This port employs a number of brigs and sloops, chiefly in carrying ore from Cornwall, coal from Wales, and corn from Bristol; also a number of fishingskiffs. It is 49 m NW Exeter, and 202 w London; P. 3201: Lg. 4.5 w, Lt. 51.14 s.

ILHEOS, or ST. GEORGE, a town of South America, Brazil, province Bahia, at

Salvador, capital of the district of Ilheos, which was formerly a government, but now included in the SE part of the province. The port, which can receive large sumacas, is defended by several small forts: Lg. 40.15 w, Lt. 14.55 s.

ILIMSK, a fortified town of Asia, Russia, government Irkoutsk, district Kerensk, on the Angara, 370 m Irkoutsk. It has fortifications of wood, and contains 3 churches and 100 houses.

ILKUCH, or OLKUSZ, a town of Russia, province Poland, voevod of Cracow, remarkable for its silver and lead mines; seated in a barren country, at the foot of several mountains, 15 m Nw Cracow.

ILLE-ET-VILAINE, a department of France, containing the NE part of the old province of Bretagne. A small part borders on the English channel, and the rest is surrounded by the departments of LaManche, Mayenne, Loire-Inferieure, Morbihan, and Côtes-du-Nord. It takes its name from 2 rivers, which unite at Rennes, the capital of the department.

ILLESCAS, a town of Spain, province New-Castile, 15 m ssw Madrid, and 15 NNE Toledo.

ILLINOIS, North America, one of the United States, 360 m long by 180; bounded N by the Nw territory, E by Indiana, s by the Ohio, which divides it from Kentucky, and w by the Mississippi, which separates it from the Missouri state and territory. The chief rivers are the Illinois and Wabash. The s part is level, and in some parts subject to inundation; the rest contains some hills and much fine land, which feed numerous horses and cattle. Wheat does well, except in the rich bottoms, and tobacco grows to great perfection. Among the minerals are iron, copper, and coal; and salt-springs are numerous. It is divided into 52 counties. Vandalia is the capital of the state; P. 55,211 in 1820, and 157,575 in 1830, of whom 746 are slaves.

ILMENAU, a town of Saxe-Weimar, province Henneberg. Near it is a mineral spring, and a copper and silver mine. It is 29 m sw Weimar.

ILMINSTER, a town of England, county Somerset, among hills, near the Ille, 26 m sw Wells, and 134 w by s London, with a market on Saturday, and a manufacture of narrow cloths. Here is a handsome church, with a glazed tower, and a free-school, founded by Edward VI; P. 2957.

ILSLEY, a town of England, county EastBerks, with a market on Wednesday, between 2 hills, 14 m Nw Reading, and 54 w London; P. 738.

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