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him take the Life of St. Dominic. Throughout that biography how much relates to our Lord, how much to the Virgin? Of 'her is every vision to her, or through her, is every prayer; through her influence every good deed is done, every miracle wrought : passages are everywhere found, some of which we read with an absolute shudder. When Heaven opens, what is disclosed ? Saints of all orders surrounding the celestial courts—but not one Dominican: when, lo! under the robe of the Virgin countless multitudes of Dominican saints! And this is the staple doctrine in every older life of the founder of the order of Friar Preachers. Mr. Newman has quoted Segneri, once the most popular preacher in Italy—an author with whom we are not unacquainted. We turn to his sermon on the Annunciation :- Mensura privilegiorum Virginis est, (udite il Suarez, benchè si circonspetto, si cauto in ogni sua voce). Mensura privilegiorum Virginis est Potentia Dei. Potentia Dei, Si, Si. Potentia Dei, Potentia Dei chè ne state a cercar di piu ? Ma io quì sì chè mi perdo. Conciosiache, che gran misura non è mai questa, Uditori? L'Omnipotenza divina ? Non è ella misura illimitatissima? senza eccettione? senza termine ? senza fine ?
VII. The seventh and last test of fidelity in development is • Chronic Continuance. On this point Mr. Newman's tone kindles to deep-as it seems to himself, no doubt-triumphant eloquence. He would appal all adversaries into silence by the august phenomenon of the duration of the Roman Church, with all its immutable dogmas, its inflexible discipline; its progressive developments, all tending to this absolute and unalterable perfec. tion. Now, is this chronic continuance of itself an unanswerable evidence of the divinity of any religious system? Judaism exists
-Buddhism exists_Brahmanism exists-Mahometanisin exists. But here the question is, Whether it is the Christianity, or the Romanism contra-distinguished from Christianity-which has endured all the fierce encounters of successive ages? The very errors of the latter, as we have said, may have powerfully contributed to its duration by its compulsory or spontaneous accommodation to the spirit of each succeeding age. But in Mr. Newman's theory-from the duration, at least, of developed Christianity much must be struck off from the supremacy of the Pope five centuries at the beginning; from the worship of the Virgin, five; from Transubstantiation, eight. . If we revert to Mr. Newman's own words, this chronic continuance has been strikingly intermittent. In the fifth and sixth centuries (a singular argument for Catholic unity and perpetuity) he has given a melancholy description of Catholicism driven almost from the face of the earth. East and West, which had already been almost Arian, were now distracted by every kind of sect and division. In those days things stood worse with Catholicism than even in our degenerate age. This so-called Catholicism Mr. Newman describes as a form of Christianity 'such, that it extends throughout the world, though with varying measures of prominence or prosperity in separate places ;—that it lies under the power of sovereigns and magistrates, in different ways alien to its faith;-that flourishing nations and great empires, professing or tolerating the Christian name, lie over against it as antagonists ;-that schools of philosophy and learning are supporting theories, and following out conclusions, hostile to it, and establishing an exegetical system subversive of its Scriptures ;-that it has lost whole churches by schism, and is now opposed by powerful communions once part of itself;--that it has been altogether or almost driven from some countries ;-that in others its line of teachers is overlaid, its flocks oppressed, its churches occupied, its property held by what may be called a duplicate succession ; -that in others its members are degenerate and corrupt, and surpassed in conscientiousness and in virtue, as in gifts of intellect, by the very heretics whom it condemns ;-that heresies are rife and bishops negligent within its own pale.'—p. 316.
In past ages of Catholicism, as now, according to Mr. Newman, its only conservative hope was the See of Rome. Baronius of old raised an argument for the perpetuity of the papal power, from its wonderful revival after its period of debaseinent and degradation, after the acknowledged irregularities of election, and all the wickednesses and atrocities of the ninth and tenth centuries, when it was won by the sword, or bought and sold by prostitutes ! Mr. Newman would argue in the same way the legitimate development of the papacy from its triumph over the confusions of those disastrous times. We scruple not, to express thus far our perfect agreement with Mr. Newinan. From the sixth century to the fourteenth the papal power was the great conservator of Christianity, of the best Christianity perhaps which those ages could receive; and it was of inestimable. benefit to European civilization. There are periods in human history when despotism, temporal or spiritual, seems necessary or inevitable for the maintenance of social order. In those times the spiritual was the best, the only counterpoise to temporal despotism. But as in other despotisms that time passes away. Christianity, as Mr. Newman admits, did without it for five centuries; it will not endure it now.
Of all historical problems the least difficult to account for is the growth first of the monastic, and afterwards of the papal power; and that growth is quite sufficient to explain the long dominance of what is called Catholicism. This view accounts for every fact and for every passage in the earlier fathers, cited in
the two statements made by Mr. Newman on the development of the papal power. The episcopal government, which was inchoate at least, if not absolutely and universally settled early in the second century, in the time of Ignatius,* would of course find one of its chief seats at Rome. No sooner had the notion spread that St. Peter was at Rome (and that appears, vaguely at least, in Irenæus) than that seat would assume a peculiar dignity. It was the only Apostolic See, it was the metropolitan see of the West; but more than this, it was the See of Rome! of Rome, the centre of administration; the seat of unrivalled wealth and power. Among our earliest intimations of the greatness of the Roman See, is that from her wealth she contributed largely to the support of poorer communities. Already, in the fourth century, the streets of Rome ran with blood in a contested election for the bishopric. The sarcasm of the heathen, Make me Bishop of Rome, and I will turn Christian,' shows her fast accumulating wealth. From the West, at least, all civil causes flowed to Rome; what wonder if religious ones followed the same course?
“Jam dudum Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes.' Even from the East, ail, Christian heretics included, who could not live quietly at home, crowded to Rome, in hopes of advantage or redress. The eastern apostolic sees fell into strife or heresy, at last sank into obscurity under Mahometanism. Constantinople, though aspiring to equality with Rome, was a see but of yesterday—its bishops perpetually oppressed by, or at open enmity with the emperors.
Rome was not merely the metropolis, she was the mother of the western churches, of Catholic, as contradistinguished from Arian Italy, of those of the Franks, the Anglo-Saxons, and of Germany. The old Gaulish, the ancient British, or Irish churches either melted into the Roman or remained in obscurity. The clergy had neither the will nor the power to resist the developing autocracy: the strength of Rome was their strength; to the higher
* • It is true' (says Mr. Newman) •St. Ignatius is silent in his Epistles on the subject of the Pope's authority ;' he adds, such silence is not so difficult to account for as the silence of Seneca and Plutarch about Christianity. Yet one of the Epistles of Ignatius was addressed to the Christians of Rome. The whole question, however, about the Epistles of Ignatius is re-opened by Mr. Cureton's publication and English interpretation of the Syriac version of three of the Epistles, whicb, if they be not abridgments, which seems highly improbable, show that even the smaller Greek copies have been Jargely interpolated. We are not among those who rest, as some do, almost the whole burthen of the episcopal controversy on these Epistles. But considering the importance attached to them by others, that they have been actually spoken of as a providential revelation to save the imperilled cause of episcopacy, we cannot but admire the honest courage which has published without scruple copies in which almost all the strong passages on that side are wanting. The volume in all its parts is most creditable to Mr. Cureton-one of our very few really profound Orientalists; and it was eminently worthy of our truth-loying primate to permit the dedication of such a work to himseli.
ecclesiastics ecclesiastics it was the crown of their order. On one part, that of the Roman bishop, usurpation seemed a duty; on the other, there could be no general will, no concert in resistance. Disunion would have placed the rest of the clergy at the mercy of the temporal power. That the papal power naturally developed itself out of the sacerdotal power, and that from both together developed itself the whole of Mediæval Christianity, is clear from this alone, that every doctrine and usage which distinguished Mediæval Christianity from that of the New Testament and of primitive times, tends to the aggrandisement of sacerdotal influence, of more tban influence, of irresistible authority. This is the one great cardinal principle of Papal Development.
We too, as has been said, have our theory of development. For us Mr. Newman goes too far, and not far enough. We believe that the development of Christianity, of the yet undeveloped or dormant part of Christianity, since the Reformation, has been immense; the development, we mean, of its morality, of its social influence, of its humanity. We quote from a recent French writer of great ability :
On a dit souvent que le Christianisme nous avait civilisé; peutêtre ne serait-il pas moins juste et moins exact de dire que la civilisation a épuré notre Christianisme. Si la lettre des Evangiles n'a pas change, nous avons beaucoup changé dans notre manière d'entendre et d'appliquer la loi évangélique. Nos sentiments et nos principes religieux ont suivi la marche de tous nos sentiments et de tous nos principes ; ils sont devenus plus purs et plus raisonnables à mesure que nous avons été plus cultivés. Les Chrétiens d'aujourd'hui ne le sont pas à la manière de ceux du temps de la Ligue.'*
This is so well said, that it must excuse us from entering at length upon a subject which could not be fairly dealt with under many pages.
There seems to us a vast fallacy in this argument about the perishable character of all sects and communities of Christians (how stands the Greek Church ?) and the assumed solitary permanence of Rome. For five centuries Christendom existed as a confederation of Churches,-of Churches, it is true, heretical as well as orthodox, under episcopal rule. We may regret that many Christian communities have lost or departed from that rule; but are we called upon to pronounce their total disfranchisement from all the hopes and blessings of Christianity? The real and
* Charles Dunoyer, Liberté du Travail,' i. 124. This work, which by its title might seem a cold, dry treatise on political economy, is of a very high order. We by no means subscribe to all its opinions, either political, social, or speculative, and there are few subjects which it does not embrace ; but throughout there is a vein of strong sense, a sober spirit of inquiry, we may add, a power of understanding our English institutions very rare in foreigo writers.
essential essential Christianity, that of all who hold the great truths, en. deavour to live up to the lofty morals, look to the promises of God in Christ, who have Christian faith, hope, and charity—this. Christianity has existed, does exist, and will ever exist; it existed through the trials of the first ages, it existed within Mediæval Christianity, it will exist to the end of time, and by this Christianity (not by the higher Christian polity under which we may have the privilege, or the lower under which we may bave the disadvantage of living) we shall stand or fall. This, though hard and inflexible Roman Catholic theory may deny, the Roman Catholic heart, like that of all Christendom, is, in all but in stern controversialists, eager to allow. The inexorable nulla salus extra Ecclesiam 'is eluded by the holy subterfuges of evangelic charity.
What indeed would be the logical conclusion of Mr. Newman's theory of development as applied to the whole of history ? That God, not merely in his permissive but in his active miraculous providence, gradually built up his Church to the height of perfection—that he developed it to its full maturity in power and knowledge; and then suddenly, it should seem, abandoned its cause, and left it exposed to the ungrateful hostility of mankind ! But at the same time he has been pleased to bless mankind with an unexampled, intellectual, social, and moral advancement. Through the hands of ingenious and scientific men he bestowed upon us his most wonderful gift, except that of language,-printing.
This, though, as we have said, the most important epoch in the history of Christianity (if we only consider how much it has substituted written for oral teaching), has been followed by social and political changes, by discoveries which crowd upon each other, till we are breathless in following their track, and many of them more or less connected with religious development. And will religion only retrograde while all things thus rush onward ? We implicitly believe, though not in the sense of the transitory movement among ourselves towards, or in Germany away from Rome-that in its great moral and spiritual power Christianity is steadily on the advance-that it is still developing, backwards, in one sense, to the simple Gospel, forwards, in another, to the better understanding of that Gospel. At all events nothing shall reduce us to that worst and most miserable cowardice of unbelief, that the more man advances in intellectual, in social, and in moral culture, the more God will turn his face from him; that real human wisdom and real Christian wisdom will not at length repose together under the shadow of Christian peace.
The Church of France has, compassionating our benighted state, ordered prayers at many of her altars for the conversion