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out of Egypt, to signify, that the Saviour must suffer before mankind could be delivered from the bondage of sin. It was killed before the law of Moses, or the sacrifices of Aaron were enjoined, to shew, that deliverance comes to the human race only through the REDEEMER.

The manner in which the Israelites were required to eat the passover, was calculated to bring to their remembrance, in future, the situation they were in when they eat it the first time,

The lamb' was roasted with fire, to denote (as is supposed) the dreadful pains which the REDEEMER would suffer. Unleavened bread was an emblem of sincerity and trụth*, as bitter herbs were of repentance and mortification.

This rite was to be observed for ever, that is to say, as long as the Mosaic dispensation should last ; we shall find by the New Testament, that it was no longer obligatory after Christ was slain.

It is needless to enlarge farther on the subject of the Jewish passover, as the rite is abolished ; CHRIST, the true paschal lamb, has been slain for the redemption of the world, through whom alone Christians are to look for salvation ; but it may be useful to us to reflect on the wonderful goodness and mercy of God, in appoint, ing a mean whereby atonement might be made for sin, and an irterest in the blood of the REDEEMER secured, long before He came to lay down his life as a ransom for mankind.

It is observable, that the Israelites were commanded to instruct their children in the meaning of this rite, from whence may be inferred, that it is the duty of christian parents to explain to their children the meaning of that institution, which is now substituted in the

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place of the passover. Yet how many are suffered to grow up in total ignorance of that Holy Sacrament, which was ordained to keep up a constant' remeni. brance of what has been done for them !



From Exodus, Chap. xii. and xii.

And it came to pass that at mid-night the LOR? smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon ; and all the first-born of cattle.

And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants, and all the Egyptians ; and there was a great cry in Egypt ; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. .

And Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel: and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said.

Also take your filocks, and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone, and bless me also. .

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people that they might send them out of the land in haste: for they said, We be all dead men.

And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading-troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.

And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment.


And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, 'sa that they lent unto them such things as they required : and they spoiled the Egyptians.

And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, besides children.

And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leaven.' ed : because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.

Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years,

And it came to pass, at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Loró went out from the land of Egypt.

It is a night to be much observed unto the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this, is that night of the Lord to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Sanctify unto me all the first-born among the children of Israel both of man and of beast ; it is mine,

And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.

This day came ye out in the nionth Abib. “And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware



unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shall keep this service in this month.

Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord.

Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days : and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.

And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me, when I came forth out of Egypt.

And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine band and for


memorial between thine eyes ; that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth : for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.

Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.

And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this ? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage.

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man and the first-born of beast; therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all the firstburn, being males, but all the first-born of my children I redeem.


ANNOTATIONS AND REFLECTIONS. We may suppose that Moses delivered the Lord's message to Pharaoh on the same day that he directed the Israelites to separate the lambs for the passover, which was several days before the last plague was sent upon Egypt, so that the Egyptians had sufficient time to reflect



apon the danger to which they exposed themselves, by detaining God's people ; but while the Israelites, with faith and devout expectation, prepared for their departure, Pharaoh and his presumptuous subjects went on encouraging each other, in an obstinate defiance of the threatenings of that great Being, who had already fully demonstrated to them, that He is possessed of omnipotence. There was something so foolish in this conduct, that there is no accounting for it in any other way than by imputing it to a want of that Divine principle, which, as has been before observed, is necessary to regulate human reason, and prevent the passions from obtaining an ascendancy over it. It is evident that Pharaoh did not, on this occasion, make a proper use of his reasoning faculty, or he must have discerned the folly of opposing the will of the LORD God.. . Of all the judgments that had yet been inflicted upon the Egyptians, none was equal in its effects and duration to the death of their first-born. This was calculated to recal that tenderness which impiety, by raising turbulent passions in the mind, had in a manner obliterated; and at the same time to mortify the pride of those who exalted themselves against God, as it dea prived them of the principal hope of their family, the first-born son; he who was to succeed his father in ho. nour and estate, and support that pride which aspired to domineer even over the people, whom God had họ. noured with the title of His own first born. The other plagues were but temporary evils in comparison with this. The river now no longer flowed with blood, but yielded again the ' refreshing element of water. The houses of the Egyptians were cleansed from noisome reptiles, their bodies from vermin, the flies which devoured them were dead, and the land was purified from the corruption which they had occasioned. The loss


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