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they repented not, to give him glory." They disregarded the everlasting Gospel, "Fear God, and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is come," and continued to worship the beast and his image. The sun in this place is the symbol of a king in Israel. When the government of a kingdom is figuratively called a heaven, the sun, moon, and stars in the natural heavens would represent the chief officers in the government, and as the sun is the king of day and the chief luminary in the heavens, therefore the sun would come naturally to symbolize a king; and the moon and stars, lesser officers and dignitaries in the government. When there was war between the Philistines and Israel," and David went down and his servants with him, and fought against the Philistines; and David waxed faint. And Ishbibenob, which was of the sons of the giant, the weight of whose spear weighed three hundred shekels of brass in weight, he being girded with a new sword thought to have slain David: but Abishai the son of Zeruiah succoured him, and smote the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David sware unto him, saying, Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that thou quench not the light of Israel." We cite this passage from the twenty-first chapter of II Samuel to show that David was regarded by his people as the light of Israel, an idea, which, when carried out, would make him regarded as the sun in Israel's heavens.

The sun, therefore, upon which the fourth angel pours out his vial is a great and mighty king in Israel who, by the pouring out of this vial upon him, is invested with tremendous power and filled with anger, and goes forth in fury to do what is written of him by the prophet saying, "For I will no more pity the inhabitants of the land, saith the Lord, but, lo, I will deliver the men. every one into his neighbor's hand, and into the hand of his king; and they shall smite the land, and out of their hand I will not deliver them" (Zech. 11:6); and again in verse 16 it is added, "For, lo, I will raise up a shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off, neither seek the young one, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth still; but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces."

This is the idol shepherd, that is, one that sets himself up in the Temple of God showing himself that he is God, who will also devour the substance of the rich and tear their claws in pieces. This is "Lucifer son of the morning" who, when the fourth vial was poured out upon him, was given power to scorch men with great heat. He smote the people (of Israel) in wrath, with a continual stroke, and ruled the nations in anger; but after he is slain, it is said of him, "How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation (Mount Moriah) in the sides of the north (that is in the Temple); I will ascend above the heights of the clouds. I will be like the Most High" (Isa. 14: 12-14). And in verse 20 it is further said of him, "Thou hast destroyed thy land and slain thy people; the seed of evil-doers shall never be renowned."

These things are affirmed in parable of the king of Babylon which spiritually signifies the king of Jerusalem. And in the Revelation it is testified of him saying, " And power was given him over all kindreds and tongues and

nations," that is, those that are assembled there; and as he claims to be a god and sits in the seat of God in the mount of the congregation in the sides. of the north, therefore he requires divine honors on the part of all, and from all those who are subject to him, as it is written, saying, " And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world" (Rev. 13:8). The righteous refuse and worship him only that made the heavens and the earth, the seas and the fountains of waters. But notwithstanding that the worshippers of the beast and his image, and the worshippers of this idol shepherd are scorched with great heat by this fierce king, yet they blasphemed the name of God which had power over these plagues, and they repented not to give him glory.


"And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast, and his kingdom was full of darkness, and they gnawed their tongues for pain, and blasphemed the God of heaven, because of their pains, and their sores, and repented not of their deeds." The sore botch of Egypt, the scab, and the itch which were inflicted upon the worshippers of the beast and his image under the first vial still adhere to them when the fifth vial is poured out. For the Lord said unto them by the hand of Moses that these diseases with which he would smite these persistent idolaters in the latter days, would be incurable and would pursue them till they perished.

When the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast, his kingdom was full of darkness. It must be remembered that when the beast with seven heads and ten horns rose up out of the sea, the dragon king surrendered to him his power, and his seat (throne), and great authority. By this abdication in favor of the beast, the beast (or the Assyrian) became king of Israel as the Lord by the hand of Hosea said it should be. Therefore, for the time the kingdom of Israel would become the kingdom of the beast, and form a part of his vast dominions. Now that which the beast would do as a result of the fifth vial of God's wrath being poured out upon his throne would cause such consternation and dismay among the people of Israel that these fearful forebodings of coming calamities and evils are compared to darkness enshrouding the land, for the kingdom of Israel under the reign of the beast was at this point of time full of darkness.


The plagues which were visited upon the Egyptians when the Lord brought Israel out of Egypt are typical of the plagues which he will visit upon his own evil family in the future when they turn back again to their ancient forms of idolatry and change their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass, as they did at Mount Sinai, and as Jeroboam and the ten tribes did when they fell away from the house of David.

One of the plagues brought upon Pharaoh and his people was thick darkness, as it is written, "And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven,

and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt, three days: they saw not one another, neither rose any one from his place for three days, but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings." This dense darkness of Egypt which might be felt is a symbol of the darkness with which the Lord will smite the land of Israel when she is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt, "where also our Lord was crucified." The cause of this darkness the Lord shows by the Prophet Isaiah (5) as follows, saying, " And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth, and they shall come swiftly; none shall be weary, nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep, neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken: whose arrows are sharp and all their bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind; their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions, yea they shall roar and lay hold of the prey and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it."

This is a very strong description of the Lord's army which he will hiss for in that day and which will come with speed swiftly, under the generalship of Gog, or the beast, and of which the Lord speaks further and says in the same place, "And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea." And then as to the effect that will be produced upon the kings and princes that occupy the high places in Israel and upon the people of the land, it is added saying, “And if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow"; that is among the people; and as to the condition caused among the rulers who occupy the heavens of Israel by these things it is further added, "And the light is darkened in the heavens thereof" (Isa. 5: 26-30).

Jesus also says concerning these times, as recorded by Luke in chapter 21, "And there shall be signs in the sun and in the moon and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations (for the land of Israel will then be occupied by many nations) with perplexity; the sea and waves roaring, men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth; for the powers of heaven shall be shaken." This is the kind of darkness that will prevail in mystical Egypt under the reign of the beast, and this consternation will not be wholly confined to the rebellious house and its rulers but will be shared also by the nations, kindreds, tongues, and peoples themselves who have been brought there to punish the Lord's evil family and to trample them like the mire of the streets, for they too will wonder where these dreadful things are to end and what their own fortunes are to be before these things are finished; for wise men of God and prophets whom he will raise up in that day will go through the land and to every nation, kindred, tongue and people there assembled, as Jonah went through Nineveh, warning the people of what is coming on the earth and saying, "Fear God, and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgment is come."

The Lord spake also by the Prophet Jeremiah, saying, "Go and get thee at linen girdle, and put it upon thy loins," which the prophet did. Then he sent him to the river Euphrates to hide it there in a hole of a rock, and after many days he sent him again to get it, when behold it was marred and was profitable for nothing. Then the Lord spake saying (Jer. 13), "After this manner will I mar the pride of Judah, and the great pride of Jerusalem.

This evil people which refuse to hear my words, and walk in the imagination of their heart, and walk after other gods, to serve them and to worship them, shall even be as this girdle, which is good for nothing. For as the girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto me the whole house of Israel, and the whole house of Judah, saith the Lord; that they might be unto me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory: but they would not hear.

"Therefore thou shalt speak unto them this word, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Every bottle shall be filled with wine: and they shall say unto thee, Do we not certainly know that every bottle shall be filled with wine? Then shalt thou say unto them, Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants of this land, even the kings that sit upon David's throne, and the priests, and all the prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with drunkenness. And I will dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together, saith the Lord; I will not pity, nor spare, nor have mercy, but destroy them. Hear ye, and give ear; be not proud: for the Lord hath spoken. Give glory to the Lord your God, before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains (the seven mountains on which the woman sitteth) and while ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow of death, and make it gross darkness." . . . (Verse 18) "Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down; for your principalities shall come down, even the crown of your glory."

This darkness, this gross darkness, is what is referred to in the Revelation under the reign of the beast which hath the seven heads, which are also called seven mountains on which the harlot sitteth. These are the dark mountains upon which the rebellious house will stumble, so that when they look for light, he will turn it into the shadow of death and make it gross darkness; and as it is said that Gog and his great multitude come from the north, so it is said in this connection (verse 20), "Lift up your eyes, and behold them that come from the north." It is from that direction that the evil comes in the day of the Lord, even as it is said in the first chapter of this book (verse 14), “Out of the north an evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land."


"And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried up that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared."

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The great river Euphrates ran through the ancient city of Babylon which was an exceeding great city and populous, surrounded by strong walls of great height and thickness to protect its people from invading armies. But when her time came, the man of whom it is written (Isa. 45:1), “Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut," he captured the city.

There is nothing that the skill of man can devise for his own protection that the Lord cannot undo; therefore when he brought his servant Cyrus

against Babylon, he put into his heart a very simple contrivance by which he might take the city. Therefore selecting the night of that great feast to a thousand of his lords when Belshazzar saw the handwriting on the wall, Cyrus turned aside the waters of the river so that the Euphrates, which ran through the city, was dried up, and, as the Lord said, "The gates shall not be shut"; even so, on the night of that feast the gates of the city leading down to the river were left open, and Cyrus marched his army on dry ground through the channel of the river straight up into the city, and as it is written, "In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain, and Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about three score and two years old."

Now these things form a symbol and a picture of what is to come upon another Babylon in the latter days, whose people were at that very time captives in Babylon and in the countries that were subject to Belshazzar King of the Chaldeans. The waters of the great river Euphrates have already been spoken of as a symbol of a great army by the Prophet Isaiah (8:6) saying, "Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly (the stream that ran at the foot of Mount Zion) and rejoice in Rezin and Remaliah's son; now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river (Euphrates), strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: and he shall pass through Judah: he shall overflow and go over; he shall reach even to the neck (to Jerusalem); and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel."

All these things contribute in aiding us to rightly interpret the things set forth under the sixth vial. The great city Babylon of the Revelation is Jerusalem, when her kings, princes, prophets, and priests become idolaters like unto the Babylonians. Therefore Jerusalem spiritually is called Babylon, not only in the Revelation but also by the prophets, especially by Isaiah and Jeremiah; and by another figure of speech the military strength of the nation, consisting of all the armies of Israel, is called the great river Euphrates; and as the great river Euphrates was dried up so that Cyrus could march his army into, and take the city, even so when the mystical river Euphrates, the armies of Israel, are destroyed, then the armies of the latter day Cyrus, the great Assyrian, will march into Jerusalem and destroy this great and wicked city.

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river Euphrates is to prepare the way of The way of the kings of the east is despake to John saying, "The beast that

To dry up the waters of the great the kings of the east (Rev. 16: 12). scribed by another term, as the angel thou sawest (with the seven heads and ten horns which are the kings of the east) was, and is not, and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition." This is the way of the kings of the east, and to annihilate the armies of Israel is one of the things which they have to do as they journey on their way to their own destruction, which is perdition upon the mountains of Israel.

The Lord speaks in many different ways of the same things as they are set forth in this book. For instance, the Scriptures speak chiefly of four points of the compass; therefore an army coming from the northeast against

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