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· That they shall engrave his laws in their hearts ; diligently teach them to their children and grandchildren; and wear them for a sign upon their head. as frontlets between their eyes; and write them upon

the gates, posts, and other parts of their houses f.

That they shall circumcise their hearts as well as their felh8; and be no more rebellious to him, but serve him fincerely, cleave unto him, and swear by his name alone

That the whole law shall be read by the priests to all the people, men, women, and children, every seventh year, at the feast of the tabernacles i, and the substance of it shall be learned by heart by every Ifraelite ; and that every king of Israel shall be obliged to write a copy of it with his own hand, from that which was by Moses committed to the custody of the Levites, in order to be constantly read and observed by himk.

That all blessings shall be thankfully acknowleged to come from God, and punishments inficted by him submiffively received, as fatherly chastisements, or trials of their obedience!

e Deut. vi. 6,7.
f Ibid. 6–9. & Exod. ix. 16.

8 Deut. x. 16, & alib. paff

h Ibid. ver. 20.

i Ibid. xxxi. 9, & seq. ad 19.

k Ibid, xvii. 18, & seq. 1 Ibid. viii. pafi. of God is in the plural num.' vid; the last and concluding ber in Daniel's vision (1). The one is to the following purwords in the Chaldee are pofe ; that it is blafphemy to 79837.71073, Carsevan remiú; set the creature on the throne which our version renders, the of the Creator, blessed for ever; thrones were cast down, con- and closes the whole with trary to the express meaning these notable words ; If any one of the verb an, which fig- can solve this difficulty, let him nifies to raise, to exalt, and do it ; if not, let him

his set up; in which sense all the way, and not attempt it. The Jews do rightly understand it. meaning of it being too obThe question therefore that is vious to want explaining, we asked is, why the throne, on Shall wholly submit to the which the antient of days was reader, and only add, that to fit, is put in the plural ? something very like this seems After several trifling answers,

to be intimated in that diwhich are there given as the stinction in their creed, about folutions of several learned the Unity of God; namely, rabbies, one of whom pretends, that he is one by an oneness or that the plural implies the unity peculiar to himself (2). thrones of God and Da

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The law shall be engraven upon stones, and set upon an altar; and the blessings of obedience, and curses for difobedience, shall be publickly set upon the mounts Gebal and Gerizzim, for a perpetual remembrancem.

No forgiveness, or deliverance from any punishment for disobedience, thall be expected, without a deep fense and acknowlegement of the fault 1.

BURNT-OFFERINGS, facrifices, tythes, vows, firstlings of the flock, and freewill-offerings, thall be brought and facrificed at no other place but that which the LORD shall appoint,

Laws con

12, 14. & alib.

Laws, postive and negative, concerning the Sabbath, pellover, and other festivals, bolidays, and fasts.

HE Sabbath, or seventh day, shall be kept holy? (M). cerning the

No fervile work shall be done in it, by master, ferSabbath. vant, lave, stranger, or cattle 9. There hall no fire be

kindled m Deut. xxvij. 1, ad fin. xxviii. paff

. n Ibid. xxx. paff. • Ibid. xii. 5, & feq. P Exod. xxiii. 12. xxiv. 21,

Deut. v. 9 Exod. xx. 10, & feq. Deut. V. 12, & feq.

(M The Jewish doctors have no accompts made or caft up,or stretched this abstinence from marriages folemnized. No diswork to the most fuperftitious course about buying and felling, degree. They extend it not or any other worldly matter, only to every business that much less loose and profane tends to the getting of food talk, is to be suffered. and raiment, such as plowing, The positive precepts confowing, reaping, threshing, cerning the Sabbath run much and the like, which they make in the fame strain ; we shall to amount to 39 negative pre only instance in two or three cepts, but to many other things: of them. On that day every and hence other negative pre- one is obliged, according to cepts which are as appendixes their circumitances, to put on to the former ; viz.grass must clean linen, to wear better not be walked upon, left it be cloaths than ordinary, to eat bruised ;an horse must not berid, feh, fish, or fowl, to drink left he be galled; and the like. It wine, and to eat at least once in is not lawful to ride in a coach fix hours. Care also is to be taken or cart, though an heathen that a clean table-cloth be laid, drive it. No linging, dancing, and the victuals fet upon it, che playing upon instruments, or beds made, and the lamps any kind of noise, is allowed, lighted, betore the entrance of though it were to quiet a cross the Sabbath, which begins and child. No cause is to be tried, ends with them on or about


sunset, according to the saying in duties of a more noble nain Genesis, the evening and the ture than these talmudical morning were the first day (1). trifles ; namely, in meditation

A learned Jewish author tells on the wonderful works of us (2), that they were obliged,in God, in the study of his law, all districts and towns through- and instructing those that are out Ifrael, to blow the trumpet under them in it (3). Some of on the evening of the fixth them even maintain, that day, six different times, from they used to assemble every some eminence, whence it Sabbath, from the time of might be easily heard at a due Moses, to hear the law read distance ; so that they who and expounded (4). And were abroad in the fields might this is likewise believed by have timely notice to re- several learned men among pair to their habitations be- the Christians (5); who infer fore the Sabbath began. Ac- it from the words of St. cordingly, at the sound of the James, that Mofes bas in every first trumpet, they left off city them that preach him, being work, and began to march read in the synagogues every homeward; at the second sound- Sabbath-day (6). But the much ing, all shops, stalls, and places greater number are of opinion, of trade, were shut up; at the that this custom was not set third, the pots and kettles were on foot till Efdras's time. All taken off the fire, the tables that the priests were comcovered, and the meat dressed manded to do on the Sabbath, for the Sabbath was set upon was only to set the new shewthem,&C. The last trumpet bread on the tables, to take was generally about sunset ; away the old one (7), and to and, on the next night, as soon offer the meat, drink, and as they could perceive two or burnt-offerings, peculiar to that three stars in the sky, the day (8), however their antient trumpets blew from the same doctors have since clogged it places to proclaim the end of with a great number of prethe Sabbath ; at which time cepts and subtilties. the head of the family, after a Whether the observation of short prayer, wished himself the Sabbath, or feventh day, and the relt a good week, as he be as old as the creation, as did a good Sabbath at the en- some authors, both Jerus and trance of it.

Christians, will have it, from Many of the wiser Jews, those words of Mofes, And the however, do make the fanctifi- Lord blelled the seventh day, cation of the Sabbath to confitt and fanctifed it (9), or whe

(1) Gen. i. 5. Vide Munst

. in loc. & præcept. negar. & affirm. de fabbat, (2) Maimon, eraet, naw, cap. v. sect. 27. Vide Goodwin's Mof. Aar, iii. c. 3. §. 10. (3) Vide Munt. in Exod. xx. temp. facr. c. 19. 9.66. (4) Pbil. in vit. Mos; Josepb. cont. Apion, l. ii, Talmud Hieros, ira. Megill

. Maimon. Tepbilab, & Bircarb.bacobanim, & ac, mult. Cocceii fum. cbeol. c. 21.g. 14, leg. Grot. & Meyer, ubi sup: Xy. 21. comp. with ver. 36, (7) Levit. xxiv. 6, 8. (8) Numb. xxxviii. 9, & feq. (9) Gen. zi. 3.


(5) Vide (6) Acts these testimonies would ac beft

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ther that text means no more Jofephus and Philo go ftill than that God set apart that further, and affirm, that thie day to be afterwards observed observation of it had been preby the Israelites, as the far served among the Gentiles. greater part of the fathers The former fays, that there and Christian commentators was scarce any nation, either understand it; is a question, Greek or Barbarian, that did which, though more curious not in fome meafure conform to than important, has been very the observance of the Sabbath ftrenuoully debated on all (6); and Philo affures us (7), hands. The Jews are as di- that it was not a festival pecuvided about it as we ; for, liar to any nation or country, whilst some affect to call the but common to all, and kept Sabbath their spouse, as being as a kind of birth-day of the granted to the Jezus alone, ex- world. He adds, in another clusive of all other nations (1), place, that the Jews, whilft others affirm, that all the pa- in Egypt, having quite forgot triarchs, and all good men, the seventh day, God was observed it, up to Adam, whom pleased to indicate it to them by they pretend to have been the lending them manna fix days, author of the xciid Pfalm, in- and with-holding it on the letitled, a psalm, or song, for the venth (8). We find likewise Sabbath-day (2). "They like- several antient writers among wife interpret the words in the heathen, fuch as Homer, Genesis, Because Abraham — Hefiod, and others quoted by bas kept my charge, of his keep- the fathers, who speak of the ing the Sabbath (3). The seventh day as facred to relifame they affirm of Jacob, gion (9). Something like this and add, that the reason of his may also be gathered from that taking up his lodging in the abfurd account which fome open held in his way to Mefo- others, particularly Tacitus potamia, was, that it hap- and Plutarch, give of the pened to be the eve of the Sab- Jews observing it in imitation bath; so that he was obliged to of the heathens, who confeItop there as soon as he per- crated that day to Saturn, acceived that the sun was about cording to the former (10), or setting (4). Job's offering fa- to Bacchus, according to the crifices for his seven fons every latter ; who adds, that he was seventh day is likewise under- also named Sabbos, because stood of his keeping the Sab they used frequently to shout bath ; though another reason out the word Sabboi at his seems to be given in the text festival (11). However, as (5).

(1) Vide Selden dy rabbin. ab eo citatos. (2) Vide Cbald, paraphr. Targum in titul. PS. xcii. Middraß. Tebill. Talm. Babyl. tra&t. Sanbedr. & al. (3) R. Salom. in Gen. xxvi. S. (4). Beresh. rabb. Perasb. 79. Talme tract, nv R. Bechai, ss al. (s) Vide Abenez. in Yob. i. 5. (6) Corit. Apion, l. ii. ad fin. (;) De opific. mund. (8) In vit. Moj. l. i. (9) Vide Euseb. præp, l. xiii. c. 12, Clem, Alex. ftromat. lo v. el. (10) Hifter, li. (11) Symposiac, l. iv.


kindled on that dayr, nor any thing bought or fold. No person shall be put to death, for any crime whatsoever ; no travelling shall be allowed on the Sabbath s



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amount to a bare probability; ger did hit upon an explanaand seem contradicted by some tion (4), which has been uniexpress texts both in the wri- versally approved and followed tings of Moses, and some of the ever since (5). We need not prophets (1), which intimate' trouble readers with that the Sabbath was given to the various conjectures of the the Ifraelites for a memorial reft. That of our author of their deliverance from Egys carries its own evidence, beptian bondage, and to diftin- ing founded on the Jewish manguish them from all other na- ner of computing the Sabbaths tions; the far greater part of from the feast of the pasfover to Chriftians, both antient and that of the weeks, or from modern, have declared for the Easter to Whitsunday. The other side (2); and it must be first of these, namely, that owned, that if that festival had which immediately fo Howed been instituted and kept from i the two great feasts, or the first the beginning, we cannot see and last day of the paflover, why Mofes should be so exact was by them called IV now and cautious in the particulars pwx, Sabbath fheni-refhon, the he gives about the institution ad prime Sabbath ; the next was and observance of it, especially called the second second, or the in his prohibition of gathering second after the second prime; manna on that day ; unless we: the third second third, and suppose with Philo, that the fo on unto the seventh ; which Ifraelites had quite loit the last did immediately precede

the feast of the weeks, or penWe must beg leave to close tecolt (6). The fact for which this note with taking notice of this Sabbath is recorded by the that expression in one of the evangelift, namely, Christ's golpels(3), Ev Bal foi o feutsu disciples plucking and rubbing pozpátw, in the second prime the ears of corn, confirms this Sabbatli, or, as our version exposition, their harveft hap-. more clearly renders it, on the pening always between Easter second Sabbath after the first; and Whitsunday. which has puzzled a world of (A) Though the text does commentators, till 7f. Scali- exprelly fay, that they shall not

memory of it.

(1) Vide Exod. xxxi. 13. Deut. V. 15, & alib.pal. Vide & Yeremi Xvii. 22, Ezek. xx. 12, 20. (2) Juft. dial.cont. Tryph. Tertul.fcons. Iud. l. iv, Iren. cont. bæres. l. iv.& al. Vide Seld. de jur. natural. gent. juxt. discipl. Hebr. l. iii. C. 13, & seq. Spenc. de leg. rit. Hebr. Jun. Le Clerc, Calm. comm. in Gen. ii. & al. mult. (3) Luke vi. 1. (4) De emend, temp. l. vi.

(s) Vide Lightfoote, Casaub. Baron. Jun. Grot. in loc. Goodwin's Moj

. & Aar. Şir Isaac Newe. á al. (6) Vide, fi lib. Mishnam tract. AD11, 6. 5. VOL. III.



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