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But to return to the written laws : we shall endeavour to range the main body of them under such distinct heads and classes as shall give our readers a clear idea of thein ; and, to avoid prolixity, we shall take the liberty to abridge some, and to omit those that are either of small consequence, or whose design is not sufficiently understood. For the same reason we shall, in as few words as may be, subjoin to every law the ceremonies, customs, and usages that relate to it, as well on the account of the immediate connexion they have to one another, as because the latter are often explanatory of the former ; that so the reader may, at one view, have a complete system of the Jewish laws, religion, government, manners, and customs, as they all flowed from the fame divine original. As for the laws, they generally run in the style of the five or fix following ones; which we give only as a specimen. Laws against idolatry, and for the pure worship of
the only true God. Laqus THO
'HOU shalt have no other gods before or besides mel. against Ye shall not profane, or take in vain (D), but hallow, idolatry. God's holy name m.
1 Exod. xx. 3.
m Exod. xx. 7. Levit. xvii. 32, & al.
without having recourse to this great lengths in that way, that
All that understand it rightly enough, we shall venture to say farther by giving it to idols, as Aaron is, that, if such a mystical and did, when he called the molten primary sense be admitted, it calf the gods that brought must be confined to the writers Ifrael out of Egypt. This is of the New Testament; who, one of those fins which they besides their being inspired, think cannot be expiated but could prove their interpreta by the death of the finner ; and tions by miracles: for it is for which Aaron must have unplain, that some of the primi- dergone that fate, had not tive fathers have gone such Moses interceded for him.
(1) Vide, inter al. Hieron. in Matt. xxvii. 51. Vide Basiag. ex Cun&o, Rbeinferd, op. pbil.leg. & al. Vide Munst. 7 unninniin
Ye shall utterly destroy all the idols, altars, groves, and all other monuments of Canaanitish idolatry n.
Ye shall not tempt the LORD your God (A), as ye did in the wilderness o
YE shall make no image or reprefentation of God, from he likeness of the celestial, or of the terrestrial, or aquaic bodies P.
YE shall not bow down nor worship any kind of idol 9.
WHOSOEVER enticeth another to commit idolatry, fhal} be ftoned as soon as convicted of it r.
The spoil of a city doomed to anathema shall not be saved apon any account, but be publicly burned. The inhabitants of it shall be put to the sword, and the place shall be no nore rebuilt, but continue an heap for evers (B).
The filver, gold, and other precious ornaments belonging to idols, shall not be turned to advantage, but be destroyed with the utmost abhorrencet.
WHOSOEVER sacrificeth his feed to Moloch, whether te be an Israelite, or a sojourner in the land, shall be ftoned to death u (C).
in Deut. xii. 2, & feq. o Deut. vi. 16.
P Exod. xx. 4.
9 Exod. Deut. iv.paff. & v. 8.
Deut. xiii. 1, & feq. & alib. paff. s Ibid. ver. 15, & seq. Ibid. vii. 25, 26.
u Levit. xx. 2.
Deut. v. 9,
(A) This precept they the prohibition of turning any understand of those who of the spoil to their adfarve God only in hopes of vantage in so strict a sense, that fome temporal advantage; they thought it even unlawful which they look upon as a
to fit under the shade of any of jeffer kind of idolatry,
their trees. But it is plain, (B) What is here commanded that this great aversion to idolaconcerning the destroying of try, and idolatrous things, did all the monuments of idolatry, not thew itself, till they had che Jews understood only of severely smarted for their too chose places which became great propensity to it under the theirs by conquest, beyond. Babylonish captivity. which the command did not (C) There are several more to extend ; and as to the idolatrous the same purpose interspersed, cities, they affirm that they and often repeated, in the four were first of all to forewarn last books of Mofes; which we them; and, if they forsook need not dwell longer upon. their idolatry, they were to be of the fame nature are also pared ; but, if they persisted, those which forbid all comhey were then to be destroy- merce, intercourse, contracting ed. They likewise understood of affinity with idolatrous na
Positive laws concerning the worship of the only tru
HAT the LORD, who delivered his law from moun concerning Sinai, is the only God in heaven and earth b (H): the true That he alone is to be loved with all one's heart, mind, worship and strength ç; that he only is to be feared above al of God. things d, and his name to be sanctified.
6 Exod. xx. 1. Deut. vi. 4. Ib. ver. 5.
a Ib. ver. 13
tions, and all kind of imitation some important mystery, as the of their ways, left they should Jews pretend, or whether alinsensibly draw them into their tered afterwards by accident, idolatries : of the fame kind or with design, is not easy to were those which condemned determine : sure it is, they not the use of familiar spirits, only urge
it an unanswerable inchantments, observing of argument against the Christian times and omens (1), divina- doctrine of the Trinity, but tions, resorting to wizards and from too. literal an interpretanecromancers, and fuch-like, tion of the verses following, under pain of death (2) ; as also they wore these words written the rounding of the corners, er on parchment about them, as temples, of the head, and bracelets and frontlets; and marring the corners of their placed them at their beds, beards, cutting their flesh, or doors, &c. just as it is there making any marks upon it (3), prescribed. Some antient fafor the sake of the dead; and thers (6) were of opinion, that lastly, the promiscuous use of this had been constantly pracapparel in either sex, in imita- tised from Mofes till after our tion of the Canaanites (4). SAVIOUR's time, and that he
(H) This precept in one wore them himself ; though place (5) begins thus: ynw upon what foundation is hard
. Lightfoot Hear, O Israel; the Lord our believe, that they were used God, the LORD [is] one ; in our Saviour's time (7) where it is observed, that the and St. Jerom affures us, that y ain in the first, and then they were so in his; and that daleth in the last word, are, those who did not wear them majuscula, or letters of a larger upon their foreheads were fize than the rest. Whether esteemed irreligious (8). Howthey were originally written in ever that be, it is not to be that manner, as containing doubted, but that their fuper
(1) Levit. xix, 26, 31, & alib. (2) Deut. xviii. 9, & seq. (3) Levir. xix. 27, & feq. (4) Deut. xxii. 5, &c. (5) Deut. vi. 4. (6) Orig. Chryje). Hieron. Eupwym. in Matt. xxii. .7) Lightfoot, Scaliger, Maldor, & a!, (8) Hieron. in Mart, xxiii. vide & Theopbylaet, in loca
ftition in this respect has still anity seem to have proved the gained ground ; this is plain, contrary from their most anfrom the many scrupulous tient writings (3); but, as niceties which they are bound profelytes are always suspected to observe in the making, wri- of being over-zealous, there ting, and casting of these phy. have not been wanting fome lacteries (1),
eminent Christians, who, after This verse, which they call a mature examination of their the shemab, from the first word evidence, have confirmed it, as of it, they are likewise obliged, we think, beyond all poflibility by an express command in the of replying. We shall single oral law, to repeat twice a only one from among those day; that is, in the morning many, not only as he was very at sunrising, and in the even- well versed in this kind of learning just as it is set. There is ing, but because, as he was not likewise a great deal of super- a priest, but a statesman, he ititious traih prescribed in the may be less suspected of par Talmud, about the repeating tiality ; we mean the great of the words ; the eyes, lips, Philippes de Mornay (4), who, and fingers, must be ftill, that among other antient authors, the mind may be wholly intent quotes rabbi Simeon ben Johai, upon the words ; some letters who, in his Zohar, a book, by are to be pronounced swiftly, the Jews, acknowleged to have and others slowly; no ordure, been written before the Talor dead carcase, ought to be mud, if not before CHRIST (5), nearer the place where the per quotes the exposition of rabbi Ibfon repeats it than four cubits ba, of this text, to this purport ; at least, and then be is to turn that the first 79.79 Jehovah, his back to it; but, if the which is the incommunicable place will not permit such a di- name of God, is the Father ;by Itance, the ordure is then to be probxElohim is meant theSon, covered up, and the eyes kept who is the fountain of all know, from it, and a great deal more lege ; and by the second 17970 to the same purport (2), which is meant the Holy Ghost, proit were needless to dwell longer ceeding from them, and he is upon. However, since they called 2018 Achad, one, beurge this text fo ftrenuously cause God is one. Ibba adds, againft the Christians, we shall that this mystery was not beg leave, before we dismiss to be revealed till the coming of this note, to examine whether the Messiah. The author of the antient Jews understood the Zohar goes on, and applieth it in the same sense as the mo. the word boly, which is thrice derns do : fome learned con- repeated in the vision of Isaiah verts from Judaism to Christi. (6) to the three Persons in the
(1) Vide Leon. de Moden. cæremon. Jud. part. i. c. 12. (2) Vide Wotton's verf. of tbe Mishnab, fub voc. Sbemab. (3) Vide, inter al. Raymond, Martin, pugio fidei, pall (3) Avertissement aux yuifs, c. 3. Vide, la laber, Meyer i beolog. de mysler. Trinit. Haveman, Yooden Vegh Wyzer, & a!. (5) Vide Buxt, fen. Tiberiad, in voc. 777 Zobar, Bartolos, & Wolf. biblia atb, rabbin, (6) Cb, yi. 3.
Deity, whom he elsewhere fingular ? [thus, for instance, calls three suns, or lights, three the first verse of Genefis says, sovereigns-without beginning, Elohim bara, where God is in and without end.
the plural, and created in the It must be owned, that the fingular, which our divines genuineness of this passage is have applied to the Trinity in disputed by the Jews, as well Unity]: and thirdly, why as the authority and antiquity God speaks in some places in of the book itself by some Chri- the plural number ; as, Let us ftians (1); but, as to the first, make man, &c. in our image, it is known, that they make &c. (3)! Now it is plain, no scruple of denying all that that to all these questions, or makes against them, and that rather objections, the Talmud where they dare not do it, as gives us no answers but what in the case of the sacred wri. are plainly illusory (4), and tings, they will manifestly per- such as the compilers would vert the sense, and appeal to most probably have suppressed, the oral law; and as for the as well as the questions, had Christians, it is to be feared they not designed thereby to they are all too apt to be par- make a kind of a tacitacknowtial to their favourite systems, legement, that these irregular and to overshoot the mark on expressions contained some both sides. However, though mystery, which they did not it is out of our province to think lawful to divulge. This enter any further into the con- was the reason why a learned troversy, how far the doc- rabbi (5), who was severely trine of the Trinity, was, or charged with having betrayed or might be, known to the the mysteries of his religion, antient Jews, from several because the streightness of his places of the Old Testament, circumstances had forced him urged against them; yet we to accept of the generous offer beg leave to make an obser- from a Roman cardinal, of a vation or two out of their Tal- large salary for teaching the mud, which seem to make very Hebrew tongue, protests, much againft them, because among other things, which they have not yet been taken he urges in his own vindicanotice of by any author that tion, that he had never so much we know of. There is one
as explained the first verse of section in it (2), written dia. Genefis. logue-wise, in which are fe- But what will convince our veral questions ; as first, why readers, that this was the case the names of God, Elohim, of the writers of the Talmud, Zabaoth, &c. are in the plural is the answer that is given in number? and secondly, why the chapter above quoted, to they are joined to verbs in the the question, why the throne
(1) Vide Woolf. bibliot, rabbin. N°2175. p. 1134, & feq.
(2) Trast. Sanbedring (3) Gen.i. 26. iii. 2:. & alib. (4) Vide sup. p. 10, in tbe (5) Elias Levit. vide pref. cjufd, in granmaz. Hebraic.