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Illustrated with MAPs, Cuts, Notes, &c.

A GENERAL INDEX to the Whole,

Ισορίας αρχαίας εξέρχεται μη κατανόει· εν αυτώς γαρ ευρήσους ακόπως, άπερ έτεροι συνήξαν έγκόπως.

Bafil. Imp. ad Leon. fil.



LONDON: Printed for T. OSBORNE, in Gray's-Inn ; A. Millar, in the Strand ; and J. Os Born, in Pater-nofter Row.


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Universal History,


Earliest Account of Time.


The Asiatic History to the Time of

ALEXANDER the Great.

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was a

The religion, government, laws; customs, learning;

art, and commerce, of the Jews. HE institution of the Jewish religion and common:The Jew. wealth is, by Moses; attributed wholly to God; ifh gofor which reason, Josephus makes no scruple to vernment

diftinguish the latter from all the other governments in the world; by the name of the

cracy, or a go-theocracy

. vernment under the immediate command and direction of God: and indeed, though this theocracy has often varied under Moses, Joshua, the judges, kings, and high-priests, and the divine authority differently interposed during those revolutions, yet God was still looked upon as the supreme monarch of the Israelites. We shall.fee, in the sequel of

a Cont. Apion. lib. ii. · VOL. III.



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their history, that he was the fole director of every mo-
mentous transaction under Mofes, and the dictator of the
main body of his laws." Joshua, though not honoured
so far as to receive the divine commands from the
mouth of God, yet consulted him by the urim, upon all
emergencies. The judges were valiant and wise men,
whom God made choịce of to govern the people, and to
deliver them, from time to time, from those thraldoms
which their frequent rebellions brought upon them. Ac-
cordingly, when Gideon had delivered them from the Mi-
dianites, and the people offered the government to him,
and his posterity, he modestly replied, that neither he, nor
his sons b, but the LORD God, should rule over them.
When, in process of time, their desire for a king was
grown to fuch a height, that all Samuel's expoftulations
could not divert them from it, though he told them, that,
by so doing, they rejected the LORD from ruling over
them; God was pleased to nominate Saul, and, after
him, David, to the regal dignity, and to make it heredi-
tary in the posterity of the latter, reserving to himself, ne-
vertheless, the power of altering the succession from the
eldest to a younger branch, whenever he thought fit ; as
he actually did in his immediate fucceffor Solomon. Nay,
we may fay, that God himself, foreseeing that they would
be for a kingly government, did referve to himself the
choice, and prescribed some wholsome laws for the conduct
of those who should enjoy the regal powerc; and if, at any
time, either the kings or the people refused to be directed
by him, or disobeyed the laws which he had given them,
they never failed of some severe punishment, to remind
them of their dependence, and to recall them to their duty.
The kings of Israel, indeed, after their revolt from those
of Judah, did reign more arbitrarily; but their endeavours
to thake off the yoke of God proved a fource of endless
evils to the rebellious tribes ; till, at length, when neither
his prophets exhortations and threatenings, nor his severe
judgments, could bring them to obedience, he intirely cast
them off, and condemned them to an endless captivity.
Thus not only the kingdom of Judah, but even that of
Ifrael, corrupt and idolatrous as it was, continued still
under a theocracy, until its dissolution. This is what will
more evidently appear by the sequel of this history.

As for their laws, the greatest part of them were given to
Moses on mount Sinai, and the rest at different times,


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