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the least degree conversant with sacred criticism, and having the use of his understanding, who would be willing to contend for the genuineness of the verse.” Dr. Pye Smith says, “That some learned writers have of late professed themselves satisfied of the authenticity of this passage, while they advance nothing but surmises, and conjectures, and mistakes almost incredible in the statement of facts, to counterbalance the weight of evidence on the other side, excites my astonishment and concern. ... The attempt to set aside the decision of impartial and honest criticism is painfully discreditable .... No Greek manuscript except three, which are quite modern; no ancient version, except the Latin (vulgate), and that only subsequent to the fifth century: no Greek, Syriac, or Latin Fathers (except a few Latin, beginning with Vigilius of Tapsus in the fifth century), have this addition. Also, internal evidence, from the want of connection, speaks against it."*
Of Acts xx. 28, Olshausen says, “ According to the critical authorities it is not possible to maintain the genuineness of the common reading." See Dr. Pye Smith.
In regard to 1 Tim. iii. 16, Bishop Marsh says, “ This reading Oéos is found a prima manu in not a single ancient manuscript in uncial letters, nor in a single ancient version except the Arabic, which is of very little authority.” And Dr. Pye Smith confesses that the evidence is such as to prevent a rational acquiescence in the reading of our Common Version, If, therefore, the reader should not find the “positive assertions that Christ is God so incontrovertible” as to feel that to question this doctrine would be "violating those rules of sound common sense which he must apply to interpret every other classical work,” I do not think the three abandoned texts can be fallen back upon for support.
* Among many able writers on this question of criticism, Porson and Bishop Marsh may be particularly mentioned. Jones in his Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity, expresses his belief in the authenticity of verse 7, giving reasons, which, even if the facts were as he supposed them to be, would not bear comparison with the weight of evidence on the other side. His first argument is that St. Jerome upheld the passage, but the Preface in which that Father was regarded as doing this, is now given up as a forgery.
INQUIRY INTO THE EVIDENCE THAT CHRIST IS TO BE
WORSHIPPED CO-EQUALLY WITH THE FATHER.
" If different men, in carefully and conscientiously examining the Scriptures should arrive at different conclusions, even on points of the last importance, we trust that God, who alone knows what every man is capable of, will be merciful to him that is in error. We trust that He will pardon the Unitarian, if he be in error, because he has fallen into it from the dread of becoming an Idolator, of giving that glory to another which he conceives to be due to God alone. If the worshipper of Jesus Christ be in an error, we trust that God will pardon his mistake, because he has fallen into it from a dread of disobeying what he conceives to be revealed concerning the nature of the Son, or commanded concerning the honor to be given him. Both are actuated by the same principle—the fear of God; and though that principle impels them into different roads, it is our hope and belief that, if they add to their faith charity, they will meet in heaven.”-Bishop Watson's Theological Tracts, Preface, p. xvii., xviii.
AFTER what has already been said we may pass over the language addressed to angels, or Jehovah through them, by Abraham, Jacob, Moses, etc. Indeed there has been no attempt to prove, that Moses and the Patriarchs were conscious of worshipping the second person of the Trinity. Supposing the homage paid in the above instances to amount to worship in the highest sense, still, if Christ appear as an angel, and the angel be worshipped, either as the representative of Jehovah, or as a supernatural being, without the worshipper having any knowledge of Christ as the second person of the Trinity, I do not see how the worship can be regarded as proffered to him as God, or can be an example to us. But if it be right for us to adore the Lord Jesus co-equally with the eternal Father, we should doubtless find this truth set forth clearly in the New Testament; to which, therefore, we now turn.
And first, as to the meaning of TPOO KUVéw. The great question is, as Mr. Bickersteth says, what is the New Testament usage? “This word in the New Testament,” says Schleusner, “particularly denotes, with the head and body bent to shew reverence, and offer civil worship to any one, to salute any one so as to prostrate the body to the ground, and touch it even with the chin; a mode of salutation, which was almost universally adopted by eastern nations.” Such is the witness of one of our greatest authorities on New Testament Greek. But Mr. Bickersteth urges that TT POO KUVÉW is used fifteen times in reference to Christ, and comparatively so seldom with reference to mere human beings, that it must have with regard to him its most exalted meaning. This argument is very much like the one used in connection with the title “ Lord,” and I think the reader will perceive, assumes instead of proving the deity of Christ.
But let us have before us the actual occasions on which the term is employed, and I beg the reader to examine them carefully in order to ascertain their true bearing.
I. To Christ. “Where is he that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him," Matt. ii. 2. “And, behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt thou canst make me clean,” Matt. viii. 2. “While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, my daughter is even now dead, but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live,” Matt. ix. 18. “And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God.” Matt. xiv. 32, 33. “ Then came she (the woman of Canaan) and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me,” Matt. xv. 25. “Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him. And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left, in thy kingdom,” Matt. xx. 20, 21. “ And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All bail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him,” Matt. xxviii. 9. “And when they saw him they worshipped him, but some doubted,” Matt. xxviii. 17. “And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into Heaven. And they worshipped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: and were continually in the Temple, praising and blessing God,” Luke xxiv. 51–53. “Jesus said unto him (the man whose sight had been restored), Dost thou believe on the Son of God? .... And he said, Lord, I believe, and he worshipped him," John ix. 35–38. “And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him," Heb. i. 6. “ But when he (the possessed Gadarene), saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, and cried with a loud voice and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most