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speaka lies in hypocrisy." The impiety of the one is so notorious, that at the very first appearance it is manifestly discerned: the other is a “ mystery of iniquity,” as the apostle termeth it; “ iniquitas, sed mystica, id est, pietatis nomine palliata (so the ordinary Gloss expoundeth the place), an iniquity indeed, but mystical, that is, cloked with the name of piety.” And therefore they, who kept continual watch and ward against the one, might sleep while the seeds of the other were a sowing ; yea, peradventure might at unawares themselves have some hand in bringing in of this Trojan horse, commended thus unto them under the name of religion and semblance of devotion. Thirdly, that the original of errors is oftentimes so obscure, and their breed so base, that howsoever it might be easily observed by such as lived in the same age, yet no wise man will marvel, if in tract of time the beginnings of many of them should be forgotten, and no register of the time of their birth found extant. We read that the Sadducees taught there were no gels: is any man able to declare unto us, under what high priest they first broached this error? The Grecians, Circassians, Georgians, Syrians, Egyptians, Habassines, Muscovites, and Russians, dissent at this day from the Church of Rome in many particulars: will you take upon you to shew in what bishops' days these several differences did first arise? When the point hath been well scanned, it will be found, that many errors have crept into their profession, the time of the entrance whereof you are not able to design : and some things also are maintained by you against them, which have not been delivered for catholic doctrine in the primitive times, but brought in afterwards, yourselves know not when.

Such, for example, is that sacrilege of yours, whereby you withhold from the people the use of the cup in the Lord's Supper; as also your doctrine of indulgences and purgatory: which they reject, and you defend. For,


6 2 Thess. chap. 2. ver. 7.

a 1 Tim. chap. 4. ver. 1, 2. ¢ Acts, chap. 23. ver. 8.

touching the first, Gregorius de Valentia, one of your principal champions, confesseth, that the use of receiving the sacrament in one kind began first in some churches, and grew to be a general custom in the Latin Church not much before the council of Constance, in which at last (to wit, two hundred years ago) this custom was made a law. But if you put the question to him as you do to us, What bishop of Rome did first bring in this custom ? he giveth you this answer, that it " began to be used, not by the decree of any bishop, but by the very use of the churches, and the consent of the faithful." If you further question with him, “ Quando primum vigere cæpit ea consuetudo in aliquibus ecclesiis ? when first did that custom get footing in some churches?" he returneth you for answer, “ Minime constat:" it is more than he can tell.

The like doth Fisher bishop of Rochester, and cardinal' Cajetan, give us to understand of indulgences; that no certainty can be had, what their original was, or by whom they were first brought in. Fisher also further addeth concerning purgatory: that in the ancient fathers there is either none at all, or very rare mention of it; that by the Grecians it is not believed, even to this day; that the Latins also, not all at once but by little and little, received it: and that, purgatory being so lately known, it is not to be marvelled, that in the first times of the Church there was no use of indulgences; seeing these had their beginning, after that men for a while had been affrighted with the torments of purgatory. Out of which confession of the adverse part you may observe: 1. What little reason these men have, to require us to set down the precise time wherein all their prophane novelties were first brought in: seeing that this is more than they themselves are able to do. 2. That some of them may come in pedetentim (as Fisher acknowledgeth purgatory did) by little and little, and by very slow steps, which are not so easy to be discerned, as fools be borne in hand they are. 3. That it is a fond imagination, to suppose that all such changes must be made by some bishop, or any one certain author : whereas it is confessed, that some may come in by the tacit consent of many, and grow after into a general custom, the beginning whereof is past man's memory.

d Valent. de legit. usu euchar. cap. 10.
e Roffen. assert. Lutheran. confutat. artic. 18.

Cajet, opusc. tom. 1. tract. 15. de indulgent. cap. 1.

And as some superstitious usages may draw their original from the indiscreet devotion of the multitude, so some also may be derived from want of devotion in the people; and some alterations likewise must be attributed to the very change of time itself. Of the one we cannot give a fitter instance, than in your private mass, wherein the priest receiveth the sacrament alone: which Harding" fetcheth from no other ground, than “ lack of devotion of the people's part.” When you therefore can tell us, in what pope's days the people fell from their devotion; we may chance tell you, in what pope's days your private mass began. An experiment of the other we may see in the use of the Latin service in the churches of Italy, France, and Spain. For if we be questioned, When that use first began there? and further demanded, Whether the language, formerly used in their liturgy, was changed upon a sudden? our answer must be, that Latin service was used in those countries from the beginning : but that the Latin tongue at that time was commonly understood of all; which afterward by little and little degenerated into those vulgar languages which now are used. When you therefore shall be pleased to certify us, in what pope's days the Latin tongue was changed into the Italian, French, and Spanish, which we pray you do for our learning; we will then give you to understand, that from that time forward the language, not of the service, but of the people, was altered. “ Nec enim lingua vulgaris populo

% So saith Bonfrerius, the Jesuit, of the vulgar Latin edition of the Bible. Pedetentim usu ipso et tacita doctorum approbatione cæpit esse in pretio, hac æstimatione sensim sine sensu crescente. præloqu. in scriptur. cap. 15. sec. 2.

h Hard. answer to the first article of Jewell's challenge. fol. 26. b. cdit. Antwerp. ann. 1565.

i Allen. artic. 11. demand. 9.

unto you.

subtracta est, sed populus ab ea recessit, saith Erasmusk, the vulgar tongue was not taken away from the people ; but the people departed from it.”

If this which I have said will not satisfy you; I would wish you call unto your remembrance the answer, which Arnobius sometimes gave, to a foolish question propounded by the enemies of the Christian faith: “Nec' si nequivero causas vobis exponere, cur aliquid fiat illo, vel hoc modo, continuo sequitur, ut infecta fiant quæ facta sunt.” And consider whether I may not return the like answer

If I be not able to declare unto you by what bishop of Rome, and in what pope's days, the simplicity of the ancient faith was first corrupted; it will not presently follow, that what was done must needs be undone. Or rather, if you please, call to mind the parable in the Gospel, where the kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man, which sowed good seed in his field; but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among

the wheat, and went his way." These that slept took no notice, when or by whom the tares were scattered among the wheat; neither at the first rising did they discern betwixt the one and the other, though they were awake. But " when" the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares:" and then they put the question unto their master; “Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ? from whence then hath it tares?” Their master indeed telleth them, it was the enemy's doing: but you could tell them otherwise, and come upon them thus. You yourselves grant, that the seed which was first sown in this field was good seed, and such as was put there by your master himself. If this which you call tares be no good grain, and hath sprung from some other seed than that which was sown here at first ; I would fain know that man's name, who was the sower of it; and likewise the time in which it was sown.

* Erasm. in declarationib. ad censuras Parisiens. tit. 12. sec. 41. 1 Arnob. lib. 2. contra gentes. m Mat. chap. 13. ver. 24, 25. " Mat. chap. 15. ver. 26, 27.

Now you being not able to shew either the one or the other, it must needs be that your eyes here deceive you: or if these be tares, they are of no enemy's, but of your master's own sowing.

To let pass the slumberings of former times, we could tell you of an age, wherein men not only slept, but also snorted : it was, if you know it not, the tenth from Christ, the next neighbour to that wherein hello broke loose. That “unhappyp age," as Genebrard, and other of your own writers term it, “ exhausted both of men of account for wit and learning, and of worthy princes and bishops.” In which there were “no9 famous writers, nor councils ;" than which, if we will credit Bellarmine, there was never age “ more' unlearned and unhappy." If I be not able to discover what feats the devil wrought in that time of darkness, wherein men were not so vigilant in marking his conveyances; and such as might see somewhat, were not so forward in writing books of their observations: must the infelicity of that age, wherein there was little learning, and less writing, yea, which “ for want of writers," as cardinal Baronius' acknowledgeth, “ hath been usually named the obscure age;" must this, I say, enforce me to yield, that the devil brought in no tares all that while, but let slip the opportunity of so dark a night, and slept himself for company? There are other means left unto us, whereby we may discern the tares brought in by the instruments of Satan, from the good seed which was sown by the apostles of Christ; beside this observation of times and seasons, which will often fail us. “ Ipsat doctrina eorum," saith Tertullian, "cum apostolica comparata, ex diversitate et contrarietate sua pronuntiabit, neque apostoli alicujus auctoris esse, neque apostolici : their very doctrine itself, being compared with the apostolic, by the

• Apoc. chap. 20. ver. 7.

p Infelix dicitur hoc seculum, exhaustum hominibus ingenio et doctrina claris, sive etiam claris principibus et pontificibus. Genebr. chron. lib. 4.

p Bellarm. in chronol. ann. 970. r Id. de Rom. pontif. lib. 4. cap. 12. s Baron. annal. tom. 10. ann. 900. sec. 1. 1 Tertull. præscript. advers. hæret. cap. 32.

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