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soning after this manner. “ MARCUS. He saith that Abraham is in hell, and not in the kingdom of heaven. ADAMANTIUS. Read whether he saith that Abraham was in hell. Marc. In that the rich man and he talked one to the other, it appeareth that they were together. ADAMANT. That they talked one with another, thou hearest; but the great gulf spoken of, that thou hearest not. For the middle space between heaven and earth he calleth a gulf. Marc. Can a man therefore see from earth unto heaven? it is impossible. Can any man lifting up his eyes behold from the earth, or from hell rather see into heaven? if not; it is plain, that a valley only was set betwixt them. ADAMANT. Bodily eyes use to see those things only that are near, but spiritual eyes reach far; and it is manifest that they, who have here put off their body, do see one another with the eyes of their soul. For mark how the Gospel doth say, that he lifted up his eyes: toward heaven one useth to lift them up, and not toward the earth.” In like manner doth Tertulliand also retort the same place of Scripture against Marcion, and prove that it maketh a plain difference between hell and the bosom of Abraham. “For it affirmeth (saith he) both that a great deep is interposed betwixt those regions, and
• ΜΑΡΚΟΣ. Εν τω άδη είπεν είναι τον Αβραάμ, ουκ εν τη βασιλεία των ουρανών. ΑΔΑΜΑΝΤΙΟΣ. 'Ανάγνωθι ότι εν τω άδυ λέγει τον 'Αβραάμ. ΜΑΡΚ. Από του συνομιλείν αυτώ τον πλούσιον, δείκνυνται ομού όντες. ΑΔΑΜΑΝΤ. Το όμιλείν προς αλλήλους ήκουσας, το δε λεγόμενον χάσμα μέγα ουκ ήκουσας. του γάρ ουρανού και της γης το μέσον χάσμα λέγει. ΜΑΡΚ. δύναται ούν τις από της γης έως ουρανού οράν και αδύνατον επάρας τους οφθαλμούς αυτού ιδείν δύναται τις από γής, ή μάλλον από το άδου εις τον ουρανόν οράν ; ει μη δήλον ότι φάραγξ ήν εν μέσω αυτών. ΑΔΑMANT. Οι σωματικοί οφθαλμοί τα έγγιστα μόνον πεφύκασιν οράν οι δε ψυχικοί εις μήκος αποτείνονται. και δήλον, ότι το σώμα εντεύθεν αποθέμενοι, τοϊς της ψυχής όμμασιν ορώσιν αλλήλους. Πρόσχες γάρ, πως λέγει το ευαγγέλιον, ότι επάρας τους οφθαλμούς αυτού, εις τον ουρανόν πέφυκεν επαίρειν, και ουκ εις την γην. Orig. dial. 2. contr. Marc. Op. tom. 1. pag. 827.
d Respondebimus, et hac ipsa scriptura revincente oculos ejus, quae ab infernis discernit Abrahæ sinum pauperi: aliud enim inferi, ut puto, aliud quoque Abrahæ sinus. Nam et magnum ait intercedere regiones istas profundum, et transitum utrinque prohibere. Sed nec allevasset dives oculos, et quidem de longinquo, nisi in superiora, et de altitudinis longinquo per immensam illam distantiam sublimitatis et profunditatis. Tert. advers. Marcion. lib. 4. cap. 34.
that it suffereth no passage from either side. Neither could the rich man have lifted up his eyes, and that afar off, unless it had been unto places above him, and very far above him, by reason of the mighty distance betwixt that height and that depth.”
Thus far Tertullian : who, though he come short of Adamantius, in makinge Abraham's bosom not to be any part of heaven, although no member at all of hell; yet doth he concur with him in this, that it is a place of bliss, and a common receptacle wherein the souls of all the faithful, as well of the New as of the Old Testament, do still remain in expectation of the general resurrection: which quite marreth the Limbus Patrum of our Romanists, and the journey which they fancy our Saviour to have taken, for the fetching of the fathers from thence.
With these two doth St. Augustine also join in his ninety-ninth epistle to Euodius : concerning whose judgment herein, I will not say the deceitful, but the exceeding partial, dealing of cardinal Bellarmine can very hardly be excused. Although' Augustine,” saith he, “ in his ninety-ninth epistle do seem to doubt, whether the bosom of Abraham, where the souls of the fathers were in times past, should be in hell, or somewhere else; yet in the twentieth book of the City of God, the fifteenth chapter, he affirmeth that it was in hell, as all the rest of the fathers have always taught.” If St. Augustine in that epistle were of the mind, as he was indeed, that Abraham's bosom was no part of hell, he was not the first inventor of that doctrine; others taught it before him, and opposed Marcion for teaching otherwise. Súv te dú špxouévw' alone he went not, two there were at least, as we have
e Eam itaque regionem sinum dico Abrahæ, etsi non cælestem, sublimiorem tamen inferis, interim refrigerium præbituram animabus justorum, donec consummatio rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine mercedis expungat. Id. ibid.
Augustinus, etsi in epist. 99. ambigere videtur, an unus Abraham, ubi erant animæ patrum olim, in inferno esset, an alibi : tamen lib. 20. de civit. Dei, cap. 15. affirmat in inferno fuisse ; ut cæteri omnes patres semper docuerunt. Bellarm. de Christ. lib. 4. cap. 11. in fine.
seen, that walked along with him in the same way. But for that which he is said to have doubted of in one place, and to have affirmed in another; if the indifferent reader will be pleased but to view both the places, he shall easily discern that the cardinal looked not into these things with a single eye. In his ninety-ninth epistle, from that speech of Abraham: “ Between you and us there is a great gulf fixed," he maketh this inference : “ In these words it appeareth sufficiently, as I think, that the bosom of so great happiness is not any part and member of hell.” These seem unto the cardinal to be the words of a doubtful man: with what words then, when he is better resolved, doth he affirm the matter? With these forsooth. it do seem no absurdity to believe that the old saints, which held the faith of Christ to come, were in places most remote from the torments of the wicked, but yet in hell; until the blood of Christ, and his descent into those places, did deliver them; truly from henceforth the good and faithful, who are redeemed with that price already shed, know not hell at all.” If,“ satis ut opinor apparet, it appeareth sufficiently, as I think,” must import doubting, and “ si non absurde credi videtur, if it do seem no absurdity to believe,” affirming: I know not, I must confess, what to make of men's speeches.
The truth is : St. Augustine in handling this question discovereth himself to be neither of the Jesuit's temper nor belief. He esteemed not this to be such an article of faith, that they who agreed not therein must needs be held to be of different religions; as he doth modestly propound the reasons, which induced him to think that Abraham's bosom was no member of hell: so doth he not lightly reject the opinion of those that thought otherwise, but leaveth it still as a disputable point. “Whether that bosom of Abraham where the wicked rich man, when he was in the torment of hell, did behold the poor man resting, were either to be accounted by the name of paradise, or esteemed to appertain unto hell, I cannot readily affirm,” saith he in one place; and in another : “ Whether Abraham were then at any certain place in hell, we cannot certainly define;" and in his twelfth book, de Genesi ad literam: “I have not hitherto found, and I do yet inquire ; neither do I remember that the canonical Scripture doth any where put hell in the good part. Now that the bosom of Abraham, and that rest, unto which the godly poor man was carried by the angel, should not be taken in the good part, I know not whether any good man can endure to hear ; and therefore how we may believe that it is in hell, I do not see.” Where it may further also be observed, that St. Augustine doth here assign no other place to this godly poor man, than he doth unto the souls of all the faithful, that have departed since the coming of our Saviour Christ: the question with him being alike of them both, whether the place of their rest be designed by the name of hell or paradise. Therefore he saith, “ I" confess I have not yet found that it is called hell, where the souls of just men do rest;" and again, “How much more after this life may that bosom of Abraham be called paradise; where now there is no temptation, where is so great rest after all the griefs of this life? For neither is there wanting there a proper kind of light and of its own kind, and doubtless great; which that rich man out of the torments and darkness of hell, even from so remote a place, where a great gulf was placed in the midst, did so behold, that he might there take notice of the poor man whom sometime he had despised.” And elsewhere expounding in the sixteenth of St. Luke, “ The bosom of Abraham," saith he,“ is the rest of the blessed poor, whose is the kingdom of heaven, in which after this life they are received.”
8 Quanquam in his ipsis tanti magistri verbis, ubi ait dixisse Abraham, Inter vos et nos chaos magnum firmatum est ; satis, ut opinor, appareat non esse quandam partem et quasi membrum inferorum tantæ illius felicitatis sinum. Augustin. epist. 99. al. 164. Op. tom. 2. pag. 575.
h Si enim non absurde credi videtur, antiquos etiam sanctos, qui venturi Christi tenuerunt fidem, locis quidem a tormentis impiorum remotissimis, sed apud inferos fuisse, donec eos inde sanguis Christi, et ad ea loca descensus erueret : profecto deinceps boni fideles effuso illo pretio jam redempti, prorsus inferos nesciunt, donec etiam receptis corporibus bona recipiant quæ merentur. Id. de civit. Dei, lib. 20. cap. 15. .
1 Utrum sinus ille Abrahæ, ubi dives impius cum in tormentis esset inferni requiescentem pauperem vidit, vel paradisi censendus vocabulo, vel ad inferos pertinere existimandus sit : non facile dixerim. Id. epist. 187. Op. tom. 2. pag. 679.
Etenim apud inferos utrum in locis quibusdam fuisset jam Abraham; non satis possumus definire. Id. in Psal. 85. Op. tom. 4. pag. 912.
Proinde, ut dixi, nondum inveni, et adhuc quæro, nec mihi occurrit inferos alicubi in bono posuisse Scripturam duntaxat canonicam. Non autem in bono accipiendum sinum Abrahæ, et illam requiem, quo ab angelis pius pauper ablatus est, nescio utrum quisquam possit audire : et ideo, quo modo eum apud inferos credamus esse, non video. Id. de Gen. ad lit. lib. 12. cap. 33. Op. tom. 3. pag. 321.
o Quanquam et illud me nondum invenisse confiteor, inferos appellatos, ubi justorum animæ requiescunt. Id. ibid.
Quanto magis ergo post hanc vitam etiam sinus ille Abrahæ Paradisus dici potest; ubi jam nulla tentatio, ubi tanta requies post omnes dolores vitæ hujus ? Neque enim et lux ibi non est propria quædam et sui generis, et profecto magna; quam dives ille de tormentis et tenebris inferorum, tam utique de longinquo cum magnum chaos esset in medio, sic tamen vidit, ut ibi illum quondam contemptum pauperem agnosceret. Id. ibid. cap. 34. pag. 321.
Bede, in his commentaries upon the same place, and Strabus in the ordinary gloss, do directly follow St. Augustine in this exposition; and the Greek interpreter of St. Luke, who wrongly beareth the name of Titus Bostrensis, and Chrysostom, for proof thereof produceth the testimony of Dionysius Areopagita," affirming, that by the bosoms of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, those blessed resting-places are designed, which do receive the just unto their never-fading and most blessed perfection.” The words that he hath relation unto be these, in the seventh chapter of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy: “ The bosoms of the blessed patriarchs and of all the rest of the saints are, as I think, the most divine and blessed resting-places, which do receive all such as are like unto God, into that never-fading and most blessed perfection that is therein.”
• Sinus Abrahæ requies est beatorum pauperum, quorum est regnum cælorum, in quo post hanc vitam recipiuntur. Id. quæst. evangel. lib. 2. cap. 38. Op. tom. 3. par.
264. Ρ Κόλπους δέ τού 'Αβραάμ, και του Ισαάκ, και του Ιακώβ, ο Διονύσιος 'Αρεοπαγίτης τάς μακαρίας λήξεις φησι τας υποδεχομένας τους δικαίους εις την αυτών αγήρων και μακαριωτάτην τελείωσιν. Τit. Bostr. in in. cap. 16. Lucæ.
4 Κόλποι δέ εισιν, ώς oίμαι, των μακαρίων πατριαρχών και των λοιπών αγίων απάντων αι θειόταται και μακάρισται λήξεις, αι τους θεοειδείς υποδεχόμεναι πάντας, εις την εν αυταίς αγήρων και μακαριωτάτην τελείωσιν. Dionys. eccl. hier. cap. 7.