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painted and plumed, and seated themselves in a circle upon the ground in the shadow of “Stowe's Castle," and invited General Cleaveland to a seat in the center of the group. Cato made the opening speech, to which General Cleaveland replied in a manner so conciliatory and pleasing to the Indians that the chiefs presented him at once the "pipe of peace” with some silver trinkets of value. He accepted the gifts, and after smoking the “pipe of peace” with the Indian counselors, he returned the compliment by presenting the chiefs with a keg of whisky and a liberal quantity of glass beads for their squaws. This settled at once all objections on the part of the Indians to the further progress of the survey.
General Cleaveland was familiarly called “Moses” by the surveyors, because he led them into the wilderness, and was expected to lead them through it. He remained about two weeks at Conneaut, and then proceeded with a small detachment of surveyors on his way up the lake in an open boat, with a view to commence surveys at the confluence of the Cuyahoga river. On the voyage he discovered a river, not traced on his map, which he supposed to be the Cuyahoga. He entered its channel, and after much toil and delay discovered that it was a “Mistake of Moses,” and retraced his 'steps so chagrined that he instantly named this unknown river the “Chagrin,” a significant designation by which it has ever since been known.
After correcting this Mosaic mistake, he reached the veritable Cuyaboga river on the 22nd of July, and in attempting to land on its eastern bank near the foot of Union Lane, ran his boat aground. Here “Moses” found himself cradled, like his ancient namesake, among the bulrushes. He and his party, however, succeeded in extricating themselves without serious difficulty, ascended the steep bluff, and were greatly delighted in beholding a beautiful plain of woodland, stretching away to the south, east, and west of them as far as the eye could reach, and seeming like a shoreless sea of waving foliage. While standing on this angular nook of land, formed by the junction of the river with the lake, General Cleaveland predicted that here was the spot where a great commercial city would arise at no distant day, and give tone and character not only to western commerce, but to Western civilization. So impressed was he with this belief that he directed a survey of this angular nook of land into city lots, and while hesitating in the selection of an appropriate name for his predicted city, his associates in the survey came to his relief and named it “Cleaveland,” in honor of their respected chief of staff. The General blushed, bowed, and accepted the compliment.
From her baptismal day the infant city of Cleveland grew in strength and in beauty, and with her growth grew the “region round about;" and yet the city, though now possessing a population of 170,000, is still in her infancy, or rather
girlhood, sitting enthroned like a queen on the emerald bank
Hail, Columbia, happy land!
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause;
Let independence be our boast,
CHORUS-Firm-united let us be,
Rallying 'round our Liberty,
Immortal patriots! rise once more;
Invade the shrine where sacred lies
While offering peace sincere and just,
And every scheme of bondage fail.
6.---Historical Address, By S. E. Adams, Esq.
An historical address can be little more than a brief recapitulation of human transactions and social events gleaned from historical records and unwritten tradition. Originality in such an address is hardly possible. For my present purpose I have therefore gathered a posy of other men's flowers, and little else than the thread that binds them is mine. An irresistible fascination attaches to the early history of every people. We long to penetrate that mysterious veil which the flight of ages has flung around the cradle of our race. How earnestly we scrutinize the oldest records which may possibly shed a ray of light upon the long-forgotten past. History furnishes but little aid or encouragement to the archæologist in the study of anthropology, and not until recent years could the archæologist trace the memorials of man further back than about the beginning of written history. But now he can confidently point us to mementoes of man in this and other lands which date so
far back in the long series of eventful years, and so infinitely beyond the first dim glimmerings of history and tradition, that they know nothing about them, nor do they even mention them—of a time far anterior to the formation and gradual approach of that vast bódy of ice which scooped and hollowed out the rocky basin in which rests our beautiful Lake Erie; of a time long before the wonderful grottoes and caves of Kentucky were formed by the slow percolation of acidulated water through the solid rock. To the archæologist the massive structures of the Mound Builders, and the races who immediately preceded them, however venerable their antiquity, are but the work of yesterday. He has arranged the memorials of pre-historic man under three groups, and adopted a classification predicated upon differential features presented by prehistoric weapons, implements and personal ornaments, of stone bronze and iron. But a detailed statement of the evidence which geology and archæology furnish of the great antiquity of man would take me beyond the limits I have prescribed for this address.
Assuming that what has transpired within the last quarter of the century just closed, to enhance the growth and commercial prosperity of our city, is familiar to all members of this association, I shall attempt nothing more than a partial and imperfect digest of earlier events in the history of Cleveland.
far back as 1749, the mouth of the Cuyahoga was