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interest of our State. Truly women of all classes are becoming aroused to our conditions, and are joining heartily in asking for such reforms as will bring about the betterment of our sex, and thus elevate the condition of society at large.

The line of work which has been adopted by the Federation of Women's Clubs in Georgia has been strongly endorsed by the most prominent educators of the State, who realize that the influence of 2,000 women throughout the State, brought to bear upon a subject which they are seriously studying, cannot fail to be productive of great good to the public. A certain class of women in the world find at their disposal a large amount of leisure, which condition is not the result of neglected duties, but simply the result of changed conditions, whereby domestic work is greatly facilitated and the tedious drudgery of oldtime household labor is relieved by appliancès of machinery. For years the pent-up energies of women have been struggling for an outlet. Unusual activity among women in church work is the most favored course of action, while much surplus energy is given out in the social world, often going beyond the dictates of reason, and making a devotee to society of the woman who, if by education had been led to higher things, would have been a power for good in worthier walks of life. In view of these facts, I consider this organized movement among the club women of our State one of great importance, in that it gives to women of leisure a means of becoming useful to others, and at the same time instructs them in conditions which should be familiar to all women who are mothers of families.

The fact that in the United States there are four millions women who are wage-earners, and that forty thousand of these are schoolteachers, is sufficient reason for the recent demand of women to be recognized upon the boards of education. It seems highly proper that women should be allowed a voice in matters pertaining not only to the governing of children, but that they are the proper persons to stand between the outside world and this great army of women laborers. We all know that the watchful, intelligent care of a woman has saved many homes from ruin and added many dollars to the domestic treasury; and this broadening of woman's sphere is only an enlargement of her duties as home maker and home-keeper, for the public good.

The result of our first year's labor has resulted in the formulation and presentation, by the educational committee, of two bills to the house of representatives: one to multiply the offices in the educational field for women, and the other prays that women may be given equal educational privileges with men. However perfect may be the edu

cation of a woman in our State to-day, there is no possible way for her to be benefited by this superior ability to perfom duties of higher office work while woman is regarded in the light of a frivolous, weak creature, incapable of protecting herself in life without the stern rulings of the law as to where she shall find the limitations of her sphere, and where it is proper that she should labor. Our daily journals are teeming with cautions to the law-makers of Georgia against "paternalism," that form of legislation which goes so far as to become tyrannical.

Turn on the light, and in the name of Justice abandon this paternalism which governs every ruling of law when woman's cause is presented for broader fields of work or for higher education for women. It would seem that the justice of this demand for equal educational privileges would be the only appeal necessary to insure the ready passage of our bill; but, alas! men must be convinced of the individual strength or weakness of every woman in the State who may become an applicant for the benefits of our University. No one, they say, disputes the justice of the demand; but we must stop and legislate upon the moral bearing of the question, as regards our beautiful womanhood, and see that higher education is not obtained unless the atmosphere of the University be free from temptations. We shall patiently wait to see this wonderful dream realized, when the wise law-makers of our country find a condition where life exists free from temptations, or where ignorance can be made a weapon of defense in wageing the battle of life. By the defeat of our bill it may be that Georgia women shall be forced to remain in their present narrow sphere in a State which stands only third from the bottom in intelligence, while the march of progress in educational matters shall be led by women of other Southern as well as Northern States, until we of Georgia shall furnish to the world a picture strangely in contrast with that of the strong, broad-minded, intelligent masses of women who are so far ahead of us already in the enjoyment of these privileges, and we shall continue to send our money and our daughters abroad, and the poor man's daughter shall continue to drudge and rise no higher in the scale of intelligence than the present law allows.


American Women in Education.

"The best service which any woman can render her town, or neighborhood, is to study the needs of its public schools.”—Clare de Graffenreid.

It gives the Chairman of the Educational Committee peculiar pleasure, in support of the chosen work of the General and State Federations, to quote this text from a Southern woman--a woman whose marked ability as a writer and statistician has been recognized by the general government by appointing her to collect labor and educational statistics, both in Europe and America. In the course of a delightful article in the Woman's Halloween edition of the Augusta Herald she says, that "Mayor Strong's appointments of School Inspectors of New York city have been so wise and among women of such high merit and social position that to hold the unpaid office of School Inspector is not only fashionable but a real distinction."

Miss Grace Dodge and Mrs. Agnew were the pioneer women commissioners and worked important reforms in primary education in the Public Schools. Mrs. M. G. Van Rensellar, the famous writer on Architecture, Miss Bertha Draper, of the celebrated Draper family of scientists and authors, Mrs. Edw. Henderson, who was an Isolin, and Miss Jennie Collins, the first wealthy property owner to improve the wretched tenements of the working people, are among the School Inspectors of New York city.

Brooklyn has on its School Board five women representing various professions. The Superintendent of City Schools of Denver, Colorado, is a woman, while a woman ably fills the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction in the State of Wyoming.

The first woman to serve on the Board of Education of Chicago was Mrs. J. M. Flower, the President of the Chicago Woman's Club, and by popular vote of Illinois this able and zealous woman has been elected one of the Regents of the State University.

In Philadelphia, Miss Hallowell and Mrs. Munford, who serve on the School Board with rare efficiency, have solved the difficult problem of securing regular attendance and good work from the hitherto indifferent and idle negro and Italian pupils frequenting the Fortin

School, so long in disrepute. The woman's wit and patient thought of these two women accomplished what excellent teachers and a capable Board of Education had failed to do. They succeeded by discarding the routine methods, using, as far as practicable, kindergarten principles, manual training and attractive interior decoration. In Buffalo, woman's influence, under the leadership of Mrs. Tift, has been directed to lessen the overcrowding and to secure proper ventilation, light and sanitation.

This has been called the Kindergarten age, so great has been the evolution in the method of teaching children. Who accomplished this reform in America? Mrs. Quincy Shaw, the daughter of Agassiz, devoted $50,000 a year to establishing kindergartens in Boston, and afterwards induced the city to adopt these schools into her system. Distinguished women in Chicago, in San Francisco, in St. Louis-all over the land-have been pioneers in this work. Women have also been instrumental in the next great movement of Industrial Education, by establishing manual training and cooking and sewing schools. On the other hand loving the "Holiness of Beauty," as well as the "Beauty of Holiness"—as our own Lanier exquisitely puts it—it has been mainly through woman's efforts that the aesthetic in education has received proper honor-that music and drawing are installed as part of the curriculum of public schools.

Why say any longer that women only follow where men lead? More and more, women are suggestors, originators, inventors. Is it not time that the women of Georgia should come forward and take a leading part in the educational work of the State? Twenty-one out of twenty-three states in the General Federation are pushing the subject of education as the theme of utmost importance to American women. The New York clubs call themselves "The Federation of Women's Clubs and Educational Association of New York." May the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs, likewise, become a strong working force for the cause of education, and may the newly awakened interest of the women mean, wherever it makes itself felt, advancement and progress, "sweetness and light."


VOL. 11.



No. 2.





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The Closing Year.

There is something unspeakably melancholy in these closing days of the old year. The growing darkness of December days foreshadows the darkness that will soon fall upon the closing hours. Whatthe year has been to the youngest as well as to the oldest, to the weakest as well as to the strongest it is drawing to a close. What we have done is done; what we have written is written. Just a few days hence, and the last lesson of the year will have been said, and the last task completed. To teachers, especially, it is a time for introspection as well as retrospection. A thousand questions come trooping into the mind of every faithful teacher of the little ones: "How far have I brought my children on the way of life? How many pages of the book of life have I opened to the tender and gracious eyes? How much of the spirit of the great Teacher have the children seen in me?

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