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Itinerant Teachers,

The State School Commissioner has recently had occasion to investigate the cause of so frequent changes of location on the part of our teachers. He has noticed that year after year many of the counties have almost an entirely new set of teachers. As a rule, from eighty to ninety per cent. of the teachers change their location every year. In one county last year, out of thirty-five white teachers only five remained this year. In another county, out of forty-five white teachers only seven remained this year. The colored teachers make no better record. Permanence of residence on the part of the teachers seems to be confined to those counties where local support is given to the schools.

The cause of such frequent changes seems to be a desire on the part of the teacher to better his financial condition. The teachers cannot be blamed for this, and yet the constant changing of teachers is working unspeakable harm to the school system. The legislature should insist that each county in the State receiving support from the State treasury should levy local tax for at least onefourth the amount that the State provides. This levy should be made by school districts or by counties. Many of our best teachers are leaving the profession in Georgia simply because they cannot provide for themselves and their families with the amount that they receive from the State. Tuition fees cannot be collected, and therefore the teachers are limited at present to the pittance that the State provides. The average pay of the white teacher in Georgia last year was $125.

It will be found by comparing this amount with the average pay elsewhere that the average pay of the Georgia teacher is a great deal below the average pay that teachers receive in many other States. The States in the Union are rapidly imposing a local tax for the support of the schools. As a rule, the State requires the local county or district to levy twice as much tax as the State provides. This secures a capable teacher, who is satisfied to remain at one place and do successful and permanent work.

We cannot build a satisfactory school system in. Georgia, or anywhere else, where the teachers are so poorly paid that they

become dissatisfied and move at the end of each school term. It is not only expensive to the teacher to move so often, but it is very costly to the children when they are required to have a new teacher at the beginning of every scool term. The law requires us to adopt books for five years. Why should we not alse "adopt " teachers for five years? It is more important to have permanent teachers fixed in their place of residence than it is to have an unchanged series of books. One boy said recently that he had three teachers in the last three school terms, and each teacher had carried him as far as South America in his geography. This constant changing of teachers is attended with a fearful waste of the child's time. and the people's money. The remedy is sufficient pay to secure a competent and permanently located teacher. It will require a local tax to do this.

The State has done as much as the State should be asked to do at the present time for the education of the children. The amount raised. by direct tax, together with the amounts that the State contributes from other sources, now amounts to over a $1,600,000. The State should not be asked to contribute any more to the public school fund. Whatever else is needed to perfect our school system should be contributed by the counties themselves in the shape of local taxation. We believe that the counties will come to appreciate more and more the value of their schools when they begin to contribute something from the county treasury to the support of the schools. The legislature has only to require that each county shall now begin to help in this matter, and we are sure that the counties will in a short while contribute all that is necessary to secure long-term schools, complete facilities, and to the support of as capable teachers as the people demand.

The New School Census.

The law requires that the census shall be taken every five years. The last census was taken in 1893. The regular time for the taking of the census again occurred this year. The returns of the census just taken are, in the main, extremely gratifying. The school population has increased fifty-five thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine. The school population for 1893 was six hundred and four thousand

nine hundred and seventy-one. In 1898 the school population is six hundred and sixty thousand eight hundred and seventy. The number of illiterates in 1893 was one hundred and fourteen thousand fivehundred and twenty-seven. In 1898 the number of illiterates is eighty-three thousand six hundred and sixteen, showing a decrease of illiteracy of thirty thousand, nine hundred and eleven. This is a decrease of eighteen and nine-tenths per cent. in five years. The tables given in the State School Commissioner's report show the relative decreease between the whites and colored. The tables will show also that the school population of the negro race is increasing at a more rapid rate than among the white race. The cost of taking the census in 1898 is $22,019.86. In 1893 it was $21,191.93. It will be observed that although we had an increase of fifty-five thousand children, yet the cost was but little more than in 1893. This shows that our county boards are extremely careful and have kept the expense of the census within reasonable bounds.

Good Things Said at the N. E. A.

DUTY OF STATE TO EDUCATION.-Universal education is the supreme duty of the State. The school must be placed within easy reach of every child born into American citizenship. The teacher must place his hands in blessing on the head of every child born under our flag. What the State demands of the school is not intelligence alone, but intelligence and virtue. The end measure of the school is character-a true and noble manhood.

In the center of our civilization is a little child. Take wise and loving care of that child and all human interests are secure. Neglect that child, and all human interests are in jeopardy.--Dr. Emerson E. White, Columbus, Ohio.

ONE RESULT OF THE WAR.-The new burden of preparing our united people for the responsibilities of a closer union with Europe and for a share in the dominion over the islands and continents of the Orient, this new burden will fall on the school systems in the several States, and more particularly on the colleges and universities that furnish the higher education. * There have been great emergencies and great careers have opened to American teachers in our former history, but you stand to-day on the vestibule of a still more important age, the age of the union of the new world with the old world.--Dr. W. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education.

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THE EFFECT OF SMALL SALARIES. The school cannot rise above the general level of social evolution. When society demands generous culture and a broad outlook upon life on the part of those who train youth, and is willing to reward teachers for the acquisition of these qualities, then, and not until then, will the possession of a college education be an essential requisite for teaching in the secondary school.-Prof. M. V. O'Shear, University of Wisconsin.

THE HYGIENE OF INSTRUCTION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS.--The wholesome development of the child's nervous system depends upon maintaining his interest in school work, fostering and directing his spirit of inquiry, and satisfying his love and need of activity. Substitution and suggestion must take the place of prohibition and repression. The true discipline is the self-control of interest.--G. W. Fitz, M. D., Assistant Professor of Physiology and Hygiene and Medical Visitor, Harvard University.

MENTAL FATIGUE.--The few guiding conclusions which may be drawn from these studies on fatigue are that in the presentation of that which is new fatigue takes place very rapidly. Pupils should, then, be given very short periods of intense work, this to be followed by a period of rest and recuperation. The best way in which this latter can be achieved is to give the child during these periods of recreation and repose the utmost physical freedom to do as he wishes and to follow his own bent.-Prof. Edward R. Shaw, Dean of the School of Fedagogy, New York University.

THE SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE.-The school of the future must be interesting. All the world appeals to our boys and girls. The field of sport in spring, summer and autumn, the daily paper, with its millions invested in tantalizing active minds, the magazines that are already threatening to become universities as well as libraries, will make it impossible for the school to hold the attention of the children and youth to intellectual discipline unless they match the money and genius of outside attractions with features of scholarship aud training that command their attention and respect. * * * The call is for the school of the future to enter in and possess the earth and the fullness thereof.-A. E. Winship, Editor Journal of Education.

Gerhard Hauptman.



Gerhard Hauptman's first drama, "Vor Sonnenaufgang" (Before Sunrise), was published in 1889. It deals with the problem of heredity, and presents the problem in one of its most significant aspects. Helene is the daughter of a drunkard, a rich peasant, a man whose dissipation has found expression in various vices. This daughter has been reared in altogether another environment, and the despair which might have been quite naturally her portion, when once in actual contact with this life of which she is a part, is for a time averted by the presence of Loth, a reformer, a creature of good intentions, but narrow and possessed of but little genuine manliness. When he realizes the nature of the curse which rests upon the family of the woman he loves, his sense of prudence outweighs all else; he leaves her, and though he may have deceived himself to the extent of believing that it was a sense of duty which prevented his risking the continuance of such an inheritance, his manner of dissolving the relation seems a desertion rather than a sacrifice. Helene, recognizing through this desertion the ban under which she lives, and goaded to desperation at the sight of the drunken father, takes her own life. We have in this pure, high-minded girl not vice certainly, but perhaps the conditions, and at the very least, the results of vice, for the lack of will-power, clearly evidenced by the so great reliance upon support outside of self, that the emotion aroused by the withdrawal of that support culminates in suicide, is just what an exteme hereditist would claim marks Helene as the child of dissipation. In this girl another rearing has superinduced quite other habits, quite other tastes than those which rule the home which should have been hers, but the first disappointment which overtakes her overwhelms her, and she succumbs, her only impulse to escape by violence, if necessary, a complication with which she feels herself unable to cope.

Gustav Kobbe, a warm admirer of Hauptman, and a critic of good ability, dwells especially upon the impression of completeness left by this drama. There is even a sense of satisfaction, he holds, in Helene's suicide, in that we realize that she has saved herself from two equally tragic fates-from her family and from the weakling who would probably have made her life as wretched as was her death. Undoubtedly there are situations from which no stage heroine can escape with dignity, except through death It is in this way that Shakespeare saves the guiltless Desdemona,

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