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and Dumas has resorted to the same means to rescue his not altogether blameless Camille, but in this case it seems to us that the author has produced a considerable drama in spite of and not because of the dénouement.

For in making quick work of a complicated situation by simply cutting short the career of his heroine, one feels that Hauptman has fallen back upon an old stage trick much in vogue so long as the race was content to passively submit to fate, but altogether inadequate since the acceptance that it is only through struggle and pain and abnegation that the individual can purchase salvation.

For since the acceptance of the doctrine of evolution, with its "sublime suggestion of the limitless possibilities of endless development," the thinking public has demanded that the essayist, novelist, dramatist and poet busy themselves with showing specifically and in detail just how higher states may be evolved from lower conditions.

If by selection, eradication and cultivation certain tendencies may be strengthed while others are checked, is it not peculiarly the office of the literateur and the artist to further the endless development of that civilization of which they are the exponent. Art never has and never can lie outside any question of ethics. Just as the sensation which seeks and finds satisfaction in sensation, culminates in sensuality, so society has been forced to recognize through the bitter experience of certain individuals that art for art's sake leads slowly perhaps, but certainly surely, to purposeless vaporing or rabid abnormality.

Das Friedenfest (The Peace Festival) followed Vor Sonnenaufgang, and again we have the curse ridden home, but with the acceptance that all human ills are but the result of the violation or disregard of nature's laws, it establishes a distinction rather than a difference to note, that the malady is in this instance not physical but mental.

The saving grace is in this case a pure and loving girl, who is introduced into the family by the one son who has remained untainted. It is claimed that Hauptman has made in this drama a double stroke; heredity is not invincible, and the regeneration has been brought about by the love of a a pure, unselfish woman, truly an idealistic touch. But if Helene falls short, this heroine certainly overshoots the mark. A pure loving nature is eminently suggestive, but if one claims that it is sufficient to neutralize, or even modify real evils, the burden of proof must lie with the claimant. Heredity is not invincible, but it can be

overcome only by the struggle and effort of the individual that has inherited. The fragrance of the violet and the beauty of the lily is never quite so marked or so attractive as when we find them blossoming in the midst of a morass. But do not let the finder make the mistake of thinking that the beauty and fragrance of the loveliest flower that grows can overcome a malarial environment. Cordelia was unable to stem the tide of her father's egotism and vanity, and though Falstaff would probably admire and cherish a worthy daughter-in-law, it is to be questioned if her influence would ever succeed in balancing the items of bread and sack. Heredity is not invincible, but it is to be overcome from within, not from without. We rather find in this heroine of Friedenfest an effort to reestablish that relation of the sexes where the aggressive masculine element is supposed to furnish the strength developed through experience, while of the feminine is demanded a virtue which derives its chief value from the fact that it is passive, subservient--a means to the end some man has in view, rather than a free agent working for its own fullest development.

The same sentiment, but not quite the same, that in Nietzsche's antagonism to the emancipated woman degenerates into a petulant wail.

But back to Ibsen and Hauptman: Where Ibsen seems bent upon probing social evils to the core, Hauptman is content to merely suggest their existence. With Ibsen it lay not only to plow the ground; he was forced to harrow and to fertilize before he could hope for even a meager crop. Thanks to the thoroughness of his system of cultivation, the younger man has had but to sow good seed and a rich harvest has been quickly gathered. If Hauptman has been able to secure a speedy hearing, it he has received wide recognition and deserved applause, it must not be forgotten that Ibsen it was who penetrated the primeval forest and by his vigor and persistence made habitable the very region whence Hauptman draws his audience. That the later dramatist is more pleasing and less drastic arises from two causes. First, Ibsen is the humanist, and uses art but as a vehicle for his gospel of salvation to him who labors. While Hauptman is essentially the artist and uses philosophy to vivify and animate his art. Secondly, the older man began his struggle with the social tendencies, while even advanced thinkers had scarcely grasped the idea that man's fate lies in man's own hands. The younger dramatist had digested and assimilated the very principles for which his predecessor fought before he formulated his first

work; and hence his "Die Versunkene Glocke" reaches a height to which Ibsen has never yet attained, while his dramas, as a whole, present a consummate grace and an artistic finish that could not have been imparted by the sturdy, uncompromising pioneer.

Unquestionably the creative impulse originates, as a rule, in the instinct or feeling of a race rather than in its intelligence, but any creation of art which claims to demand serious attention must meet the demands of intelligence. And since the promulgation of the gospel of the development-through the intervention of the organism and its environment-of higher forms from lower-a gospel which found its completest expression in the works of Charles Darwin, these demands have turned largely to the consideration of questions which involve social conditions and the means by which these conditions may be modified and improved. The earliest records of the race of which this later civilization is a development indicates, not merely a knowledge of, but a groping after the larger life. But it remained for the nineteenth century to become conscious that the seeking of this higher condition is life to the ethical man. In a dogmatic or didactic sense art is certainly not pedagogy, but pedagogy viewed as the science which investigates the facts of life in order that the intent of life may be enriched, makes demands upon art, and science and literature and law, and any domain of human thought which refuses to consider this demand soon ceases to appeal to the healthy normal public. The last decade of the nineteenth century has come to realize that democracy which is nothing more than the assertion of the inherent, though perhaps dormant, value of the individual involves an equal responsibility of individual initiative, and if the time has come when man-i. e., the individual-may be regarded as the source and standard of right, the time has also come when the individual must prove himself possessed of the power of progression. If external authority is to be ever so gradually set aside, the freed individual must show himself capable of self-government, and it is this eager desire for freedom, this longing for the enlarged life, which prompts the serious public to seek counsel concerning principles and methods by which a fuller development may be attained; and since the propagation of the species, nay the very continuance of life itself, is dependent upon the organic appetites, the most thoughtless of thinkers is coming to recognize that it is with these appetites that genuine progress must have its beginning. And since no man has lived or can live to himself, so it has come

to be recognized that the consensus of opinion that will form an effective working basis of progress can be reached only through the collective experience of individuals, through the conflict of opinion and above all, through the testimony of those who occupy altogether different standpoints.

And it is from just this standpoint that we maintain that it is not possible that art be wholly, or even partly outside the question' of ethics. The creative impulse originates in the race instinct, but it must be directed to ends indicated by race intelligence, and any creation of art must stimulate the ethical creature to an effort for the betterment of his methods and aims of life, or it will shortly cease to be considered at all. So when it is claimed that Hauptman does not write treatises, that he does not teach, the claim must be simply the assertion that his work is not didactic and that he himself is not a dogmatist, for after a different, and if one may say it, a more unconscious method, he is a more insistent propounder of problems than Ibsen himself.

Women Scientists.

M. Rebière's Les Femmes dans la Science is a book that bears remarkable witness to the actual activity of women workers in science. In spite of a false system of education that has developed the male mind and left the female in outer darkness, proceeding on the ground of the supposed advantage to motherhood resultant from the extreme specialization of women to the uses of maternity, there have arisen from time to time women strong enough to overcome all obstacles and work their arduous way up to scientific distinction.

Such a one was Maria Agnesi, the Milanese mathematician. Early styled the oracle in seven tongues, this Picodella Mirandola in petticoats, maintained, at nineteen, against all comers in the great bare salon of the ancestral palace, one hundred and ninety-one philosophical theses, and DeBroses described her in his "Lettres d'Italie" as a greater prodigy than the pinnacled cathedral. Yet she was entirely simple and girlish, nor unbeautiful in her youthfuful grace, with dark, wistful black eyes setting off a magnolia complexion. It was mathematics, however, and not philosophy, that evoked her true genius. Her great work, "Analytical Institutions," was published in Italian in 1748, and in English in 1801. Widespread homage was paid to the author, Pope Benedict XIV. sent her a jeweled crown, a gold medal and a diploma, appointing her professor of mathematics in the University of Bologna, and now, of all this fame that once was hers, Maria Agnesi is only remembered to-day by that curve of extraordi

nary properties, invented by her, called "The Witch of Agnesi ;" but until mathematical science itself shall be forgotten, this curve shall secure against oblivion the girl-analyst of Milan.

Her contemporary, Laura Bassi, took a doctor's degree at Bologna, a university famous for its girl-graduates. She was patronized by Cardinal Lambertine (afterwards Benedict XIV.), and held a "dispute" with Cardinal Polignae; then, in 1776, succeeded Balbi as professor of physics at the University of Bologna, and delivered lectures on state occasions in full academic panoply. The Emperor Joseph II. and the Elector of Bavaria assisted at her experiments. She died in 1798.

Of a totally different cast was Sophie Germain, "the Hypatia of the nineteenth century." A daughter of the Revolution, she lived abstractedly and died stoically of a terrible malady, July 17, 1831, aged fifty years. She ranks first among the founders of the theory of elasticity; corresponded with Gauss on the mysteries of numerical science, and distanced female competition up to date in mathematics.

In glancing over Rebiere's portrait collection of Femmes Savantes, I must not forget an unfinished sketch that particularly interested mc-the strange apparition of a little girl of eleven, whose feats in calculation electrified the London Stock Exchange one spring morning in 1819. The brief blaze was followed by total extinction. The heroine of one day relapsed on the next into the obscurity of Mile End, where her father, whose name was Ileywood, exercised the trade of a weaver. Who knows but what the most gifted mathematical mind of the age, potentially, expended itself in casting up petty household accounts.

Too much has already been lost to the world by this short-sighted policy of limiting the sphere of woman's activities. Even if woman is to be devoted exclusively to maternal duties, sound economic reform points out that the greatest need of the age is intelligent mothers. Moreover it cannot be proved that the devotion to maternal duties occupies the whole time of every human female; consequently there is an immense loss of force when a large number of persons, who might be powers in society, become, under a false disposition, mere dead weights. There is no telling how vastly social progress might be accelerated by a changed system of education calculated to develop the latent powers of women. There may be directions unheard of as yet in which women would excel if they had but the opportunity to learn. Indeed, now that we are beginning to offer anything like equal advantages to the youth of both sexes, women are making surprising advances along all lines.

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