of it; i.e. equal to 13 Roman pound; and 100 drachmae make one mina. Consequently a talent has 60 minae or 6000 drachmae. The same names and proportions occur in the Greek coins. The most common silver coin, which forms the unit in calculations, is the drachma (which is worth 6 oboli). It varies very much in weight, according to the different places and times, but in general it is considered equal to the Roman denarius. The Attic drachma, however, is somewhat better than the Roman denarius. (See Böckh, The Public Econom. of Athens, chap. 4. 2d edit. Engl. transl.) When compared with Roman money, a mina is equal to 4 aurei, and a talent to 240 aurei, or to 24,000 sestertii. Smaller [§ 875.] 5. The basis of Roman measures is the foot, pes, which, according to the most accurate calculations of modern scholars, contained 131 Paris lines, 144 of which make a Paris foot. The Roman foot is divided either, according to the general fractional system, into 12 unciae, or into 16 digiti (Sáκтvλo). measures are: semipes, foot; palmus, foot or 4 digiti, i. e. the breadth of a hand (waλaior), but in later times, and even down to the present day in Italy, the name palmus is transferred to the length of a span, and is equal to of a foot. Greater measures are: palmipes, a foot and a palmus, i. e. 1 foot; cubitus (Txus), 1 foot; passus, a pace, or 5 feet; actus, 120 feet, or 12 decempedae. The Greek stadium has 600 Greek and 625 Roman feet; 40 stadia are somewhat more than a geographical mile. On the Roman roads mile-stones were erected at intervals of 1000 passus, and such a Roman mile of 5000 feet contains 8 stadia, amounting to very little more than of a geographical mile, whereas a modern Italian mile is of a geographical one. 14 A Gallic leuca is 1 Roman mile. From leuca the French liene is formed, but the Franks assigned to it the length of 3 Roman miles. [§ 876.] A jugerum is a square measure of 240 feet in length, and 120 in breadth, that is 28,800 Roman square feet. Roman cubic measures for fluids are: the amphora or quadrantal, i. e. a Roman cubic foot; it contains 2 urnae, 8 congii, 48 sextari, 96 heminae, 192 quartarii, and 576 cyathi. There is only one larger measure, viz., the culeus, containing 20 amphorae. Greek cubic measures are: the metretes or cadus, equal to 1 amphora; it is divided into 12 xoûs, and 144 KOTÚλai, so that one KOTÚŋ is half a sextarius. An amphora of water or wine is said to weigh 80 Roman pounds, and consequently a congius would weigh 10, and a sextarius 13. As the sextarius, being the most common measure, contains 12 cyathi, these twelfths are denominated, like the 12 unciae of an as, according to the common fractional system, e. g. sextans, quadrans, triens vini, for ,,of a sextarius. ' Dry substances were chiefly measured by the modius, which is the third of an amphora, and accordingly contains 16 sextarü: 6 modii make a Greek medimnus. Respecting this whole subject the reader is referred to the excellent work of Joh. Fr. Wurm, De Ponderum, Nummorum, Mensurarum ac de Anni ordinandi Rationibus apud Romanos et Graecos, Stuttgardiae, 1821. 8vo. APPENDIX IV. NOTAE SIVE COMPENDIA SCRIPTURAE; OR ABBREVIATIONS OF WORDS. [§ 877.] MANY words and terminations of frequent occurrence are abridged in ancient MSS. as well as in books printed at an early time; e. g. atque is written atq3, per p; the termination us is indicated by 9, as in quib?, non by ñ, and m and n are frequently indicated by an horizontal line over the preceding vowel. Such abbreviations are no longer used in books, and whoever finds them in MSS. or early prints, may easily discover their meaning with the assistance of a modern text. Praenomina, however, and certain political words, i. e. names of offices and dignities, are still abridged in modern editions. We shall subjoin a list of those which occur most frequently, for the assisttance of beginners. A. Aulus. 1. Praenomina. C. or G. Gajus. 1. c. or 1. 1. loco citato or loco scil. scilicet. Q. D. B. V. Quod deus bene vid. vide or videatur. INDEX. The numbers indicate the paragraphs in brackets. ablative, with passive verbs, 451. Abla- Ablat. of measure, 647. Ablat. absolute as an adverb absolvere, with the genit., 446. abstinere, 145.; construction, 468. abstract nouns used for concrete ones, abundare, construction of, 460. abunde, 267.; with the genitive, 432. 340. accipere, with the participle future, 653. accusative with the infinit, as subject or object, 600.; as nominat. of the pre- PP 4 |