c) A great number of adjectives which cannot be said to form a distinct class; their want of the degrees of comparison is surprising, and they must be carefully committed to memory: albus, almus, caducus, calvus, canus, curvus, ferus, gnarus, lacer, mutilus, lassus, mediocris, memor, merus, mirus, mutus, navus, nefastus, par, parilis, dispar, properus, rudis, trux (the degrees may be formed from truculentus), vagus. [§ 115.] NUMERALS are partly adjectives and partly adverbs.. The adjectives are: 1) Cardinal, denoting simply the number of things, as tres, three; 2) Ordinal, indicating the place or number in succession, as tertius, the third; 3) Distributive, denoting how many each time, as terni, each time three, or three and three together; 4) Multiplicative, denoting how manifold, as triplex, threefold; 5) Proportional, denoting how many times more, as triplum, three times as much; and 6) Adverbial numerals, denoting how many times, as ter, thrice or three times. I. CARDINAL NUMERALS. The cardinal numerals form the roots of the other numerals. The first three, unus, duo, tres, are declined and have forms for the different genders; the rest, as far as one hundred, are indeclinable. The hundreds, as 200, 300, 400, &c., are declinable and have different terminations for the genders. Mille, a thousand, is indeclinable, but has a declinable plural for the series of numbers which follows. A higher unit, such as a million or billion, does not exist in Latin, and a million is therefore expressed by the form of multiplication: decies centena milia, i. e. ten times a hundred thousand, or decies alone, with the omission of centena milia, at least when sestertium (HS) is added, and in like manner vicies, two millions; octogies, eight millions; centies, ten millions; millies, a hundred millions; bis millies, two Note. The genitive singular uni and the dative uno, unae, are of rare occurrence and unclassical. (Comp., however, § 49.) The plural uni, unae, una, occurs as a numeral only in connection with pluralia tantum, i. e. such nouns as have no singular, e. g. unae nuptiae, one wedding; una castra, one camp; unae litterae, one letter. (See Chap. XXX). Unus is used also as a pure adjective by dropping its signification of a numeral and taking that of " alone,” or "the same," e. g. Cæs. Bell. Gall. iv. 16.: uni Ubii legatos miserant, the Ubians alone had sent ambassadors; Cic. Pro Flacc. 26.: Lacedaemonii septingentos jam annos unis moribus vivunt, with the same manners. Duo and tres are naturally plurals. Nom. duo, duae, duo. Gen. duorum, duarum, duorum. Nom. tres (mas. and fem.), tria. Dat. trium. tribus. Acc. tres (mas. and fem.), tria Note. Ambo, ae, o, both, is declined like duo, and has likewise two forms for the accusat., ambos and ambo, which have entirely the same meaning. In connection with pondo (pounds) we find dua pondo, and tre pondo, for duo and tria, a barbarism noticed by the ancients themselves. (Quintil. i. 5. 15.) Duum, a second form of the genit. of duo, is the regular one in compounds, as duumvir, but is frequently used also in connection with milium. Thus Pliny says that he had compiled his work e lectione voluminum circiter duum milium; but Cæsar and Livy likewise use this form. 21. XXI. unus et viginti, or vi ginti unus. 22. XXII. duo et viginti, or vi ginti duo. 23. XXIII. tres et viginti, or vi ginti tres. 28. XXVIII. duodetriginta, or 29. XXIX. undetriginta, or no- 100. C. centum. 200. cc. ducenti, ae, a. 5000. 155. quinque milia. 10,000. ccɔɔ. decem milia. 100,000. cɔɔ. centum milia. Note 1. The Roman signs for numbers have arisen from simple geometrical figures. The perpendicular line (I) is one; two lines crossing one another (X) make ten; half this figure (V) is five; the perpendicular line with an horizontal one at the lower end (L) is fifty, and if another horizontal line is added at the upper end (C) we have one hundred. From this sign arose the round C, which is accidentally at the same time the initial of centum. This C reversed (Ɔ), which is called apostrophus, with a perpendicular line preceding it (I), or drawn together as D, signifies 500. In every multiplication with ten a fresh apostrophus is added, thus 100=5000, 1000= 50,000. When a number is to be doubled, as many C are put before the horizontal line, as there are Ɔ behind it. Thus CƆ=1000, CCDƆ=10,000, &c. A thousand is expressed in MSS. by ∞, which is evidently a contraction of CIO. M, which is used for the same number, is the initial of mille. Note 2. Wherever, in the above list, two numerals are put together, the first is always preferable. Forms like octodecim and novendecim, which are not mentioned in the list, are not supported by any authority; even septendecim, according to Priscian (De Sign. Num. 4.), is not so good as decem et septem, although it is used by Cicero (In Verr. y. 47.; De Leg. Agr. ii. 17.; Philip. v.7.), and also by Tacitus (Annal. xiii. 6.). Septem et decem in Cicero (Cat. 6.) and octo et decem in Pliny (Epist. viii. 18.) are isolated peculiarities. Instead of octoginta we sometimes find octuaginta, and corresponding with it octuagies; but these forms cannot be recommended. [§ 116.] The intermediate numbers are expressed in the following manner:-from twenty to a hundred, either the smaller number followed by et precedes, or the greater one precedes without the et; e. g. quattuor et sexaginta or sexaginta quattuor. For 18, 28, 38, 48, &c., and for 19, 29, 39, 49, the expressions duodeviginti, duodetriginta, up to undecentum, are more frequent than decem et octo, or octo et viginti. In such combinations neither duo nor un (unus) can be declined. Above 100, the greater number always precedes, either with or without et, as mille unus, mille duo, mille trecenti, or mille et unus, mille et duo, mille et trecenti sexaginta sex. The et is never used twice, and poets when they want another syllable take ac, atque, or que, instead. There are indeed exceptions to this rule, but being less common, they cannot be taken into consideration, and some of them are mere incorrect readings. (See my note on Cic. in Verrem, iv. 55.) The thousands are generally expressed by the declinable substantive milia and the cardinal numbers, as duo milia, tria milia, quattuor milia, decem milia, unum et viginti milia, quadraginta quinque milia. The distributive numerals are used more rarely, as bina milia, quina milia, dena milia, quadragena sena milia. The objects counted are expressed by the genitive which depends on the substantive milia; e. g. Xerxes Mardonium in Graecia reliquit cum trecentis milibus armatorum, unless a lower declined numeral is added, in which case things counted may be used in the same case with milia; e. g. habuit tria milia trecentos milites, or milites tria milia trecentos habuit; but even then the genitive may be used, e. g. habuit militum tria milia trecentos, or habuit tria milia militum et trecentos. (See the commentators on Livy, xxxix. 7.) It is only the poets that express the thousands by the indeclinable adjective mille preceded by an adverbial numeral, as bis mille equi, for duo milia equorum; they are in general fond of expressing a number by the form of multiplication; Ovid (Trist. iv. 10. 4.), for example, says: milia decies novem instead of nonaginta milia. Note. With regard to the construction of the word mille we add the following remarks. Mille is originally a substantive, which is indeclinable in the singular, but occurs only in the nom. and accus. As a substantive it governs the genitive, like the Greek xiás, e. g. Cic. Pro Milon. 20.: quo in fundo propter insanas illas substructiones facile mille hominum versabatur valentium; Philip. vi. 5: quis L. Antonio mille nummum ferret expensum, and very frequently mille passuum. Livy joins mille as a collective noun (see § 366.) to the plural of the verb, xxiii. 44.: mille passuum inter urbem erant castraque; xxv. 24.: jam mille armatorum ceperant partem. But mille is also an indeclinable adjective, and as such is most frequently used in all its cases, e. g. equites mille praemissi; senatus mille hominum numero constabat; da mihi basia mille; rem mille modis temptavit, &c. With this adjective mille, as with numerals in general, a genitivus partitivus may be used, according to § 429., and thus we read in Livy, xxi. 61.: cum octo milibus peditum, mille equitum, where the genitive stands for the ablative, owing to its close connection with the word peditum; and xxiii. 46.: Romanorum minus mille interfecti. CHAP. XXIX. II. ORDINAL NUMERALS. [§ 117.] THE ordinals denote the place in the series which any object holds, and answer to the question quotus? All of them are adjectives of three terminations, us, a, um. 1. primus. 2. secundus (alter). 3. tertius. 4. quartus. 5. quintus. 6. sextus. 7. septimus. 8. octavus. 9. nonus. 10. decimus. 11. undecimus. 12. duodecimus. 18. octavus decimus, or duode vicesimus. 19. nonus decimus, or undevi cesimus. times trigesimus. 40. quadragesimus. 50. quinquagesimus. 60. sexagesimus. 70. septuagesimus. 80. octogesimus, 90. nonagesimus. 100. centesimus. 200. ducentesimus. 300. trecentesimus. 600. sexcentesimus. 900. nongentesimus. 3000. ter millesimus. 10,000. decies millesimus. 20. vicesimus, sometimes vige- 100,000. centies millesimus. |