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I trust that in the present volume I may have been enabled to act on these principles, and that the reader may get from it an insight into the life of the old Greek world which will make him desire to know more, and render further research not an irksome labour but a delightful task.
Note on the Spelling of Greek Names. No attempt has been made in this volume to alter the spelling of Greek names which have assumed genuine English forms,e.g. Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Thrace. It would be well perhaps if such forms had been more numerous.
The Latin form has been kept, where it has become so familiar to English ears that a change would be disagreeable, e.g. Thucydides, Cyrus. This last name is, indeed, neither Latin nor Greek; and the adoption of either the Greek or the Latin form is a matter of comparative indifference. Probably it would be to the benefit of historical study to revert to the true Persian form, and to write Gustashp for Hystaspes.
But these exceptions do not affect the general rule of giving the Greek forms, wherever it may be practicable or advisable to
This rule may be followed in all instances in which either the names or the persons are unknown to the mass of English readers. Thus, while we speak still of Alexander the Great, his obscure predecessor who acts a subordinate part in the drama of the Persian wars may appear as Alexandros.
The general adoption of the Greek form is, indeed justified, if not rendered necessary, by the practice of most recent writers on Greek History. It is, therefore, unnecessary perhaps to say more than that the adoption of the Greek form may help on the change in the English pronunciation of Latin, which the most eminent schoolmasters of the day have pronounced to be desirable. So long as the Phrygian town is mentioned under its Latin form of Celænæ, there will be a strong temptation for young readers to pronounce it as if it were the Greek name for the moon Selēnê. It is well therefore that they should become familiarised with the Greek form Kelainai, and thus learn that the Greek spelling involves practically no difference of sound from that of the true Latin pronunciation, the sound of the C and K being identical, and the diphthongs being pronounced as we pronounce ai in fail.
close of the public life of Perikles
CHRONOLOGICAL TABL E.
51 Asia Minor. Conquest of the Asiatic Hellenes by Kroisas
(Crosus) king of Lydia. ? First conquest
Fall of Kroisos. The Lydian empire absorbed
in that of Persia. ? Second conquest of
Revolt of Paktyas. Conquest of Lydia by
Harpagos. ? Third conquest of Ionia.
58 Egypt. Invasion of Kambyses.
Failure of the expedition against Amoun,
and abandonment of the expedition against
from Aristagoras of Miletos, at whose re-
quest Artaphernes sends Megabates to re-
duce the island.
Battle of Ladê, followed by the fall of Miletos
and the suppression of the Ionian revolt.
Third, ? fourth, conquest of Ionia.
Death of Miltiades.
pation of Thermopylei.
31 Sicily Defeat of the Carthaginians at Himera.
477 125 Sparta Death of Pausanias.
Alliance of Megara with Athens.
War between Athens and Aigina.
by their victory at Oinophyta.
Greatest extension of the Athenian empire.
437 139 Thrace . Founding of Amphipolis by Hagnon.
that of Byzantion.