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I trust that in the present volume I may have been enabled to act on these principles, and that the reader may get from it an insight into the life of the old Greek world which will make him desire to know more, and render further research not an irksome labour but a delightful task.

do so.

Note on the Spelling of Greek Names. No attempt has been made in this volume to alter the spelling of Greek names which have assumed genuine English forms,e.g. Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Thrace. It would be well perhaps if such forms had been more numerous.

The Latin form has been kept, where it has become so familiar to English ears that a change would be disagreeable, e.g. Thucydides, Cyrus. This last name is, indeed, neither Latin nor Greek; and the adoption of either the Greek or the Latin form is a matter of comparative indifference. Probably it would be to the benefit of historical study to revert to the true Persian form, and to write Gustashp for Hystaspes.

But these exceptions do not affect the general rule of giving the Greek forms, wherever it may be practicable or advisable to

This rule may be followed in all instances in which either the names or the persons are unknown to the mass of English readers. Thus, while we speak still of Alexander the Great, his obscure predecessor who acts a subordinate part in the drama of the Persian wars may appear as Alexandros.

The general adoption of the Greek form is, indeed justified, if not rendered necessary, by the practice of most recent writers on Greek History. It is, therefore, unnecessary perhaps to say more than that the adoption of the Greek form may help on the change in the English pronunciation of Latin, which the most eminent schoolmasters of the day have pronounced to be desirable. So long as the Phrygian town is mentioned under its Latin form of Celænæ, there will be a strong temptation for young readers to pronounce it as if it were the Greek name for the moon Selēnê. It is well therefore that they should become familiarised with the Greek form Kelainai, and thus learn that the Greek spelling involves practically no difference of sound from that of the true Latin pronunciation, the sound of the C and K being identical, and the diphthongs being pronounced as we pronounce ai in fail.







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34 Athens Conspiracy of Kylon.

58 Egypt Founding of Naukratis.

31 Athens Seizure of the Akropolis by Peisistratos.


Death of Solon.

51 Asia Minor. Conquest of the Asiatic Hellenes by Kroisas

(Crosus) king of Lydia. ? First conquest

of Ionia.

Fall of Kroisos. The Lydian empire absorbed

in that of Persia. ? Second conquest of


Revolt of Paktyas. Conquest of Lydia by

Harpagos. ? Third conquest of Ionia.
57 Babylon . . Siege and capture of Babylon by Cyrus.


Death of Peisistratos.

58 Egypt. Invasion of Kambyses.

Failure of the expedition against Amoun,

and abandonment of the expedition against

62 | Asia Minor. Death of Polykrates, tyrant of Samos.
61 | Persia . Accession or election of Dareios to the Persian


65 Scythia Scythian expedition of Dareios.

40 Athens Conspiracy of Aristogeiton and death of



Expulsion of the Peisistratidai.

Hippias goes to Sigeion.


Reforms, expulsion, and return of Kleisthenes.


Embassy from Athens to Sardeis, to ask for an

alliance with the Persian king. Cf. p. 68.

45 Plataia Alliance of Plataia with Athens.

46 Briotia Victories of the Athenians in Boiotia and


46 Sparta . Congress of Peloponnesian allies at Sparta.

Hippias pleads his cause before them in


69 | Naxos Some oligarchic exiles from Naxos ask help

from Aristagoras of Miletos, at whose re-

quest Artaphernes sends Megabates to re-

duce the island.



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71 Asia Minor. Burning of Sardeis.


Capture and death of Histiaios.


Battle of Ladê, followed by the fall of Miletos

and the suppression of the Ionian revolt.

Third, ? fourth, conquest of Ionia.


Political reforms of Artaphernes and Mardo-


490 78 Athens Battle of Marathon.

489 81

Death of Miltiades.
485 82 Persia Xerxes prepares for the invasion of Hellas.
483 87 Athens . Ostracism of Aristeides.
480 91 Thessaly A bandonment of the pass of Tempe. Occu-

pation of Thermopylei.


Victory of the Persians and death of Leonidas.

103 Salamis. Battle of Salamis. Defeat of the Persian


31 Sicily Defeat of the Carthaginians at Himera.
480 31 Sicily . Battle of Himera.
479 115 Plataia Defeat of the army of Mardonios by the con-

federated Greeks.

120 Mykalê Destruction of the Persian fleet.

123 Sparta . Pausanias deprived of his command.


Formation of the confederacy of Delos. As-

sessment of Aristeides.

477 125 Sparta Death of Pausanias.


Athens Ostracism of Themistokles.

466 130 Asia Minor. Double victory of Kimon on the Eurymedon.

464 131 | Peloponnesos Revolt of the Helots.


Alliance of Megara with Athens.

War between Athens and Aigina.
Boiotia . Defeat of the Athenians ai Tanagra, followed

by their victory at Oinophyta.

Greatest extension of the Athenian empire.

455 132 Asia Minor. Final victories of Kimon. Convention of


447 133 Boiotia The Athenians, defeated at Koroneia, evacuate



Athens Revolt of Euboia and Megara.

445 134

Thirty years' truce with Sparta.


Reforms of Perikles and Ephialtes.

437 139 Thrace . Founding of Amphipolis by Hagnon.
Samos Revolt of Samos from Athens, followed by

that of Byzantion.

The Corinthians prevent the Spartans from

taking up the cause of the revolted allies of


432 | 141 Korkyra . . Defensive alliance between Korkyra and



The Athenian ships take part in a fight

between the Korkyraians and Corinthians.

Hence the

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