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' everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.' Rev. xx. 10. “they shall be tormented for ever and ever.'

They are sometimes, however, permitted to wander throughout the whole earth, the air, and heaven itself, to execute the judgements of God.* Job i. 7. • from going to and fro in the earth.' 1 Sam. xvi. 15. the Spirit of Jehovah departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from Jehovah troubled him.' 1 Pet. v. 8. the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about.' John xii. 31. the prince of this world.' 2 Cor. iv. 4.

the god of this world. Matt. xii. 43. he walketh through dry places.' Eph. ii. 2. .according to the prince of the power of the air.' vi. 12. •against spiritual wickedness in high places.' They are even admitted into the presence of God. Job i. 6. ii. 1. 1 Kings xxii. 21. there came forth a spirit, and stood before Jehovah.' Zech. iii 1. he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.' Luke x. 18. •I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.' Rev. xii. 12. • woe to the inhabiters of the earth, for the devil is come down unto you.' Their proper place, however, is the bottomless pit, from which they cannot escape without permission.* Luke viii. 31. “they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep.' Matt. xii. 43. he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none. Mark v. 10. he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country.' Rev. xx. 3. and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up.' Nor can they do anything without the command of God. Job i. 12. • Jehovah said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power.' Matt. viii. 31. • suffer us to go away into the herd of swine.' Rev. xx. 2. he laid hold on the dragon....and bound him a thousand years.'

do him mightier service as his thralls By right of war, whate'er his business be, Here in the heart of bell to work in fire, Or do his errands in the gloomy deep.

Paradise Lost, I. 148.

the spirits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro To tempt or punish mortals. II. 1031.

Their knowledge is great, but such as tends rather to aggravate than diminish their misery ; so that they utterly despair of their salvation.t Matt. viii. 29. ' what have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time? See also Luke iv. 34. James ii. 19. the devils believe and tremble,' knowing that they are reserved for punishment, as bas been shown.

* So stretch'd out huge in length the Arch-Fiend lay,

Chaip'd on the burning lake, nor ever thence
Had ris'n or beav'd his head, but that the will
And high permission of all-ruling heav'n
Left him at large to his own dark designs.

Paradise Lost, I. 209. t.

bis doom
Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain
Torments him. I. 52.

hope never comes That comes to all. I. 66.

We are decreed,
Resery'd, and destin'd to eternal woe;
Whatever doing, wbat can we suffer more,
What can we suffer worse ? II. 159.
Me miserable ! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? IV. 73.

The devils also have their prince. Matt. xii 24. · Beelzebub, the prince of the devils.' See also Luke xi. 15. Matt. xxv 41. the devil and his angels.' Rev. xii. 9. the great dragon was cast out....and his angels. They retain likewise their respective ranks.* Col. ii. 15. having spoiled principalities and powers. Eph. vi. 12. • against principalities, against powers.' Their leader is the author of all wickedness, and the opponent of all good. Job i. and ii. Zech. iii. 1. Satan.' John viii. 44. the father of lies.' 1 Thess. ii. 18. • Satan hindered us.' Acts v. 3. Satan hath filled thine heart.' Rev. xx. 3, 8.

that he should deceive the nations no more.' Eph. ii. 2. the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Hence he has obtained many names corresponding to his actions. He is frequently called Satan, that is, an enemy or adversary,t Job i. 6. 1 Chron. xxi. 1. 'the great dragon, that old serpent, the devil,' that is, the false accuser. Rev. xii. 9. the accuser of the brethren, v. 10. "the unclean

* The Stygian council thus dissolv'd, and forth In order came the grand infernal peers : Midst came their mighty Paramount

Paradise Lost, II. 506. į ... To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in heav'o callid Satan.- I. 81.

the Adversary of God and man,
Satan II. 629.
High proof ye now have giv'n to be the race
Of Satan (for I glory in the name
Antagonist of heav'n's Almighty King.)

X. 385. See also VI. 281.

spirit. '

Matt. xii. 43. the tempter,'* iv. 3. Abaddon.... Apollyon, that is, the destroyer,f Rev. ix. 11. a great red dragon,' xii. 3.

* The tempter ere th' accuser of mankind.

Paradise Lost, IV. 10. t.....

who bids abstain But our Destroyer, foe to God and man? IV. 749.




The Providence of God, as regards mankind, relates to man either in his state of rectitude, or since his fall.

With regard to that which relates to man in his state of rectitude, God, having placed him in the garden of Eden, and furnished him with whatever was calculated to make life happy, commanded him, as a test of his obedience, to refrain from eating of the single tree of knowledge of good and evil, under penalty of death if he should disregard the injunction.* Gen. i. 28. subdue the earth, and have dominion-;' ii. 15–17. he put him into the garden of Eden.... of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely eat; but in the day that thou eatest of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt surely die.'


well thou know'st God hath pronounc'd it death to taste that tree, The only sign of our obedience left.

Paradise Lost, IV. 426. .... lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race Charg'd not to touch the interdicted tree, If they transgress, and slight that sole command, So easily obey'd amid the choice Of all tastes else to please their appetite, Though wand'ring. VII. 44.

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