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which a patent was granted to the same person in 1807. Plate I. fig. 4, represents a pedestal, upon which the instrument, called the jaws, is to be placed. Fig. 5, shews the jaws, which instead of opening and closing by a circular movement upon a joint, as described in the former specification, are now made to open and shut by a parallel horizontal movement, effected by a slider and screw; a, a, is the fixed jaw, made of one piece, on the under side of which is a tenon to be inserted into the top of the pedestal. By means of this tenon the jaws may be readily displaced, and another similar pair of jaws placed in their stead, which affords the advantage of expediting the operation by enabling one person to prepare the work whilst another is sewing; b, b, is the moveable jaw, made of one piece. The two jaws being placed together in the manner shewn at fig. 5, the moveable jaw traverses backwards and forwards upon two guide-bars, c, which are made to pass through holes exactly fitted to them in the lower parts of the jaws. At the upper part of the jaws are, what are called, the indexes, d, d, which are pressed tightly together by a spring, shewn at fig. 6, and intended to be introduced between the perpendicular ribs of the jaws at e. At f, is a thumb-screw passing through the ribs for the purpose of tightening the jaws, and holding the leather fast between the indexes while being sewn; this screw, however, will seldom, if ever, be necessary if the spring is sufficiently strong; g, is an eye or ring fixed to the moveable jaw, through which the end of a lever, h, passes; this lever is connected by a spring to a treadle, i, at the base of the pedestal, and by the pressure of the right foot upon this treadle, the moveable jaw is withdrawn, so that the person employed in sewing may shift the leather, and place another part of the glove be
tween the jaws. The pieces, called indexes, are connected to the upper part of the jaws by screws passing through elongated holes, which render them capable of adjustment.
The patentee states, that in addition to the index described in his former patent, which is applicable to what is called round-seam sewing only, and which permits the leather to expand but in one direction when the needle is passed through it, namely upwards; he now makes two indexes of different construction, one of which he calls the receding index, and the other the longitudinally grooved index. Fig. 7, represents an end view, and fig. 8, a top view of the receding index, which is particularly adapted for what are called "drawn sewing, and prick-seam sewing;" this index, instead of biting to the top, is so rounded off in the inside from the bottom of the cross grooves, as to permit the needles, by being passed backwards and forwards, to carry the silk on each side of the leather without passing over it. Fig. 9, represents an end view of the longitudinally grooved index, partly open, to shew the section of the grooves more distinctly; and fig. 10, represents an inside view of one side of the same index in which the longitudinal groove is shewn passing from k to l. This index is more particularly adapted to round-seam sewing, and permits the leather to expand in every direction when the needle is passed through it, by which the leather is less strained, and the sewing, consequently, rendered much stronger.
It is obvious that the parallel horizontal movement may be effected by other mechanical means than those which I have adopted, as at present appearing to me the most convenient; and the chief novelty which I claim with respect to that movement, is its application
to the purpose of carrying the index used in sewing and pointing leather gloves.
Inrolled, February, 1822.
To DOMINIQUE PIERRE DEURBROUCQ, of King Street, Soho, London, in consequence of a Communication by a certain Foreigner, resident abroad; for an Apparatus for the purpose of Condensing the Alcoholic Streams arising from Spirituous Liquors, such as Wine, Brandy, Beer, Cyder, &c. during their Fermentation.
THIS apparatus consists of a vessel or head, which is constructed so as to be capable of attachment to, and communication with the Back or Vat, in which the process of fermentation is carrying on in the production of Wine, Brandy, Beer, Cyder, or any other liquor which may require the process of the vinous fermentation during any stage of its manufacture. The back or vat is to be closed on all sides air-tight, except an opening on the top which communicates with the head above-mentioned. This head is to be surrounded by a vessel of cold water, or other refrigirating medium, in order that the alcoholic vapours, which are evolved during the process, may, on rising up into the head, become condensed and then trickle down the inside of the vessel and descend into the vat.
It is considered, that, by the employment of this apparatus, a certain portion of the alcohol which has hitherto been suffered to escape with the non-condensable gases, in the form of steam, will be condensed and returned into the liquor, while the non-condensable parts will be carried off through a pipe, as will be described.
Plate I. fig. 3, is a representation of this improved ap. paratus, the vat and the cold water reservoir being shewn in section; a, is the vat containing the fermenting liquor, in the top of which is an aperture communicating with the interior of the conical formed vessel, b; the lower part of this vessel is made cylindrical and passes through a circular plate, on which the supporters rest; c, is the reservoir of cold water, surrounding the conical vessel, which may be supplied by a running stream; d, is a worm or pipe communicating with the interior of the vessel, b, and, passing off through the side of the reservoir, descends into another vessel of water, e; f, is a small pipe which proceeds from the lower part of the vessel, b, and descends through the fermenting liquor nearly to the bottom of the vat.
The gas and alcohol which rise from the liquor in the vat ascend into the conical head, b, and coming in contact with the cold sides of the vessel, a condensation of the alcohol is produced, which runs down the sides of the cone into the circular channel, g, at its base, from whence the alcohol passes by the pipe, f, into the vat below; while the non-condensable gases pass out through the worm-pipe,d, and, finally, escape by bubbling up through the water in the vessel, e. If any portion of alcohol should pass up the worm-pipe it will become condensed in its progress, and, by the position of the worm, will be enabled to run back again and pass into the vat. A small cock, h, is placed at the bottom of the cone, for the purpose of trying the strength of the condensed alcohol.
The apparatus may be removed from its present situation to another fermenting vat, by drawing off the water, and disengaging the head, b, from its place. The plate is furnished with circular wedges round the circumference,
as seen at i, i, made to act beneath hooks, the apparatus, being turned round by the handles in a horizontal direction, becomes fixed in its place, having, between the plate and head, a ring of thick leather to prevent the escape the gas.
The sole object and novelty proposed in this invention is to condense the alcoholic streams which arise from the fermentation of spirituous liquors in general, and to return the condensed alcohol into the liquor again.
That much alcohol is lost in the usual process of fermenting liquors in open vats, there can be no question; whether the mode recommended by the patentee, for its perservation will be effectual, experience only can determine.
At all events, the idea is ingenious, and deserving the attention of those persons whom the vinous fermentation more immediately concerns.
Inrolled, March, 1822.
To DAVID GORDON, Esq. of Edinburgh, for certain Improvements in the Construction of Wheeled Carriages.
THESE improvements consist in placing each wheel of the carriage between two horizontal bearings, (as in the ordinary wheel-barrow), so that the wheel may turn upon pivots, instead of a lengthened axle, which usually passes across beneath the body of the carriage. Plate II. fig. 5, exhibits the contrivance of a plane or horizontal view of a four-wheeled carriage; but a carriage upon two wheels may be constructed on the same principle, the ordinary shafts being made as a continuation, either of the outside or inside rail, as dotted in the figure. a, a, are the wheels; b, b, is the frame work