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nature of a ministerial conscience, as I have heard him declare, "that he only required to know a minister's congregation, in order to tell his creed!" Oh, what a pure body the Synod of Ulster will soon be, and how much of one mind, if you but give them a good confession!

But I have been told, that all this is proposed in pure kindness, in order to bring back the stray sheep into the true fold. This, I am bound to believe, is all true, as the principal promoters of the plan are, no doubt, superior to ordinary Christians! But whilst the motive may be approved, I must say, the means seem but ill adapted to the end. There is a kind of resistance in human nature, to the exercise of anthority, where no title to exercise it appears. There are some minds not very accessible to the logic of majorities, and which cannot comprehend the meaning of a threat from their equals. I tell you plainly and sincerely, if you think us in error, you must take other means to convert us. Uncharitable denunciations, and unwarranted attempts to coerce our consciences, will rather wed us to our opinions. I shall venture to tell you a fable, in proof of this position. In ancient times, as the Sun and the Wind were chatting together, they beheld a traveller passing over a plain, with a cloak over his shoulders. Just for a frolic, they laid a wager, as to which of them could soonest deprive him of his cloak. The Wind was to have the lead: and, mustering all his strength, he blew East and West, North and South, in the most violent and ingenious manner. But although the poor traveller was nearly blown down, he would not part with his cloak: the stronger the blast, he just wrapped it the more closely about him, and held it with the more determined grasp. At length, the Wind exhausted himself with puffing, and gave up the task; when the Sun, who had retired behind a cloud, gently and gradually looked past the skirt of upon the traveller, who held his cloak tightly for a while, remembering the rough usage he had experienced. But as the storm was past, and as the day became genial, he gradually relaxed his hold; the Sun put forth stronger beams; the cloak was thrown open; the traveller paused; the Sun poured forth the full tide of his splendour and his heat; the cloak gradually descended from the shoulders of the traveller, and he stood, subdued and melted, in the glorious presence of the God of Day! The Wind is the fury of persecution: the Sun is the genial influence of Christian love. The cloak of error, if such there be, will only be held more tenaciously in the hurricane; but in the gentle calm of kindness, in the hour of friendly intercourse, it may be laid aside for ever. There is a pride in the human heart, which resists compulsion, though it will readily yield to love.


I see, on the other side of the house, a gentleman who has long been a leading member of this body, and who has lately distinguished himself, both from the pulpit and the press. I refer to my friend, Mr. Stewart, whose sermon in defence of Orthodoxy, I hold in my hand. In the preface to this discourse, he tells the world, what I knew long ago, that he was first a Calvinist in his boyhood, that he was afterwards very sceptical on the doctrine of the Trinity, and that it was only in the year 1825, he turned his attention to the Bible, to see if it contained what he now calls the Fundamental Doctrine of the Scriptures; which, unless a man believe, he is on the verge of Atheism! Now, had the proposed declaration been brought forward in 1824, Mr. Stewart, as an honest man, could not have signed it. He might then have been "cut off as a rotten branch," and that very act of severity would, in all likelihood, have confirmed him in error. But see the happy consequence of kindness and moderation:-He, who might have continued an Arian, a Heretic, a Semi-Atheist, peculiarly dangerous on account of his talents, is now the zealous champion of Orthodoxy, and one of the powerful enemies of Catholic error! What has been, may be. In two years, if you do not "lop us off," Mr. Porter, or myself, may be edifying the world with dissertations against our present opinions!

But consider farther, if you pass this Declaration, you must extend it to Probationers as well as Ministers. Now, you tell the people, that they have a right to choose their own Pastors; but if they should not like a Calvinist, where are they to procure a Teacher? I presume they must either submit to your dictation, or remain without a Minister; which would be rather a singular way of consulting their rights and privileges.

Mr. Cooke, and others, have been pleased to denominate those who differ from them, as "wolves in sheeps' clothing." This implies, that we have assumed a false character. So far as I am concerned, I treat the insinuation with contempt. But, I do admit, there are in this body, "wolves in sheeps' clothing:" men who have lived with us in Christian communion, who have pretended to entertain for us Christian friendship; but who now, when they are confident in numbers, turn upon us, and would devour us. These are the real wolves.

But we have also been compared to soldiers, entering a garrison for its defence, and afterwards turning our arms against our companions. Surely Mr. Cooke intended this as a hit at himself and his partisans. I came into the garrison with the same colours which I now wear; I have always kept them flying; and whether I remain in it, or be driven from it, I shall keep them aloft, so long as I have an arm to bear them. There are, however, traitors amongst us: men who came into the fortress on the avowed condition of mutual toleration and forbearance, and who engaged with us to defend it against the common enemy. But now, that they think themselves able to maintain the bulwarks, they treacherously turn their arms against their comrades, and would drive them out defenceless upon the world. These are the real traitors.

Mr. Cooke's similies are only to be equalled by his charity. He has given us a new version of Christian unity. He has talked a great deal about unity of the Spirit meaning unity of the Spirit's testimony. These are idle words, which sound in the ear, without conveying any idea to the mind. Every ignorant enthusiast, down to the lowest dregs of fanaticism, talks most presumptuously of "the testimony of the Spirit," and appeals to his own feelings as a proof that he is right. But when Mr. Cooke says that he is only to love those of his own creed, and to view those who differ from him, as he would regard robbers, I tell him, that he is listening to the testimony of his own passions, not to the spirit of truth. There were persons of old, who loved only their own tribe and nation, "who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others;" but our Saviour showed that the poor Samaritan understood the nature of brotherly love infinitely better than the Priest and the Levite. It may be said, this was only an act of charity to the body; but surely, if we are bound to love that which perisheth," we are much more constrained to love "that which endureth for ever." It is one of the greatest evils of our unsanctified contentions, that they tend to restrict the charity of the Gospel, which enjoins us "to love all men, and to do good unto all men,"-even that charity, which the Apostle declares to be superior even to faith and hope.

I have not entered into any defence of my peculiar tenets, though I believe them to be capable of a rational and scriptural vindication, because I know that such a course would only widen a breach which is already too large. But I can assure you, that whatever my opinions are, I hold them in great humility; under the most profound sense of my own weakness, and liability to go astray. In coming to the conclusions at which I have arrived, can truly say, that I have sought light and direction, where alone they are to be obtained. I have never read the Scriptures, with a view to ascertain their meaning, without first imploring the gracious assistance of the Divine Spirit, to free me from prejudice, presumption, and error, and to lead me to a right understanding of the truth. Neither have I ever sat down to write a sermon, or any

religious discourse, without praying to God, that I might be enabled faithfully and truly to interpret his holy will, and to instruct his people. And I can farther say, in perfect sincerity, that I never enter a pulpit, without a profound sense of my responsibility; nor do I ever venture to address any people, until I have secretly and fervently entreated the protection and guidance of Heaven. may not have asked with becoming humility, and devotion, and faith; but I trust I have asked in sincerity. And if I be yet in error, I believe God will enlighten my mind: if I be right, I trust He will grant me fortitude to maintain my integrity, in despite of unmerited obloquy, and "to speak boldly the whole counsel of his will." For myself, and those who think with me, I feel that I am entitled to claim at least the humble merit of being sincere. The world may consider us fools, for not conforming to its maxims, and pursuing its gains; but it would require the malignity of a demon to call us knaves. I believe, though many of my brethren be in error, that simple error is not a condemning sin; and I sincerely hope, that the great Shepherd may collect his sheep from many folds. If I thought that all who differ from me were to go down to destruction, I could not enjoy one hour's happiness.

I conclude by entreating you, not to enter upon a measure at variance with the true principles of your Church; and which must eventually end in division and weakness. For myself, I have, as you all know, nothing either to hope or to fear. But "for my friends and brethren's sake, I would say, Peace be within your Zion.' Arianism has been persecuted, frequently unto blood, for fifteen centuries, which must prove that it cannot be subdued by mere human power. This, however, is certain, "If it be of men, it will come to nought; but if it be of God, ye cannot prevail against it.


Mr. Hogg (Armagh) inquired whether Mr. M. referred to him, in his allusion to a certain Minister, who had expressed his belief, that if Arianism was as popular as Trinitarianism, he did not think there would be six Trinitarians in the Synod?

Mr. Montgomery.-I do. Mr. Hogg.-Where was it?


Mr. Montgomery.-It was at an Ordination dinner; and when you made the observation, I requested a person at table to take notice of what you had said.

Mr. Hogg.-Was it after dinner? Mr. M.-Yes.
Mr. Hogg.-Oh, then, I was only in jest!-(Laughter.)

Mr. Magill (holding in his hand a copy of the Commissioners' Report,) proceeded to rebut the arguments of Mr. Montgomery, on the preceding evening. He commenced by saying, that although Mr. Montgomery had advanced many arguments against this Body's signing a Test, or Declaration of its faith, yet he was prepared to prove, that Mr. Montgomery had already signed a Confession of his Faith, in putting his signature to the evidence he had given regarding the religious opinions of this body, in his examinations before the Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry.-[Here Mr. Magill read, from the Examinations of the Commissioners, Mr. Montgomery's evidence.] This is a public Testimony, given before a Commission of the House of Commons. Now, where is the difference between the Ministers of the Synod signing a Declaration of their belief, and Mr. Montgomery signing his? If there be any difference, it is in this, the one declares that Christ is God, and the other, that he is not God. In the code, also, Mr. Montgomery sanctions subscription.-[Mr. Magill read from the Code, the law which directs young candidates, when licensed, to sign their answers to the questions put to them.]-Mr. Montgomery calls on young men to sign, in the books of the Bangor Presbytery, their belief in certain doctrines, and yet he will oppose a declaration on similar principles from the members of this Body.


Mr. Montgomery.—I do no such thing. We require them to declare their opinions; and this Synod may make fifty such declarations, if it please.

Mr. Magill.-Well, then, surely we have a right to sign this Declaration, without injuring Mr. Montgomery, or taking from him his congregation or his stipend. For the struggle has now come to that point, that by this Declaration the Synod must stand or fall. The contest is now between Arianism and Truth! (No, no.) Yes it is; for I do believe, from the bottom of my heart, that the doctrine of Arianism is utterly false. Let Mr. Montgomery deny his Divine Lord and Master -(hear, order, no,)-I mean to say (said Mr. Magill), let him deny the supreme Divinity of Christ-we, at least, will not desert our Heavenly King and Supreme God of our Salvation! With regard to the high reputation which certain Ministers of this body have given to the great leading Arian characters, let us inquire into the truth of their statements. Sergius the Monk assisted Mahomet in composing the Koran-he was an Arian; for Mahomedanism is erected on Arianism: they are the same. Newton has been quoted as an Arian example. Newton was not an Arian: Newton was a great philosopher who came to illumine the world, and give new light to the views of mankind.

"God said, Let Newton be, and all was light."

Mr. Carlile.-Moderator, I rise to order; this is absolute blasphemy. Mr. Magill.—It is a quotation from Pope, one of our greatest poets; the quotation has not been given right, however it is,


"Nature, and Nature's laws, lay hid in night,
God said, Let Newton be, and all was light!"

surely this is no blasphemy. But I am willing to be put right. Newton was not an Arian-Locke was not an Arian. Abernethy has been quoted: now Abernethy took from this Synod the very Meeting-house and Congregation in Antrim, at present under the care of the Presbytery of Antrim. Mr. Magill then went on to describe the overthrow of Arianism in the South of Ireland, [Mr. Montgomery denied the correctness of this statement,] and to expose certain Members of the Synod who had misquoted Scripture; and entreated the Synod to separate the clean from the unclean. He then recalled to the recollections of those present, the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; and deplored the awful situation of the souls of men, when, in the valley of sorrow and tribulation, and in the awful hour of death, they had no hope on which to rest, except the cheerless religion of the Arian, who had robbed the Lord Jesus of more than half of his divine and blessed attributes. O members of the Synod of Ulster! O servants of Jesus! do not send forth from your body a single man as a messenger of the Great God of Heaven, who will prove a rotten reed in the awful hour of death and terrorwhen the great account is about to be rendered up at the dreadful day of judgment to the God of our salvation. But I will not detain this house, in its anxiety to put on record, by the Declaration of this day, its denial of the truth of those writings which have appeared in Belfast, in London, and in Glasgow, in which this is asserted to be an Arian body. Mr. Magill then quoted the passage from the Gospel of Matthew, " Any man who will deny me, him will I deny before my Father, which is in 'Heaven;" and said, now is the time to avow Christ-now let the servants of Jesus Christ acknowledge their master-" All hail the power of Jesus' name!"—"Bring forth the royal diadem, and crown him Lord of all!" -(Order, order.)

Mr. Carlile.-I do protest against this display of Mr. Magill's eloquence -it is perfect profanation.

Mr. Leonard Dobbin (an Elder) said, that his sentiments were so fully expressed yesterday, by his esteemed friend Mr. Mitchell, and others,

that he would not now trouble the meeting with any observations, were it not, that, representing a most respectable congregation, it might be expected he would not withhold his opinion on the present occasion. He had no objection to the general bearing of the Declaration, although the words did not exactly meet with his approbation; but he was decidedly hostile to subscription. He considered any act of that description, infringing on our dearest privileges as Presbyterians, and trenching on the right of private judgment. If the Synod once adopt the principle, it is impossible to say where it may end; as many cases are likely to arise, in which differences will occur. He would suppose one: some of your most orthodox Ministers may say and agree, that the soul of man, after it leaves the body, is in a progressive state of improvement until the final judgment: this would be supporting the doctrine of Purgatory. Another Declaration, and another Subscription, would be necessary to refute this doctrine; and so on, whilst any difference of opinion should arise. But, in debating this question, Ministers seem to have forgotten their Congregations; as such proceedings would be spurned at by the great body of the people represented by him. He apprehended many divisions, and much disputing in the Congregations of this Synod would arise, should a Test be passed; and he was satisfied such a measure would be most injurious to the welfare of Presbyterianism in Ireland. The doctrine of Charity, "which thinketh no evil," was so ably laid before you by your late respected Moderator, in his sermon on opening this Synod, that he (Mr. D.) was surprised it seemed to have been so soon forgotten; for he could not bring himself to think that no evil is intended, if you adopt subscription. He felt, that a division of this body would soon follow-which he had no hesitation in saying, appeared to be the intention of some Members of Synod. He would, therefore, oppose the measure, as far as in his power, both here and elsewhere.

Mr. Reid (Rathmelton) said, that the Synod was in such a situation, that its members were called on boldly and fearlessly to avow their religious opinions. Not to perform this necessary duty, would do serious injury to the Presbyterian religion in Ireland. The doctrine of the Trinity is the basis of the whole Christian fabric-remove it, and the entire system must crumble into ruins!

Mr. Cooke said, that we had heard it asserted, in one of the most brilliant speeches ever delivered in this, or, probably, any other assem bly, that the present measure is an infringement on the rights of private judgment. This he (Mr. Cooke) denied, although he was aware that the influence of that most eloquent address was still operating on this body; and his attempt to overturn the arguments it contained, consequently lost much of their influence. He readily admitted that the gentleman who delivered it, was a man of much more talent than he was; but there was left to him the consolation, that God had hidden many things from the wise and the learned, and had revealed them unto babes! Mr. Cooke then proceeded to argue, that the nature of the present motion was by no means any infringement on the right of private judgment, inasmuch as it left every man free to sign or reject the Declaration.

We have also been delighted with a fine piece of splendid imagery about the sun and the wind, and a traveller and his cloak. But this cloak he would liken to a cloak which wraps us round, and hides us from the knowledge of our people; and which prevents the glorious beams of the Sun of Righteousness from heating and warming our frozen hearts of unbelief. We do not know these travellers who wear such cloaks; perhaps these are the cloaks that will make, or have made, those hypo crites, so much dreaded by certain eloquent speakers. Perhaps it is these cloaks that hide from our view those clergymen who are regularly in the practice of importing from London a certain work called the Christian Moderator-a work established with the view, and for the very purpose

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