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Here the use of the word κεκοσμημενοι, following 50 immediately after the words ητοιμασμενοι and O:8, and with such connection of thought and of imagery, affords reason to suppose, that Ignatius bad seen this passage of the Apocalypse. Ignatius appears to me to comment on St. John, referring this passage to the fourth chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians, where the same images are used, and by a comparison with which it is best explained. A better illustration cannot be given of κεκοσμημενην το ανδρι αυτης, than in these parallel words of Ignatius, κεκοσμημενην εύλολαις Ιησε Χρισ8. The one is the mystical expression; the other is its meaning, when disrobed of the figurative dress.

Rev. xxi. 3.

Ignat. ad Ephes. sect. 15. Και αυίοι λαοι αυλου εσονίαι, και αυίος ο Θεος Ινα ωμεν αυλου ναοι (fors. λαοι) και αυλος Εξαι μεθ' αυίων, Θεος αυλων.

Η εν ημιν, Θεος ημων.

Both these passages seem to have reference to 2 Cor. V. 16. και εσομαι αυλων ο Θεος, και αυτοι εσούαι μοι λαος, which is taken from Lev. Χxvi. 12. και εσομαι υμων Θεος, και υμεις εσεσθε

μοι λαος: Οr from Jer. Xxxi. 38. και εσομαι αυτοις εις Θεον, και αυλοι εσολαι μοι εις λαον. or Jer. Xxxii. 38, και έσονται μοι εις λαον, και εγω εσομαι αυτοις εις Θεον. Or from Ezek. XXXvii. 23. και εσoναι μοι εις λαον, και εγω κυριος εσομαι αυτοις εις Θεον.

I have produced all these passages to shew in what degree Ignatius can be supposed to quote

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from, or allude to each. The expression, in the first part of the sentence, may be taken from any, or all of them, as well as from this passage in the Apocalypse. But the peculiar turn and form of the latter clause is only to be found here. And I think it probable, that Ignatius would not have relinquished the form observed in the other quotations for this mode of expression, which is very peculiar, if he had not seen and remembered it in the Apocalypse. They are, indeed, the very same words ; only with that grammatical alteration which was necessary

to fit them to the circumstances; that is, to the application which Ignatius makes of them to himself, and his readers.

I submit the consideration of these passages to the learned reader, who may perhaps determine, that Ignatius has not “ passed over the

Apocalypse in silence.”

The next writer, from whom Michaelis expects evidence respecting the Apocalypse, is the old Syriac translator. He has taken considerable pains to shew, that the first Syriac translation is of great antiquity*. But, whoever has read the notes of his learned translator, upon this part of Michaelis's works, must be convinced that there is no sufficient evidence to shew, that the Syriac version was made before the fourth century; because the first quotation from it is by Ephrem, who lived in that pe

* Introd. vol. I. part !.


tiod *. In this case, it cannot be admitted as an evidence, belonging to this early class.

HERMAS, or the author bearing that name, or the Shepherd, is not mentioned by Michaelis. But Lardner has produced some passages from this book, by which he was inclined to think, that Hermas “ had seen and imitated “ the Apocalypse.” I have examined these

passages attentively, but can see no such particular expressions, (such as we have observed in Ignatius) as will lead me to conclude that Hermas had seen this book. There are, indeed, images and descriptions, which bear some affinity to those of the Apocalypse; but the sources, from which these were probably derived, may be shewn in other parts of Sacred Scripture. There appears to me nothing either in the imagery or expression of Hermas which will prove that he copied after the Apocalypse. But the time, in which Hermas wrote, is supposed by Lardner and others, upon probable grounds, to have been before the conclusion of the first century; some name the year 75, others 92 -4; but, as this book was written at Rome, it is not probable that the author could, in any part of that century, have obtained a sight of the Apocalypse, which, as we have observed, began to be circulated in Asia, only about the year 97. If Hermas had seen the Apocalypse,

* Marsh's Notes to Michaelis's Introd, vol. 2. ch. vii, sect. 6, + Tillemort.


it is to be expected that his narration would have been strongly and unquestionably tinged with the imagery and appropriate expressions of this sublime book*. If, then, Hermas wrote before he could see the Apocalypse, his silence is no evidence against its authenticity : but it is an additional proof, to be classed with those of the preceding chapter, that the Apocalypse was not published till late in Domitian's reign.

POLYCARP has not been cited as an evidence in the question before us. He is reported, by Irenæus, to have written many epistles. But only one of these is come down to us. And this is so replete with practical exhortations, that there is little reason to expect in it any quotations from this mystical book. We have, however, other reasons to conclude, that Polycarp received the Apocalypse as divine Scripture; because it was so received by Irenæus, his Auditor, who appeals to him and the Asiatic Churches, over one of which Polycarp presided, for the truth of his doctrines. This apostolical man suffered martyrdom, about seventy years after the Apocalypse had been published. An account of this event is given in an interesting Epistle written from the Church of Smyrna, over which Polycarp had presided. In this

* This seems to be the case in the Apocryphal Esdras. Compare 2 Esdras, ii. 42.-47. with Rev. vii. 9. Also, vi, 17. Sl. 58. V. 4. vii. 57. 58. ix. 38. X. 37. xi, 5. 22.


Epistle, part of which is reported by Eusebius*, there seem to be some allusions to the Apocalypse, which have escaped observation. And if the Apocalypse was received by the Church of Smyrna at the time of Polycarp's death, there can be no doubt but it was received by him, their Bishop and Instructor.

In Rev. i. 15.

The feet of the Son of Man are


In the Epistle,
The body of the suffering Martyr

is represented,
Ουκ ως σαρξ καιομενη, αλλ' ως

και αγγίρος εν καμινα Θυρομενοι

Ομοιοι χαλκολιβανω ως εν καμινω σε

Trupa proto


That the writer did not use the word χαλκολιβανος, , may be accounted for, by his having in view, at the same time, another passage of Scripture, 1 Peter, i. 7. where the Apostle compares the suffering Christians to “ Gold tried by the fire ;" but why did he, after having used the word gold, omit the dla wupos Soria Souve of St. Peter, to substitute xv za pecivo wupwpevol ? why? but because he was led to it by this passage of the Apocalypse ? besides in Rev. iii. 18. we read also χρυσίον σεπυρωμενον εκ συρος. .

The pious and sublime prayer of Polycarp, at the awful moment when the fire was about to be lighted under him,' begins with these words, Κυρις, ο Θεος, δ σαντοκράτωρ. They are the identical words in the prayer of the Elders, Rev. xi. 17. Kuple, ó 0:05, ó way?oupa7wp. • H. E. lib. iv. c. 15.


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