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· beginning," and “from the beginning with God*.” ” The apostle to the Hebrews enforces the same notion of our Lord's eternity, when he calls him “ Jesus “ Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for evert.” He is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the original Creator, and the final Judge, of the world; to whose illustrious advent, and final triumph over his enemies (as being the grand catastrophe of the Apocalypse) the prophet, who had already seen it exhibited in vision, exultingly adverts, even before he begins his warration. This was natural, in one who had seen such a vision, but it would not easily have occurred in a work of mere imagination and art.

* John i. 1. 13. v. 26. 19. 22. xiv. 11. xvi. 15, also Col. i. 16. 17. Heb. i. 2, 3, 8. 1 John v. 20,

# Heb. xiii. 8.



The Appearance of the Lord Jesus with the Symbols of

his Power; and the Commission given by him to Saint John to write what he beholds.

CHAP, I. VER. 9-to the end.

به والشيعة نهفة

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9 'Eyw 'Iwers, 9 I John, your brother, 9 I John, who also am

and fellow-sharer in your brother, and comGulsgarwnes iv TT the tribulation and paqion in tribulation, θλίψει και βασιλεία kingdom and patience and in the kingdom and και υπομονη 'Ιησέ of Jesus Christ, was in patience of JesusChrist, Χρισέ, εγενόμην εν jhe Island called Pat was in the isle that is τη τήσω τη καλο mos, for the word of called Patinos, for the

a loud

μένη Πάτμο, δια τον λόγον τέ Θεέ, και δια την μαρα

εία, 'Ιησύ [ΧρισB]. 10 'Εγενόμην εν σιεύ

μαλι εν τη κυριακή ημέρα και ήκεσα οπίσω με φωνής

μεγάλης ως σαλ11 πιγδι, λεγέσης:

“ο βλέπεις, γράψος εις βιβλίου, και πέμψον ταϊς επlα εκκλησίαις, εις "Εφεσον, και εις Σμύρναν, και εις Πέραμον, και εις Θυάτειρα, και εις Σάρδεις, και εις Φι

λαδέλφειαν, και εις 12 Λαοδίκειαν. Και

επίσρεψα βλέπεις ราช มหา, .5 ελάλησε με έμε: και επιςρέψας είδος

επία λυχνίας χρυ13 σας, Και εν μέσω

των επια λυχνιών όμοιον υιό ανθρώπε, ενδεδυμένον ποδήρη, και περιεζωσμένον

σεύς τους μασούς 14 ζώνην χρνσηςΗ

δε κεφαλή αυτά και αι τρίχες λευκαι, ωσιι ίειον λευκών, ώς κών και οι οφθαλμοί αυ

τα ώς φλόξ ουράς. 13 και οι σόδες αυτά

όμοιοι χαλκολιβα

God, and for the word of God, and for

testimony of Jesus the testimony of Je10 [Christ]. I was in the 10 sus Clarist. I was in

Spirit on the Lord's the Spirit on the day; and I heard Lord's day, and heard behind me

behind me a great voice, as of a trum voice, as of a trum. 11 pet, Saying, “ That 11 pet, Saying, I am

66 which thou seest Alpha and Omega, « write in a book, the first and the last : " and send unto the and, What thou seest,

seven churches; to write in a book, and « Ephesus ; and to send it unto the seven

Smyrna; and to Churches which are “ Pergamos; and to in Asia; unto Ephe« Thyatira; and to sus, and unto Smyr. “ Sardis; and to Phi na, and unto Perga

“ ladelphia; and to mos, and unto 'Thya12 “ Laodicea." And I tira, and unto Sardis,

turned to see what and unto Philadel. the voice was which phia, and unto Laospake with me; and 12 dicea. And I turned being turned, I saw to see the voice that

seven golden lamp spake with me. And 13 bearers; And in the being turned, I saw

midst of the seren seven golden candle, lamp-bearers one like 13 sticks; And in the the Son

niidst of the seven clothed with a long candlesticks one like garment down to the

unto the Son of man, feet, and girt about

cloathed with a garthe breasts with a ment down to the 14 golden girdle; His foot, and girt about

head and his hair the paps with a golden white, as white wool, 14 girdle, His head and as snow; and his eyes his hairs were white

as a fame of fire; like wool, as white 15 And his feet like as snow; and his eyes

smelting brass, as if were as a flame of burned brightly in a 15 fire ; And his feet furnace ; and his

like unto fine brass,

of man,

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νω, ώς εν καμίνω voice as the voice of as if they burned in witUgWivoru xxi 16 many waters; And & furnace: and his i pun airë as having in his right voice as the sound of φωνή υδάτων σολ hand seven stars, and 16 mnany waters. And 16 λών: Και έχων εν from bis mouth a two. he had in his right Tuba zote xui edged sharp sword hand seren stars : asipus i la xzi ix

coming forth; and bis and out of his mouth το σόματος αυτο countenance as the went a sharp twoρομφαία δίδυμος Sun shineth in his edged sword, and his otriz škTogevouém | 17 power. And when I countenance was as και η όψις αυτό, ,

saw him, I fell at his the sun shineth ju ως ο ήλιος φαίνει

feet, as dead; and 17 his strength. And έν τη δυνάμει αυτά. . he laid his right hand when I saw him, I 17 Και ότι είδος αυτόν, ,

upon me, saying to fell at his feet as έπεσα προς τις 18 ne] “ Fear not; I am dead: and he laid σόδας αυτά ως

“ the first and the his right hand upon νεκρός και επέθηκε

“ last, and he who me, saying unto me, την δεξιάν αυτά “ liveth; and I was Fear not; I am the επ' εμέ, λίγων

“ dead, and behold 18 first and the last : 1 [ro]. Mū puce " am alive for ever am he that liveth, έγώ είμι ο τρώτος " and ever; and I and was deud; and

και ο έσχαίος, , " have the keys of behold, I am alive 18 Kzi ó üve xai o Death and of hell. for evermore, Amen;

iperiany nugos, xai " Write therefore and have the keys of
idó Süm tipos eis tès « those things which hell and of death.
awras Tüy qiwwy “ thou seest,

19 Write

the things και έχω τας κλάς " the things which wbich thou hast:een, To Saváre nai r8

" are present,

nd and the things which 19 qde. Ipálov " which are about to are, and the things

α είδες, και α εισι, 20 “ be after these : The which shall be hereκαι α μέλλει γίησ

“ mystery of the

of the 20 after, The mystery θαι μετά ταύτα, . “ seven stars which

of the seren 20 Το μυστήριον των " thou seest in my which thou savest in έπια ατέρων, ών

“ right hand, and niy right hand, and vides tai tūs degiãs «: the seven golden the

golden με, και τας επα

“ lamp-bearers. The candlesticks. The λυχνίας τας Хs " seven stars are the seven stars are the

angels of the seven angels of the seren αγελοι τών έπλα έχ

“ churches; and the churches : and the κλησιών είσι και “ seven lamp-bearers


the seven which thou sawest are Επία εκκλησίαι εισί. . “ Churches."

the seven churches,




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αι έπλα λυχνίαι, ,


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l'er. 9. I John, &c.] Who this John was, and why, and whither banished, may be seen in note, c. 1. 1. His dignity, as an apostle, and as a prophet favoured with this vision, and honoured with this commission, was at all events considerable; but, in the spirit of the Gospel, he calls himself only a brother, as his Lord had called himself before him *, and a fellowsharer in the afflictions which the faithful were then suffering, under the persecution of Domitian. But to partake the sufferings of Christ, is to partake also his kingdomt, which are here therefore emphatically united..

For the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus.] The sense of this expression becomes clear, by comparing it with chap. vi. 9, where the Martyrs are represented as having suffered δια τον λόγον το Θεό και δια uapłupseen Ý Elmov, “ for the word of God, and for the “ testimony which they bare.” John was, like them, a persecuted sufferer and confessor, in the Island of Patmos, to which he was banished for his adherence to the faith, and where he was favoured with this vision I

Ver. 10. I was in the Spirit.] It is in vain to inquire the exact manner in which these sacred visions were communicated. The Jewish writers have said much upon the subject, but nothing which can satisfy a rational and sober mind. So far however is plain from Ezek. ii. 2. iii. 24. 2 Cor. xii. 2. and other passages of Scripture, that the prophet commonly perceived the impulse of the Spirit acting upon him in a sudden and extraordinary manner; yet so mysteriously, that

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* John xx. 17.

+ 2 Tim. ii. 12. Euseb. Eccl. llist. lib. iii. cap. 18.

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Saint Paul affirms that he could not tell whether it was “in the body or out of the body,” that he was present in the heavens. Saint John perceived this movement of the Spirit upon him, when the heavenly voice called to him. He represents it, as it struck his senses, coming from behind him, and thus affecting him with more sudden surprise; it was loud, and as of a trumpet, the signal of war; it was fearful and alarming*The trumpet was the voice of God, at the awful delivery of the Law from Mount Sinai, and so shall be again at the consummation of the world t.

Ver. 11. See notes on verses 4 and 8.

Ver. 12. Seven golden lamp-bearers.] These are ex, plained afterwards (v. 20.) to signify the seven Churches, or the universal Church of Christ. They are not the lamps or lights, but the bearers of them; they are the instruments, on which the lights being suspended, illuminate the Christian world. Spiritual knowledge is frequently represented in Scripture, under the emblem of a light or lamp. Numerous are the instances; but see in particular Mat. v. 14, 15, and the parallel passages, and Ezek. iv. 2. Agreeably to which, in Rev. iv. 5. seven lamps of fire are used to express the gifts of the Divine Spirit; but the receptacle of religious knowledge, the station from which it is communicated, is the lamp-bearer or candlestick; and by this is denoted the Church of Christ. So Irenæus, who, allu. ding to this passage, says, Ubique enim ecclesia prædicat veritatem, et haec est επταμυχος (aliter επταμυξος)

Joel ii. 1. Amos jii. 6. I Cor. xiv. &. + 1 Thess. iv. 16. i Cor, xy. 52.

See note, ver. 4.


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