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Ver. 12. And the third part of the Sun was smitten ; &c.] At the sound of the fourth trumpet, the same kind of stroke which had afflicted the three preceding divisions of the Creation, falls on the fourth remaining part,---on the Heavenly Luminaries; the Sun, Moon, and Stars: a third part of these is smitten, and ceases to give light. When The Almighty took the Israelites to be his peculiar people, he is said, in prophetic language, to have "planted the Heavens, " and laid the foundation of the earth.” It was a kind of new creation. Happiness was thereby founded for man on a new basis, and under new lights, unknown to the heathen. The Divine ordinances of Theocracy, under which that peculiar people flourished, are frequently expressed by the sublime images of the heavenly luminaries. So that the darkening of these implies, that this Divine polity shall fail t. But the heavenly dispensation of the Christian covenant, being to succeed to it by the appointment of the same Heavenly, Lord, is represented by the same figures. When the Jewish polity, expressed under the image of the Sun and Moon, is “ ashamed and confounded I,” the superior splendour of the Christian Light shines forth in the same kind of description “ The light of the Moon shall be as the

light of the Sun, and the light of the Sun shall be “ seven-fold g." There is likewise frequent allusion

agree with the purity of Scripture. In some of them are to be discovered, the seeds at least of error, which were afterwards matured into dangerous beresies. (See this justly and eloquently set forth in a Sermon by the Bishop of Oxford, intitled Concio ad Clerum à Joban, Randolph ; 1790.) • 16.

+ Amos viii. 9, &c. Matt. xxiv. 29. Is. xxiv. 23. Ix, xxx, 26.


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to this mode of expression in the Apostolic writers * So that a third of the light taken from the heavenly luminaries, implies a failure in that invaluable light derived from the Christian revelation. The reign of darkness, ignorance, and superstition, did indeed return after the Light of the Gospel had been revealed ; the more particular history of which will be unfolded in the following Trumpets. The prophecy of the fourth Trumpet, as of those preceding, is general. It follows the other three in natural order; and is indeed the effect of the third Corruption of know- . ledge necessarily produces ignorance. The corruption of Christianity produced at length Gothic darkness and superstition.

Thus I suppose the four first Trumpets to afford a general view of the WARFARE which the Christian Religion underwent, upon its first establishment. The history delivered under the Seals, after a solemn pause and silence, begins again. Under the Seals, the degeneracy of the Church had been described. Under the Trumpets, the attacks which she had to sustain from her antichristian foes. And she is first represented as undergoing various kinds of assault in her several divisions; these divisions of the Christian world bearing analogy to the Scriptural divisions of the natural world.

1. The storm of persecution in Judæa, which, murdering the martyrs, and dispersing the Apostles t, is aptly represented by hail and fire, mingled with blood; on the bursting forth of which, the weak in the faith fall away. 2. The Gentile persecution, arising from the pagan religion, which is fitly designated by a

• Col.i. 12, 13. 2 Cor. iv. 6. 1 Thess. v. 4, &c. 2 Tim. j. 10, Heb. x. 32. James i. 17. i Pet. ii. 9. 1 John i. 5, &c. † Acts vii. 54, &c. viii, 1.


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Ch. viii. 6-12.]

burning mountain. 3. The corruption of the Waters
of Life, by the earliest heretics, and by injudicious
teachers. 4 The consequent failure, in part, of that
bright and glorious light which originally beamed from
this Revelation. The symbols do not appear to me to 1,
warrant a more especial interpretation of them. The
difficulty which attends them, arises from the paucity
of the matter, and the short compass in which it is
expressed. The means of interpreting them which I
have ventured to apply, have been derived from com-
paring similar passages of Scripture; and by consider-
ing, that these four first Trumpets must be supposed to
bound the signal of the same kind of attack, and against
the same object, as the three last. Now, as these three
will be found to represent the invasion of the Christian
Church by Antichristian foes, we have reason to con-
clude that the preceding trumpets foretel a similar
history, Some additional light has been obtained from
the preparatory vision *, which seems to restrict the
commotions contained under these Trumpets, to reli-
gious causes. If Religion, descending from the altar
in heaven, had not mingled with the passions and pro- c
jects of men, these commotions would have had no ?, !!.
place in history. The greater part of the modern 4..}.
commentators, following Joseph Mede, have supposed

have these prophecies fulfilled in the ravages committed by the Gothic barbarians on the provinces of the Roman Empire. But I have as yet been able to perceive noms plausible reason, produced either by Mede or his fol. --, lowers, to shew why the prophecies of the Apocalypse in general, why the seals, or why the four first Trumpets in particular, should be understood to relate to the history of the Roman Empire. Mede says, indeed, at

Chap. viii. 1-6. he. turnpit bericht


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[Pt. III. $2. his entrance upon the explanation of the Seals *, that,

as Daniel in the Old Testament both presignified the

coming of Christ, and arranged the fortunes of the " Jewish Church by the succession of the empires; so " the Apocalypse is to be supposed to measure the Christian history by the means of the Roman Em

pire, which was yet to be remaining after Christ.” The conjecture is good; and as such will be acknowledged in its proper place. For, in the course of the prophecy, that beast of the Prophet Daniel (or one nearly resembling him, and plainly representing the remains of the Roman Empire) will appear. But before the symbols under which the prophecy is expressed, are seen clearly to indicate the Roman Empire, why are we to expect that the prophecy should relate its fortunes t? The subject of these Divine visions is of superior importance :--the fates and fortunes of the Christian Church :

non res Romanæ perituraque regnat:

and the Roman Empire seems to be only so far noticed
in them, as it necessarily became connected with the
Church of Christ. The learned writer above quoted,

• Quemadmodum enim in V. T. Daniel, secundum imperiorum
successiones, tum Christi adventum præsignavit, tum Ecclesiæ Judaicæ
fata digessit; ita rem Christianam Apocalypsis, Romani, quod adhuc
post Christum superfuturum esset, imperii rationibus admetiri censenda
est.-Works, p. 441.

+ There is a period of the Roman Empire, even its latest period,
pointed out by the Prophet Daniel in his Sacred Kalendar (so Mede
calls it), when the Empire, divided under its teu Kings, will be inter-
mixed with the fortunes of the Christian Church. This history will
appear displayed in its proper symbols in the sequel of the Apocalypse;
but hitherto no such symbols have appeared; nor do they appear be-
fore the production of the little bouk, ch. x.
See Bp. Hurd's Sermons on Prophecy, p. 43.



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Ch. viii. 6–12.]


221 .

nual ( rivhuhud eals *, tha was aware, that the fates of the Roman Empire were ļ ticis gnified the

beneath the dignity of this sacred book. For, having bibles ;

dispatched that part of his work which he supposes to empires ; 9 contain them, “We now proceed,” says he,“ to an

Semok Pasure th

other, and much the most noble prophecy, because it man E contains the history of Religion and of the Church*.

forestli er Christ

Another judicious observation of the same commentae acknor

tor will be usefully applied to this enquiry. He ob.

serves that the Trumpets should be interpreted as being emindig el (or of all of one kind and nature, or, as he expresses it, homonting the geneal; “to make some of them warlike invasions,

" and others to be heresies, is to bring things of too

“ differing a nature under one name 7.” After having zire, the

supposed the four first Trumpets to represent “ warlike relate is

“invasions on the Roman Empire,” he clearly saw, that

the remaining Trumpets must not be interpreted as of the containing the history of Christian heresies; and there

fore he laboured to shew that the Roman Empire was
the object of attack in all the Trumpets. This labour
he would perhaps have spared, if he had not already

explained the four first Trumpets to be so many attacks th

on that Empire ; and therefore found himself obliged
to exhibit a consistency, when he proceeded to inter-
pret the rest. For, certainly, the great apostacy occa-
sioned by Mahomet (which Mede understands to be
contained under the fifth Trumpet) will be found to
have attacked the Christian Religion yet more hostilely
and extensively than the Roman Empire. It over-
threw, or fatally corrupted, this Religion in the Roman
Empire, wherever it subverted that Empire ; and,
moreover, was fatal to Christianity in the wide and
extensive regions of the Eastern World, which had
never been subjected to the Roman dominion.

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• Mede's Works, p. 477.

+ Ib. p. 595.


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