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θη αυταίς, ίνα μη to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, they should be tor- them, but that they αλλ' ίνα βασανισ- mented five months : should be tormented θώσι μήνας σέντε" and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ- of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, μός σκορπία, όταν 6 striketh a man. And when he striketh

σαίση άνθρωπος in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Και εν ταις ημέραις men seek death, and days shall men seek

εκείναις ζητήσεσιν οι shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα

shall desire to die, and find it; and shall deτου, και ε μη ευρή- death shall flee fron sire to die, and death σεσιν αυτόν και επι- 7 them. And the ap

shall flee from thein. θυμήσεσιν αποθαpearances of the Jo

7 And the shapes of the νεϊν, και φεύξεται και custs were like horses

locusts were like unto θάναλος απ' αυτών:

prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώμαλα

and upon their heads, battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια | as it were, crowns of

heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and νοις εις πόλεμος και as the faces of men : their faces were as the επί τας κεφαλάς 8 And they had hair, as

8 faces of men. And αυτών ως τέφανοι

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσού, και τα πρόwomen; and their teeth

hair of women, and αυτών ως 9 were as of lions. And

their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And 8 πων.

as it

breast- they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron, And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνlες

the sound of their of iron; and the αυτών ως λεόνlων ή

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 σαν. Και είχον θώ

chariots,of many horses was as the sound of garas oidngês xai

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses η φωνή των θερύ

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ως φωνή

scorpious; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there πολλών τρεχόντων their power was

to were stings in their 10 εις πόλεμον. Και injure the men five

tails : and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They have σκορπίοις, και κένθρα

was to hurt men five ήν εν ταις έραις αυ

over them a king, the 11 months. And they had των και η εξεσία

angel of the bottomless a king over therm, αυτών αδικήσαι τις

deep; his name in He- which is the angel of

ΒΒ 2


Και είχαν


ανθρώπες haigus 11 wive. "Expon ép?

αυτών βασιλέα τον άγγελος της αβύσσε" όνομα αυτό ΕΚραϊσί 'Αβαδδών, και εν τη Ελληνική

όνομα έχει 'Απολ19 λύων. Η έαι η

μία απήλθεν ιδε, έρχονlαι έτι δύο και μετά ταύτα. .

brew is Abaddon; and
in the Greek he bath

name, Apollyon.
12 The first woe is past;

behold there come yet
two woes after these

the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the

Greek tongue hath his 12 name Apollyon, One

wo is past, and behold there come two woes more hereafter.

Verscs 1--11. And the fifth angel sounded ; &c.] In these eleven verses is contained a very particular description (and indeed the first particular description occurring in the Apocalypse) of the prevalence of Anti-Christianity. For, the prophecies of the six Seals do not descend to any minute delineation; and those of the four first Trumpets are, each of them, comprized in a very narrow compass; in one, or at the most, two short verses. Now the prospect enlarges into a more exact display of the warfare.

Upon the blast of this Trumpet, which is woeful to the inhabitants of the earth*, a star is seen to fall, or just to complete its fall, from heaven to earth : for, such seems to be the sense of WETTWAOTA T. The descent of such a star was seen under the third Trumpet $; this leader of iniquity had begun his evil ministry by embittering, by corrupting the Waters of Life. This corruption, in which we have seen him

* Ch. viii, 13.

+ Præsens-perfectum. Annot. S. Clarke, S.T. P. in Hom. Iliad. lib. i. lin. 37. 1 Ch. viii. 10, consult the note.


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successfully employed, produced those beginnings of
darkness, ignorance, and superstition, which were dis-
closed under the fourth Trumpet. Upon the blast of
the fifth Trumpet, this evil increases. To these begin-
nings of darkness, he is permitted to add the smoke
and machinations of hell *. It is by permission, that
be opens this source of infinite mischief: for, the keys
of death, and of hell, belong to another power, even
to the Lord of Life f. But “ the Spirit of God will
“ not always strive with man 1.” The wilful and re.
probate are at length given up to the just consequen-
ces of their wilfulness. The key of the great in-
fernal deep, (whence are the Bubñ të calxvã, the depths
of Satan g, those black corruptive doctrines, which
destroy the purity and splendour of the Church,) is
given to the fallen star, to the fallen angel; to “ the
"prince of the power of the air; the power of dark-
ness; that spirit which worketh in the children of
“ disobedience l.” He is an angel, for so he is ex-
pressly called, (v. 11.) “ the angel of the bottomless

deep,” and surely an evil angel : and in this description, as also in his fall from heaven, his evil character will be found to correspond with that of the chief of our infernal enemies, called Satan in the twelfth chapter: who, under the symbol of a fiery dragon, is there described as having fullen from heaven. There can be little or no doubt therefore, but that the Prince of Darkness, Satan, or, which

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* For a vacus is certainly used to signify that part of 'Adns, or bell, which is to be the place of punishment to the wicked. Compare ch. xx. 1-3, and 2 Pet. ii. 4. + Ch. i. 18. Gen vi. 3.

See note, ch. ii. 24. || Eph, ii. 2. Luke xxii. 59. Col. ii. 15. See also John xii. 31. 46. xiv. 30. Acts xxvi. 13. Eph. vi. 12. Heb. ii. 14.

will amount nearly to the same thing, one of his ministers *, is the agent who opens the infernal deep. Upon the opening of this pit, vast clouds of sinoke are seen to ascend, darkening the sun and air. Ignorance and superstition, frequently described in Scripture under these figures, invade the Christian atmosphere t. Under covert of these clouds, and engendered in these “ depths of Satan I,” locusts come forth. Locusts are described by profane as well as sacred, by ancient and by modern authors, as committing the most extraordinary depredations in the eastern regions; the horror of which is represented as beginning with a deprivation of light. Solem obumbrant, “they darken " the sun,says Pliny Ø. “At that time, Syria suffered “ from a scarcity of food for cattle of all kinds, and " of corn, occasioned by a multitude of locusts, so

great, as had never before been seen in the memory “ of man; which, like a thick cloud, flying about “in mid-day, and obscuring the light, devoured the

products of the fields on every side ||.” “ Suddenly " there came over our heads a thick cloud, which darkened the air, and deprived us of the rays of " the sun ; we soon found, that it was owing to a “ cloud of locusts T.” But the locusts, seen in this

* Jude 6.
+ Prov. ii. 13. Joel ii. 10. John xii. 35. 46. Eph. v. 8. 11, &c.
1 Ch. ii. 24.

§ Nat. Hist. xi. 29. # Laborabat eo tempore pabuli omnis generis et annonæ inopia Syria, ob locustarum nusquam hominum memoriâ tantam visam multitudinem : quæ densæ nubis instar, die in media, luce obscuratâ, volitantes, agrum circumquaque depastæ sunt. Thuanus, clxxxiv. vii. p. 364. tom. v.

Adamson's Voyage to Senegall, p. 127. See also Bochart, on Joel. ii. 10; and Chandler, on the same place. These quotations are collected by Archbisbop Newcome. And to these add the following, from Holy Scripture; Exod. x. 12, 6. Jer. li. 27, &c. Nabum iii. 15.


- those only

vision, have a yet more dreadful character; they have the power of scorpions, and stings in their tails; and their prey is not (as usual with locusts) the grass

and green plants, and trees of the field; they are permitted to attack man; yet not all men, “ who have not the seal of God upon their foreheads ;" by which we plainly understand *, that all sincere servants of Christ are preserved from the mischief. The scorpion is a small insect, contemptible as the locust in its size and appearance; but formidable by reason of its sting. Scorpions are classed in Holy Writ, together with serpents, as a part of the power of the infernal enemy t. And our Lord gives his Disciples power over them; and it is in consequence of this gift that the sealed escape their venom.

The men who are attacked by them are not killed, but wounded and tormented. They lose not altogether their spiritualx life in Christ, their knowledge of a life immortal, purchased and revealed to them by their Redeemer, whose name they still confess, and to whom they may yet return, and live #; but the impression made upon them by this infernal attack, renders the prospect of a pure spiritual life no longer the object of delight; they are of those who love darkness better than light, because their deeds are evil ş.

A nearer See note, ch. vii, 2.

+ Luke x. 19. See note, ch. iii. 1. vi. 8. § A most eloquent representation of mental torment, conveyed under the emblem of scorpion-stings, will be found in these lines:

“ Cold, fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh; -
“ O coward consicence! how dost thou afflict me!
“ Oh, the affiiction of those terrible dreams
“ That shake us nightly! Better be with the dead,
“ Than on such torture of the mind to lie.
“ Ob! full of Scorpions is my mind,---I'ın filld with horror!"


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