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those many kingdoms of the western world, which at that very time, on account of their ignorance and superstition, were submitting themselves to the papal yoke. The sealed are to be found in all Christian countries, miogled with the unsealed; and the invasion which could hurt the one, and not the other, may easily be understood to be that of an universally extended heresy, but not that of a partial invasion by arms * The good Christian who continued stedfast in the primitive faith, did not submit to the Gnostical teachers, and thus remained unhurt. But how could he escape unhurt from the sword and liai Peine plunder and domination of the Mahometans?

5. A period is assigned for the continuance of this woe; five months, or 150 years,

The progressive conquests of the Saracene Mahometans continued more than double the length of this period; have been renewed by other nations professing the same creed; and the Mahometans have at this day possession of the greater part of their acquired dominions, after a lapse of nearly 1200 years !

6. To accommodate the Saracens to the symbols of this Trumpet, the commentators have been obliged to apply the prophetic characters sometimes in a borrowed, sometimes in a literal sense, which I suppose to be unwarranted. They ought all to be applied in the same sense.

7. Under the next Trumpet, we shall attempt to shew, that another prophecy belongs more appro

• Especially if a whole region be invaded; for, in the invasion of a particular city, the sealed might escape, as we are told they did, at the siege of Jerusalem under Titus, retiring timely to Pella, upon the warning given them by their Lord, Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. qui. c. 5.


priately to the Mahometans. The application of the fifth Trumpet to them is of modern date :—Contenta in hâc visione omnes penè de hæreticis intelligunt *.

8. The important period of 150 years, during which the infant Church was darkened and disfigured by the Gnostic heresies, and on that account exposed to scandal, and misrepresentation, and additional persecution, seems of magnitude to require the notice of Divine prophecy. Though but sparingly mentioned in history, because the records of it, which have survived the Diocletian destruction of manuscripts, are few; yet, its real consequence is not diminished by such accidental circumstance. The great and leading facts are fully established, and no doubt can be entertained of their extensive and powerful influence on the progress of Christianity. But this is its place in the Apocalyptic Visions, and I hope clearly asa certained,) or it has none.

• Gagnæus apud Polum.



The sounding of the sixth Trumpet and beginning of

the second Woe.

CHAP. ix, VER. 13-to the end.

13 Kaibixa ay | 13 And the sixth angel | 13 And the sixth angel

εσάλπισε, και ήκεσα sounded; and I heard sounded, and I heard φωνήν μία εκ των one voice from the a voice from the four τεσσάρων κεράτων four · horns of the horns of the golden të Suosæsngis rõ golden altar, which is

altar, which is before xguar të VTION 14 before God, Saying to 14 God, Saying to the

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14 τύ Θεά, Λέγεσαν the sixth angel who

τα έκλα αγέλω, και bad the trumpet, έχων την σάλπιγγα"

“ Loose the four anΛύσον τες τέσσα “ gels, who are boundpas ałyékos aos

en at the great river dsdsuéves émi to 15“ Euphrates."

And σόλαμώ το μεγάλω the four angels were 15 Euogern.


loosed, who were predúlnaar oi ric

pared for the hour, σαρες άγγελοι οι η

and day, and month, τοιμασμένοι εις την

and year, for to slay ώραν, και ημέραν,

the third part of the Bij vñvce, xj ivaulò, | 16 men. And the numένα αποκλείνωσι το

ber of the troops of τρίτον των ανθρώ

cavalry was two my16 www. Kaió agro riads of myriads: and μός των τραιευμά

I heard the number of των τε ιππικά, δύο

17 them. And thus I saw μυριάδες μυριάδων:

the horses in the viκαι ήκεσα τον αριθ

sion, and those who 17 μών αυτών. Και

sate on them having έτως είδαν τες ιπ

breast-plates of the opus in thógácei, ry

colour of fire, of hyaτες καθημένες επ'

cinth, of brimstone. αυτών, έχονίας θώ

And the heads of the ρακας συρίνες, και

horses like heads of υακινθίνες, και θειώ

lions; and out of their δεις και αι κεφαλαι

mouths issueth fire, των ίππων ως κε

and smoke, and brimφαλαί λεόγλων, και

18 stone. By these three εκ των δομάτων αυτων εκπορεύεται τους

plagues were slain the

third xj uztvòs x Isioy.

part 18 'Απο των τριών

by the fire, and the πληγών τέτων α

smoke, and the brimπεκτάνθησαν T

stone issuing from agíton Tür ár@gan 19 their mouths. For the πων, εκ τ8 συρος, power of the horses και έκ τα καπνά, και

is in their mouth, and rů dels rå ixno

in their tails; for, their ρευομένα εκ των 5ο

tails are like serpents,

sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which

are bound in the great 15 river Euphrates. And

the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year,

for to slay the third 16 part of men. And the

number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard

the number of them. 17 And thus I saw the

horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinct, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the beads of lions; and out of their mouths

issued fire and smoak, 18 and brimstone. By

these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoak, and by the brimstone, which

issued out of their 19 mouths. For their

power is in their mouth, and in their tails; for their tails were like unto ser.

of the men,

having heads: and with

pents, and had heads, them they

they injure. and with them they 20 And the remainder of 20 do hurt. And the rest

the men, who were not of the men which were slain by these plagues, not killed by these repented not of the plagues, yet repented works of their hands, not of the works of so that they should their hands, that they not worship the dæ should not worship mons, and the idols devils, and idols of of gold, and of silver, gold, and silver, and and of brass, and of brass, and stone, and stone, and of wood, of wood; which neiwhich

see, ther can see, nor hear, nor hear, nor walk.

21 por

walk: : Neither 21 And they repented

repented they of their not of their murders,

murders, nor of their nor of their sorceries, sorceries, nor of their nor of their forni fornication, nor of cation, nor of their their thefts. . thefts,

19 μάτων αυτών. Η

gåę i&uoia Tar ίππων εν τω σόμαλι αυτών έσιν, και εν ταϊς εραϊς αυτών αι γαρ έραι αυτών όμοιαι άφεσιν, έχοσαι κεφαλαι» και

εν αυταίς αδικίσι: 20 Και οι λοιποί των

ανθρώπων οι οκ απεκλάνθησαν εν ταις πληγείς ταύταις, & μετενόησαν εκ των έργων των χειρών αυτων, ίνα μη προσκυνήσωσι τα δαιμόνια, και τα είδωλα τα χρυσά, και τα αρυρά, και τα χαλκά, και τα λίθινα, και τα ξύλινα, α έτε βλέπειν δύναται,

ύτε ακέειν, ότε 21 περιπαθεϊν" Και 8

μετενόησαν εκ των φονών αυτών, ότε εκ των φαρμακειων αυτών, έτε εκ της πορνείας αυτών, ότι εκ των κλεμμάτων αυτών.


Ver. 13, &c.] Upon the sound of the sixth Trumpet, a voice, proceeding from the four horns of the altar, and addressed to the angel, commands that he should “ loose the four angels, then bounden at the great river Euphrates,” who were appointed for this


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precise time, “ the hour, and day, and month, and

year;" and for this purpose, “to slay the third part “ of the men.”

The altar is the golden one, the altar of incense*, , which makes a part of the scenery in heaven, standing before the Throne, as, in the earthly temple, before the Mercy-seat, which represented the local residence of God f. Upon the four horns or projecting angles of this altar, under the Mosaic law, atonement for the sins of the people was made 1. From this sacred place, from the four cardinal points thereof, is issued a decree of destruction against a third part of the Christian Church. For, by the men is to be understood the Christian men. In Acts xv. 17. oi nolehoitol Tõv dvopwtwv, are the remnant or residue of the Israelites ;--and thus also in this chapter (verse 20,) oi λοιποι των ανθρωπων are plainly the residue of the Christian men; as also in chap. ix. 4, the men who have not the seal of God, are the nominal Christians. And the sins and offences of the Christians must have been great at this period, when the altar, which, as Bishop Newton observes, is “ their sanctuary, calls “ aloud for vengeance upon them.” The voice coming from the altar which was before the throne, is as the voice of God, who permits, and had decreed this destruction; yet, coming from the altar, and not from the throne, somewhat more seems to be intended : religion seems intimately concerned. The angels who lead this assault on the Christian Church, are four, in concordance with the four horns of the Prib. s. altar, whence the decree and permission proceeded. We are to account them evil angels, like those of the

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* See note, ch. vi. 9.

† See notes, ch. vi. 9. viii. 3.
$ Exod. xxx. 1-10. Prideaux, Con, i, 141, &c.

which the 1: É ini,
in hrint


is 11.

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