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set of invaders wounds with the tail; the other with the mouth and tail. The locusts have the teeth, the

horses the heads, of lions. The crowns of gold, the . appearance of men, the delicacy as of women, are wanting to the invaders of the sixth Trumpet, who '

4 !! seem to prosper by terror more than by pcrsuasion. But both come on with the din of war; both have brojni terrific breast-plates; one army comes on in smoke, malo from the bottomless pit; the other destroys by smoke, Woins and by fire and sulphur, which are described in Scripture as produced from the same source. The armour of these assailants agrees with their weapons ; being : Their weapons ( en ) fire

, { events } smoke

, a sve dostonet. 7. The attack of the fifth Trumpet is not ordained, as that of the sixth is, to be a plague, or punishment, upon the idolatrous, and such an one as should produce no amendment.

From this comparison it will appear, that the points

See Is. xxx. 33. Rev. xiv. 10. xix. 20. xx. 10. xxi. 8,
+ This comparison will shew the sense in which úaxsuloyos is used,
namely, to express that black and blue smoky colour which would
arise from the burning brimstone on the iron armour: for, the
hyacinth, laxuy@ivos of the ancients, appears to have been a dark co.
lour with a cærulean tinge, such as we see on violets,
Και το ιον μελαν ενδι, και α γραπία υακινθος.

After which Virgil says,
Et nigræ violæ sunt

Ec. X. 35. By fire, in the figurative language of Scripture, violence, war, and devastation, are denoted, (see note, ch. vi. 4.); by smoke, dark confused doctrines, clouding the light of pure revelation, (see note, ch. ix, 1-12. p. 196.); and brimstone, in union with these, implies their infernal origin. See ch. xix. 20. xx. 3, 10. xxi. 8.

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in which the visions under these two Trumpets agree, and resemble each other, are these : Both represent invasions on the Christian Church; by an innumerable host of assailants; in formidable power; and. proceeding from the sources of infernal iniquity; under the leading and direction of evil angels; and gaining an ascendency over the men, by applying to their sensual and brutish passions.

They differ in these points. First, as to the body, which is the object of attack. In the fifth Trumpet, we have only a general description of its iniquity; but that under the sixth Trumpet, beside this general description, has a particular character,-it is idolatrous. Secondly, the assailing power: in the one, it attacks like an army; in the other, it is an army. The one is appointed for a certain season of continuance; the other for an appointed period of commencement, or, if of continuance, for an undetermined time. The one is seductive, as well as formidable ; the other overbears by terror and force. torments the nominal Christian, but hurts not the sincere and sealed; the other destroys and annihilates one-third of the body attacked. The one injures by the tail; the other by the mouth and tail. Lastly, the invaders under the sixth Trumpet, and under that only, are described as instruments of correction and

pu. nishment upon the wicked and idolatrous; by which, however, they who survive the calamity are not reclaimed.

In our attempts, therefore, to assort this prophecy, we must endeavour to fix our eyes upon some great calamity (for it is a woe) which has happened to the Christian Church; first, by a inultitude of invaders, who are known to have attacked it, not


The one

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only by false doctrines and seductions, as under the

fifth Trumpet, but also by arms : secondly, at a time '1..
x when the Church had relapsed into idolatry, and was no

generally corrupt; and when the altars of Religion
were so ill served, that from the altar in heaven ven-

geance was demanded upon them : thirdly, when so :) (11 10/ large a part of the body as one-third' was separated it. thai

from the Church ; and in such a manner as to lose (???he

their spiritual life in Christ, calling no longer upon
his name: fourthly, when the residue of the Church,
which witnessed, and seemed itself exposed to, this
dreadful visitation, continued unrepentant, corrupt,
and idolatrous, as before.

Before we proceed to apply all these circumstances,
in their order, to events in history, it will be useful
to ascertain that which belongs more especially to the
second of these heads; the time when this calamity took
place. It was in a corrupt period of the Church, when
the altar of Religion called for vengeance ; when ido-
latry in particular was a reigning vice, (verses 20,
21). Now it is impossible to fix this stain upon the
Church in the early periods of it; in the fourth cen-
tury indeed, and perhaps in some small degree in the
third, we may acknowledge the seeds and beginnings
of a corrupt and idolatrous worship *. Yet the pro-
gress of this evil was slow and gradual; and it was
a long time before it could justly be said to have
amounted to that general prevalence described in the
20th and 21st verses. This character is not fairly
and generally applicable to the Christian Church, be-
fore the sixth century. But toward the end of the

Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. viii. c. 1. Mosheim, cent. iv. ch. 3:
Cyprian, de Laps. p. 170. Sir Isaac Newton on Prophecy, 124, 202. 287.

sixth and the beginning of the seventh century, the measure of this iniquity became full. And at that time, history records a dreadful invasion of the Christian world by numerous armies, assailing it at the same time by corrupt doctrines and by the terror of their arms; with such success as to cut off from the hope and comfort of Christianity, and from the communion of the Church, so large a body of Christians, as may fairly be accounted one third part of the whole; yet leaving those parts of the Christian Church which remained, idolatrous and unrepentant.

Under this description, I shall easily be understood to intend the invasion of the Mahometan Saracens, whose numerous armies, famous for their cavalry, beginning their destructive progress early in the seventh century, soon overran, and subdued not only to their arms, but to their corrupt doctrines, a great part of the Christian world ; thus fulfilling that which is predicted in verses 16, 17, 18, 19, and comprized under the first head proposed. 2. The time, in which they burst forth upon the world, is that already ascertained, and accords with verses 20, 21, of the prophecy ; from which verses it is plainly inferred to be a very corrupt, and, in particular, an idolatrous time. All historians are agreed in describing the dreadful core ruption, and idolatry of the Church at the time of the Saracene invasion, and especially of that Eastern part of it, which chiefly sank under the calamity. And to this corruption of the Church, and to the unchristian divisions and animosities accompanying it, they unanimously ascribe the success of Mahomet and of his followers, accounting this calamity to be a punishment, which the Church had justly de


served * 3. The success attributed to these armies of cavalry, under this Trumpet, expressed by their slaying one-third part of the men, that is, of the Christian world, seems likewise fully completed in this irruption of the Mahometans. By the terror of their arms, and by their arts, imposing on the vanquished nations their newly-modelled religion, (which, although it acknowledge Jesus as a prophet, rejects his mediation and atonement) they separated from the great body of the Church one-third part of it; which, re

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* See Mosheim's Eccl. Hist, cent. vii, part i. ch. 2 & 3. Amm. Marcell, i, 21. Sale's Preliminary Discourse to the Alcoran, p. 44, 45, 51, & 214. Vie de Mahom. par Boulanvilliers, p. 219, &c. Pri. deaux' Life of Mahomet, preface. Ockley's Hist. of the Saracenes, vol. i. p. 20, 160, 223. Ricaut's Ottoman Empire, p. 187.-- A modern writer, who has had access to the Eastern originals, as well as to these authorities, has concisely and eloquently displayed the origin and causes of the Mahometan success: “ If in surveying the history of “ the sixth and seventh centuries, we call to our remembrance that “purity of doctrine, that simplicity of manners, that spirit of meek

ness and universal benevolence, which marked the character of the Christians in the Apostolic age; the dreadful reverse which we here " behold, cannot but strike us with astonishment and horror. Divid" ed into numberless parties, on account of distinctions the most “ trifling and absurd, contending with each other from perverseness ; * and persecuting each other with rancour, corrupt in opinion, and " degenerate in practice, the Christians of this unhappy period seem “ to bave retained little more than the name and external profession " of their Religion. Of a Christiau Church scarce any vestige re"mained. The most profligate principles and absurd opinions were

universally predominant: ignorance amidst the most favourable

opportunities of knowledge; vice amidst the uoblest encouragements “to virtue ; a pretended zeal for truth, mixed with the wildest ex"travagances of error; an implacable spirit of discord about opinions " which none could settle; and a general and striking similarity in the " commission of crimes, which it was the duty and interest of all to " avoid." White's Bampton Lectures, p. 60.


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