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The Title of the Book.

CHAP. i. VER. 1-3. 1

1 The Revelation of Jesus 1 The Revelation of Jesus ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ Ιη

Christ, which God Christ; which God σε Χρισέ, ήν έδωκεν gave unto him, to

gave unto him, to αυτω ο Θεός, δείξαι shew unto his ser- shew unto his servants τις δέλοις αυτα vants things which must things which

must δει γενέσθαι εν τά

come to pass in a short shortly come to pass ; χει" και εσήμανεν, , time; and he signifi- and he sent and signi. άσοςείλας δια τη ed them, sending by

fied it by his angel unαγέλα αυτά τα his angel unto his ser- to his servant Jobn:

dého autý 'Ivár. 2 vant John; Who bare 2 Who bare record of 2 “ας έμαρίύξησε τον record of the word of the word of God, and

λόγον τε Θεέ, και God, and of the testi- of the testimony of την μαρτυρίαν Ιησά

mony of Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ, and of Xgisē, con sido

according to whatso- all things that he saw. 3 Μακάρι ο αναι

ever things he saw. 3 Blessed is he that vasar, y oi à 3 Blessed is he who readeth, and they that xścrles Ta's soyes

readeth, and they who hear the words of this της προφητείας, και hear the words of the propl:esy, and keep τηρελες τα εν αυτή

prophecy, and who those words which are γεγραμμένα ο γάς

keep the things which written therein: for καιρος εγγύς.

are written therein ; the time is at band, for the time is near.

SOME of the commentators have entirely disregarded, and some have but slightly noticed, the three first chapters of the Apocalypse. Upon these I have been induced to bestow a more than ordinary attenL 2


And as

tion. They are replete with the same figurative language and symbols which pervade the whole book. And therefore it appeared to me a desirable object to ascertain the meaning of them, and to make the notes to these three chapters the basis of the interpretation, which is to be applied to the rest. these notes are constantly referred to in the progress of the work, the reader, it is hoped, will proceed patiently through this part, as being useful, and indeed essential, to the explication of the more interesting visions which follow.

This part of the annotations extends to a greater length than otherwise might be necessary;

because the author, for his own satisfaction, was desirous to ascertain, how far the doctrines, images, sentiments, and language of the Apocalypse, are concordant with those of other Sacred Scriptures: and since Michaelis has founded his objections to the Apocalypse partly on this subject of inquiry, it seems proper to produce collections of this kind before the public.

THE three first verses, which compose this section, contain the title of the book. It is no necessary part of it. For the book is written in an epistolary form, and at the fourth verse begins with that form, as commonly used by the sacred writers; " John to the "seven Churches, &c." And such a title, announcing the contents of the book, may have been added after the times of Saint John, and by transcription may have passed into the text*. But there is no reason to suppose that in the instance before us, such has been the case.

As certain additions, or subscriptions, at the end of many of the sacred epistles, are known to have done. See Michaelis's Introduct. to the N. T. ch. vii. sect. 10. xi, sect. 1. Also Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, ch. xv.


For nearly the whole of this title is found quoted by the ancient Fathers, by Dionysius of Alexandria, and by Origen *. Add to this, that the greater part of it is to be found, expressed in the same words, in the body of the workt. It is therefore of similar authority. And the subsequent notes will shew, that the expressions contained in it are concordant in their meaning and doctrine with other passages of sacred Scripture.

Ver. 1. The Revelation.] We have many revelations from our Lord Jesus Christ. This delivered to his servant John, is one of them. Not only on this account, but because the prepositive article is omitted in the Greek, it may seem most proper to express

the word αποκαλυψις by a revelation,” and not “ revelation,” but it is not necessary to make this alteration. For, by long usage and acceptance in the Christian Church, it is now accounted the Revelation.

Ib. Which God gave unto him.] The scheme of the Christian revelation is mediatorial throughout. God giveth to the Son I, dispensing knowledge and favour through him.

Ib. IVhich must come to pass in a short time.] The same expression is seen to recur at the close of the book s; and we may collect from it, that the events foretold in this prophecy begin to be fulfilled even from the time of its delivery, and are to follow in a rapid succession until the final consummation. In

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. Euseb. Hist. Eccl, lib, vii. c. 25.

+ See ch. xxii, 6, 7. John iii. 35. v. 19, 27. viii. 28, 38, xii, 15. xiv. 6, 10. Phil.


4 Ch. xxii, 6.

days *

Daniel, ch. ii. 28, 29, 45, we have the same words, & δει γενεσθαι : there they are coupled with επ' εσχατων twy Gregsov : the events were to take place in the latter days; but these latter days are said by Saint John, to have commenced in his time, that is, at the close of the apostolic age, and to be the antichristian

Thus we learn that the antichristian times, revealed to the prophet Daniel, are the same which are now to be disclosed in the Apocalypse.

Ib. Signified them.] Esquavev, expressed them by σημεια signs significative, for σημειον has precisely this meaning in ch. xii. 1. f

Ib. Unto his servant John.] John the Evangelist, one of the twelve Apostles, as will appear from the Dissertation preceding these notes.

Ver. 2. Who bare record of the word of God, &c.] This may be understood to allude to the former testimony of St. John, which he had delivered in his Gospel, or to the testimony which he had just now recorded of the visions seen by him in Patmos; or to both.

Ver. 3. Blessed is he who readeth, &c.] The same kind of blessing is pronounced in Matt. xiii. 16, Luke xi. 28, 2 Pet. i, 19, on those who cultivate spiritual knowledge, who attend with faith to the light of

Prophecy, shining in a dark place, until the day

dawn,” &c. But to knowledge must be added practice; "? If ye know these things, happy are ye “ if ye do them.” The word' typew is used in this sense more frequently by Saint Jolin, than by any

1 Joh. ii. 18. + See, says Daubuz, Jamblic. de Myst. Æg. sect. iii. c. 15. where onjuntos is used in the very same signification. Joh. xiii. 17


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