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attack them, see note ch. i. 16. It is with this powerful sword that Antichrist shall be slain, and the enemies of the church shall be finally subdued * The word of God, advancing in its purity, and gaining dominion over the hearts and actions of men, shall in due time expel idolatry, infidelity, and the persecuting spirit of worldly policy and of insincere religion t. This “ word of God” is described as having a living efficacy, “sharper than any two-edged “sword,” penetrating into the inmost parts of man I; and it is represented as an object of terror to those of the brethren, who, from an evil heart of unbelief, shall apostatize from the living God s. And, in the subsequent verse, the whole congregation is directed to exhort each other daily, lest any of them be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. Apply this to the Church of Pergamos, which the members of it might then have done, by having recourse to the same Sacred Scripture.

Ver. 17. Hidden manna.] This expression will become intelligible, by the perusal of the 6th chapter of Saint John's Gospel from the 26th verse. Our Lord declares to the multitude, who followed him in the expectation of being miraculously fed, that lie himself is the bread of life, the manna from heaven, which shall support those partaking of it to everlasting life : and when they could not, or would not, understand him in the spiritual sense which he intended, he tells them that he is to be understood in a figurative, and not in a literal meaning.

" It is

* Is. xi. 4. 2 Thess. ii. 8. Rev. xix. 15, 21.

+ Matt. xii. 36, 37. John viii, 31, 37, 43, 47. xii. 47, 48. xv. 3, 7. Heb. i. 3. 1 Pet. i. 23, 25. 1 Heb. iv, 12.

$ Heb. iii. 12.

" the

“ the Spirit that quickeneth, the fesh profiteth no

thing; the words that I speak to you, they are

Spirit, and they are Life." The “ hidden manna" is this bread of life in its spiritual signification, of which the manna, free from corruption, laid up in the tabernacle, was only a type; namely, the benefits derived to the faithful followers of Christ by the offering of his body; forgiveness of sins and everlasting salvation. In the midst of a figurative discourse, our Lord presented his disciples with this plain interpretation : “ Verily, verily I say unto you, " he that believeth on me hath everlasting life; I “am that bread of life*.” He who through faith in his crucified Redeemer, follows him in his victorious career, unmoved by the temptations or threats of the enemy, is by his Lord's appointment entitled to this food of heavenly life.

But this " Life is hid “ with Christ in Godt."

" It does not yet appear “ what we shall be .” “ Eye hath not seen, nor ear

heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, " the things which God hath prepared for those that “ love himg.” Such appears to be the hidden manna, namely, the ineffable joys of a blessed immortality.

From the small remains of history, which are preserved to us of this church, she seems to have remembered these splendid promises of her Lord; for many of the Pergamenians underwent the fiery trial of martyrdom, at the time when Polycarp suffered at Smyrna |

Ver. 17. White stone.] Stones, typov, calculi, were used by the ancient nations, as the names import, to calculate and to vote with; and in criminal pro

• John vi. 47, 48. § 1 Cor. ii. 9.

+ Col. iii, 3. 1 1 John üi. 2. || Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. iv. P 2


c. 15.

cesses the white stone was the mark of acquittal, the black one of condemnation :

Mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis ;
His damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa*.

The white stone, presented to the conquering Christian, may be supposed to signify, well done, thou good and faithful servant.

But this white stone is inscribed with characters; so were the topor of the ancients. The letter with the Greeks was the token of condemnation; or, in a general sense, of disapprobation. So Persius;

Et potis es nigrum vitio præfigere Thetat.

But on this white stone, given by our Lord to his approved servants, was written a new name, which will be explained in the following note.

Ver. 17. A new name.] By the custom of nations, from the earliest ages, a person raised to dignity was + commonly invested with a new name or title, expres

sive of his deserts. Many instances occur in Scriptures. It is the promise of God to Zion, that, becoming the glory and the light of the Gentiles," she shall “ be called by a new name, which the mouth of the « Lord shall name. He has promised also to the Eunuchs and Gentiles, who shall “ keep his covenant, “ and love the name of the Lord, a place and a name “ better than of sons and of daughters, an everlast“ing name which shall not be cut off g.” Of this kind and nature is the new name or title, given by the Lord of Heaven to his elected servants. The

Ovid. Metam. lib. xv. 41.

+ Sat. iv, 13. # Gen. xli. 45. 2 Sam. xii. 25. Dan, i. 7. John i. 42. Matt. xvi. 18. § Is. xlii. 1, 6. lvi. 5.


honour which they shall receive at his hands, when their spiritual warfare is accomplished, is beyond conception, and can only be known by being enjoyed.



The Address to the Church in Thyatira.


ii. VER. 18-to the end.

18 Kai tayiw tõs | 18 And to the angel of 18 And unto the angel of

έν Θυατείροις εκ the Church in Thya the church in Thya. κλησίας γράψον: tira write: Thus saith tira, write, These Τάδε λέγει ο υιός το the Son of God, who things saith the Son Θεέ, ο έχων της hath his eyes as a of God, who bath his οφθαλμες αυτά ως flame of fire, and his eyes

like unto a flame Chórz wupòs, kai feet like smelting brass. of fire, and his feet are

οι σόδες αυτε όμοιοι 19 I know thy works, 19 like fine brass; I know 19χαλκολιβάνων. Οίδα

even thy love, and thy thy works, and chari. σε τα έρία, και την service, and thy faith, ty, and service, and αγάπην, και την

and thy patience, and faith, and thy patience, διακονίαν, και την thy last works to be and thy works; and πίσιν, και την υπο more than the first : the last to be more μονήν σε, και τα 20 But I have against 20 than the first. Notέρια σύ τα έσχαία thee, that thou sufferest withstanding, I have σλείονα των σεώ

thy woman Jezebel, a few things against 20 Twto 'Ara' gw

who calleth herself a thee, because thou sufκαλά σε ότι αφείς

prophetess, and teach ferest that woman Jeτην γυναίκα σε Ιε

eth and seduceth my zebel, which called ζαςήλ, η λέγεσα

servants to comunit herself a prophetess, εαυτην τροφήτιν, και

fornication, and to eat to teach and to seδιδάσκει και πλανά

meats sacrificed unto duce my servants to Tes fles dénos,

21 idols: And I have commit fornication, woqveureu ide

given ber a time, that and to eat things sa21 λόθυλα φαγείν. Και she might repent, and

crificed unto idols. δεκα αυτή χρόνον, , she will not repent of 21 And I




ένα μελανοήση, και 22 her fornication; Be to repent of her forniκαι θέλει μελανοήσαι hold, I cast her into a cation, and she re

εκ της πορνείας bed, and those who | 22 pented not. Behold, 29 αυτής. Ιδε, βάλλω commit adultery with I will cast her into a

αυτο εις κλίνην, her, into great tribu bed, and them that και τις μοιχεύονίας lation, unless they commit adultery with μετ' αυτής εις θλίψιν

shall repent from her her into great tribulaμεγάλην, εαν μη 23 works; And her chil. tion, except they re

μελανοήσωσιν εκ των dren will I slay with pent of their deeds. 23 έρΓων αυτής. Και

death ; and all the 23 And I will kill her τα τέκνα αυτης churches shall know children with death; αποκτενώ έν 9α.

that I am he which and all the churches νάτων, και γνώσονlαι

searcheth the reins and shall know that σάσαι αι εκκλσία:

hearts; Aud I will he which searcheth ότι εγώ είμι και

give unto every one of the reins and hearts; έρευνών νεφρές και you according to your and I will give unto καρδίας και δώσω 24 works. But unto you every one of you acυμίν εκάσω καλα

I say, unto the rest cording to your works, τα έργα υμών. in Thyatira, as many

24 But unto you


say, 24 Υμίν δε λέγω, as hold not this doc and unto the rest in

[τοίς] λοιπούς τους trine, (whosoever have Thyatira, As many as έν Θυατείροις, όσοι not known the depths have not this doctrine, έκ έχεσι την δι

of Satan, as they and which have not δαχήν ταύτην, οίτι speak,) I shall put up

known the depths of γες εκ έγνωσαν τα

on you none other Satan, as they speak, βάθη τα σαλανά,

25 burthen; Only that I will put upon you ως λέγεσιν: Ού which which ye have,

other burden. βαλώ εφ' υμάς hold fast until I come. 25 But that which ye 95 άλλο βάρG. Πλήν | 26 And he who over have already, hold fast ο έχετε, κραιήσατε

cometh, and who keep 26 till I come. And he άχρις και αν ήξω

eth even unto the end that overcometh, and 26 Και ο νικών, και

my works, to him will keepeth my works un, και τηρών άχρι τέλος

I give power over the to the end, to him will τα έξία με, δώσω

27 nations, (And he shall I give power over the αυτω εξεσίαν επί

rule over them with 27 nations: (And he shall 27 των εθνών, Και an iron sceptre, as the

•sule then with a rod ποιμανεί αυτες εν

vessels of earthen ware of iron; as tlie vessels Σας δω σιδηρά ως

are broken to pieces,) of a potter shall they τα σκεύη τα κε

28 Even as I have re be broken to shivers :) ραμικά συνρίς είαι,

ceived from my Fa even as I received of 28 Ως καγώ είδηφα

ther; and I will give 28 my Father. And I will


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