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tenfive Survey of the Branches of any Science. He muft alfo be well acquainted with Words as well as Ideas in a proper Variety, that when his Difciple does not take in the Ideas in one Form of Expreffion, he may change the Phrafe into feveral Forms, till at last he hits the Understanding of his Scholar, and enlightens it in the just Idea of Truth.
BESIDES this, a Tutor should be a Perfon of a happy and condefcending Temper, who has Patience to bear with a Slowness of Perception, or want of Sagacity in fome Learners. He fhould alfo have much Candour of Soul, to pass a gentle Cenfure on their Impertinences, and to pity them in their Mistakes, and ufe every mild and engaging Method for infinuating Knowledge into those who are willing and diligent in feeking Truth, as well as reclaiming thofe who are wandering into Error. But of this I have spoken fomewhat already, in a Chapter of the former Part, and fhall have Occafion to exprefs fomething more of it shortly.
A VERY pretty and useful Way to lead a Perfon into the Knowledge of any particuJar Truth is, by Questions and Answers, which is the Socratical Method of Difputation, and therefore I refer the Reader to that Chapter or Section which treats of it. On this Account Dialogues are ufed as a polite and pleafant Method of leading Gentlemen and
Ladies into fome of the Sciences, who feek not the most accurate and methodical Treafure of Learning.
BUT the most ufual, and perhaps the most excellent Way of inftructing Students in any of the Sciences is, by reading Lectures, as Tutors in the Academy do to their Pupils.
THE first Work is to choose a Book well written, which contains a fhort Scheme or Abstract of that Science; or at least, it should not be a very copious and diffufive Treatife, Or if the Tutor knows not any fuch Book already written, he should draw up an Abftract of that Science himself, containing the moft fubftantial and important Parts of it, difpofed in fuch a Method as he best approves.
LET a Chapter or Section of this be read daily by the Learner, on which the Tutor should paraphrafe in this Manner, viz.
HE fhould explain both Words and Ideas more largely, and especially what is dark and difficult fhould be opened and illuftrated, partly by various Forms of Speech, and partly by apt Similitudes and Examples. Where the Senfe of the Author is dubious, it must alfo be fixed and determined,
WHERE the Arguments are ftrong and cogent, they should be inforced by fome further Paraphrafe, and the Truth of the Inferences fhould be made plainly to appear. Where
Where the Arguments are weak and infufficient, they should be either confirmed or rejected as ufelefs; and new Arguments, if need be, fhould be added to fupport that Doctrine.
WHAT is treated very concisely in the Author fhould be amplified, and where feveral Things are laid clofely together, they must be taken to Pieces and opened by
WHERE the Tutor differs from the Auther which he reads, he should gently point out and confute his Miftakes.
WHERE the Method and Order of the Book is just and happy, it should be pursued and commended: Where it is defective and irregular, it should be corrected.
THE most neceffary, the most remarkable and ufeful Parts of that Treatise, or of that Science, should be peculiarly recommended to the Learners, and prefed upon them that they would retain it in Memory; and what is more unneceffary or fuperfluous fhould be dif tinguished, leaft the Learner should spend too much Time in the more needlefs Parts of a Science.
THE various Ends, Ufes and Services of that Science, or of any Part of it, should be alfo declared and exemplified, as far as the Tutor hath Opportunity and Furniture to do it; particularly in Mathematicks and Natural Philofophy,
AND if there be any thing remarkably beautiful or defective in the Stile of the Writer, it is proper for the Tutor to make a juft Remark upon it.
WHILE he is reading and explaining any particular Treatife to his Pupils, he may compare the different Editions of the fame Book, or different Writers upon the fame Subject: He thould inform them where that Subjec is treated by other Authors, which they may perufe, and lead his Difciples thereby to a further Elucidation, Confirmation or Improvement of that Theme of Difcourfe in which he is inftructing them.
It is alluring and agreeable to the Learner alfo, now and then to be entertained with fome biftorical Remarks, or any Occurrences or useful Stories which the Tutor has met with, relating to the feveral Parts of fuch a Science, provided he does not put off his Pupils merely with fuch Stories, and neglect to give them a folid and rational Information of the Theme in hand. Teachers fhould endeavour, as far as poffible, to join Profit and Pleafure together, and mingle Delight with their Inftructions; but at the fame Time they must take heed that they do not merely amuse the Ears, and gratify the Fancy of their Disciples, without enriching their
In reading Lectures of Inftruction, let the Teacher be very folicitous that the Learners B 4
take up his meaning, and therefore he should
It is neceffary that he who inftructs others,
I THINK it very convenient and proper, if not abfolutely neceffary, that when a Tutor reads a following Lecture to his Pupils, he fhould run over the foregoing Lecture in Queftions proposed to them, and by this Means acquaint himself with their daily Proficiency.*
*Note, This Precaution tho' never to be neglected, is of efpecial Importance when a Pupil is entering on any new Branch of Learning, where it is abfolutely neceflary that the fundamental Definitions and Principles fhould not only be clearly understood, but should be rendered very familiar to the Mind: And probably most Tutors have found young Perfons fadly bewildered, as they have gone on in their Lectures, for want of a little more Patience and Care in this Refpect.