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public buildings the principal is the Abbey beautiful proportions, in four stages of open church, almost the only remains of the ancient arched work, with a tomb beneath, surrounded monastery. This structure displays an interest- by an embattled border, and the sides ornamenting example of early Norman architecture, com- ed alternately with single and double arches. bined with specimens of other kinds. It is built This splended monument appears to have been in the cathedral form, and consists of a nave, erected to the memory of Hugh le Despencer, choir, transept, and central tower, with the addi- and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William tion of several chapels. The nave and choir Montacute earl of Salisbury. Other elegant are separated from the aisles by eighteen massive monuments we have not room to particularise. columns sustaining the roof, and four substantial Tewkesbury abbey was founded in the year piers which support the tower. The arches 715, by two Saxon brothers, Dodo and Odo, above the columns in the nave and over the piers who were then dukes of great opulence and high are plain and semicircular, but those of the choir consideration in the kingdom of Mercia, and are pointed. Above the crown of the former the first lords of the manor here. Besides the arches runs a triforium, opening into the nave church, Tewkesbury contains meeting-houses for by a series of double round headed arches, two Independents, Quakers, Baptists, and Methodover each arch. The roof of the nave is orna- ists. The town-hall is a handsome building. mented with groins springing from crocket heads The old town hall, or Tolsey, originally served over each pillar; and at the intersections are as a market place; but, after that building was various angels and other figures, playing on dif- removed, twenty persons entered into an agreeferent musical instruments. At the west end is ment with the corporation to erect the present a large window, with a pointed arch, which ap- market-house, in consideration of a grant of the pears to have been introduced within a semicir- profits of the stalls, &c., for ninety-nine years. cular arch in 1656. The aisles are lighted with The curious old structure which had for centuries pointed arched windows. These were probably been used as the borough jail was originally the altered to that shape about the beginning of the companile or bell tower annexed to the abbey : fourteenth century. In 1796 this was again al- this was pulled down in 1817, and a most subtered, fitted up with new pews, and otherwise stantial and elegant school, for the education of improved, at an expense of £2000. The effect children on the national or Bell's system, erected of this portion of the fabric is singularly beau- in its place. The new jail is a neat and suitable tiful. The east end is hexagonal, and is sepa- building, situate at the top of the High-street rated from the aisles by six massive short columns, The house of industry is singularly spacious and which support pointed arches. Beneath these commodious, and situate on Holme hill, near the are some large monuments, and over the arches entrance of the town from Gloucester. The are windows filled with painted glass. On the charitable institutions in the town are a free south side of the altar are three stone stalls, part grammar school, endowed charity school, schools of which displays some elegant carving. The on the national and Lancasterian plans, a great ceiling is adorned with a profusion of tracery, number of alms-houses, a dispensary, a lying-in and at each intersection is a carved flower or charity, and numerous other benevolent associaknot of foliage. Branching out from the north tions. Tewkesbury had once a considerable and south aisles of the choir are five or six small share in the clothing business, but this trade has private chapels or oratorios, containing the long since declined. It was likewise noted for tombs or ashes of their respective founders. The its mustard. At present the chief manufacture Lady chapel is entirely destroyed; but a large carried on in the town is that of stocking framearch, through which it was entered from the work knitting, particularly in cotton. A conchurch, is still seen on the outside. The clois- siderable trade is also carried on in malting, and ters were on the south side of the nave, and the making of nails. Tewkesbury was incorsome fragments of them still remain. The tower porated by a charter granted by queen Elizabeth, is lofty, and, according to the abbey chronicles, and confirmed by James I.; but, in the reign of was once terminated by a wooden spire, which James II., the corporate officers surrendered fell on Easter day 1559: the most remarkable their seal to that monarch, who in his second specimens of its architecture are three tiers of year re-incorporated them by the names of the arcades; in the upper part the arches of the mayor, alderman, and common council. The middlemost tier are intersected. The whole revolution which immediately followed prevented length of the church is 300 feet, of the transept the charter from being carried into effect, and 120. The breadth of the choir and side aisles is the town remained in a state of uncertainty as seventy feet; of the west front 100. The height to its government till the thirteenth of William from the area to the roof is 120 feet; the height III., when it was settled in the present form. of the tower is 152 feet. The monuments in By this, the government of the town is vested in Tewkesbury church have attracted the attention two bailiffs and four justices, annually chosen, of various antiquaries. Between two of the pil- and a recorder. The corporate body consists of lars on the north side of the choir is an elegant twenty-four principal burgesses, and the same and light chapel of stone, erected by abbot Par- number of assistants; but, as each principal burker in 1097, over the tomb of Robert Fitz-Hamon, gess holds also the office of assistant, the memwho was slain at Falaise, in Normandy, in 1107, bers of the corporation are now uniformly conand originally buried in the chapter-house, fined to twenty-four persons, instead of fortywhence his bones were removed by abbot Robert eight as formerly. The town sends two members in 1241. On the north side of the altar is a to parliament, the privilege of which was obtained monument of the most delicate sculpture and from James I. in 1609. The right of election

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is possessed by the freemen and freeholders. It

In religion was at Tewkesbury that the last battle was fought What errour, but some sober brow between the adherents of the houses of York and Will bless it, and approve it with a test ? Lancaster, which it is well known proved fatal

Shakspan. to the latter. The field on which it was fought

Some prime articles of faith are not delivered in a is still called the bloody meadow, and is situated literal or catechistical form of speech, but are colabout half a mile from the town. In the civil lected and concluded by argumentation out of sen

tences of scripture, and by comparing of sundry tests wars, in the reign of Charles I., Tewkesbury was

with one another,

White. the scene of many severe contests. Markets on

Men's daily occasions require the doing of a thouWednesday and Saturday, and various annual sand things, which it would puzzle the best testnan fairs. Ten miles north of Gloucester, and 102 readily to bethink himself of a sentence in the Bible, W. N. W. of London.

clear enough to satisfy a scrupulous conscience of the TEW"TAW, v.a. Formed from tew by re- lawfulness of.

Sanderten duplication. To beat; to break.

He extends the exclusion unto twenty days, which The method and way of watering, pilling, break in the textuary sense is fully accomplished in one. ing, and tewtawing of hemp and fax, is a particular

Brone, business.

Mortimer. I see no ground why this reason should be testuary TEXAS, a tract of country in North America, to ours, or that God intended him an universal head

ship.

Glanville. claimed by the United States as a part of Loui

We expect your next siana, and by Spain as a part of the Internal Should be no comment, but a test, provinces, included in the intendency of San To tell how modern beasts are vext.

Taller. Luis Potosi. It is bounded north by Red River, His mind he should fortify with some few tests, east by the state of Louisiana, south by the gulf which are home and apposite to his case. South. of Mexico, and west by the del Norte; contain- TEXTURE, n. s. Lat tertus. The act or ing upwards of 100,000 square miles. There

Tex'tile, adj. manner of weaving; a are some scattering Spanish presidios in this

Tex'TRINE. web or thing woven; parcountry, yet it is for the most part a wilder- ticular combination of parts: the adjective corness. The population was estimated in 1807 at

responding. 7000. The interior towards Red River is bar

The placing of the tangible parts in length or ren, but the part towards the gulf of Mexico re

transverse, as in the warp and woof of testiles. sembles the southern part of Louisiana.

Bacon's Natural History. TEXEL, an island of the Netherlands, at the The materials of them were not from any herb, as entrance of the Zuyder Zee, separated from other textiles, but from a stone called ariantus. North Holland by the narrow channel called the

Wilkins, Mars-diep. Its form is oblong, twelve miles

Spirits, in length, and about six in breadth, and it is se- Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound

Milton, cured from the sea by strong dikes. The soil is Receive, no more than can the fluid air. well fitted for sheep pasture, and it has long been

Under state of richest testure spread. Id. noted for its cheese. Besides the town of Texel, it

Skins, although a natural habit unto all before the contains six villages, and has in all about 5000 invention of texture, were something more unto

Adam.

Brone. inhabitants. It has a large and secure harbour,

It is a wonderful artifice, how newly batched with a fort which commands the entrance; it maggots, not the parent animal, because she emits has likewise a commodious roadstead on the

no web, nor hath any textrine art, can convolve the east. It was in the neighbourhood of the Texel stubborn leaf, and bind it with the thread it weaves that admiral Blake defeated the Dutch under from its body.

Derkan. Van Tromp, in 1653 : in 1673 another battle A veil of richest texture wrought she wears. was fought near this, between the Dutch and the

Pope. combined fleets of Eugland and France, with Others, far in the grassy dale,

Thomson's Spring doubtful success; a result far different from that Their humble texture weave. of an encounter near the Texel in the end of Au- Texture properly denotes the arrangement gust 1799, between the British and Dutch fleets, and cohesion of several slender bodies or threads when the latter, disaffected to the republican interwoven or entangled among each other, as in government, surrendered after a slight resistance, the webs of spiders, or in the cloths, stuffs, &c. TEXT, n. s.

Fr. texte; Latin Texture is also used in speaking of any union or TEXT'MAN, n. s.

tertus.
That on

constituent particles of a concrete body, whether TEXT'UARY, adj. & n. s. which a comment is by weaving, hooking, knitting, tying, chaining, written; a sentence of scripture: textman and indenting, intruding, compre attracting, or textuary mean one versed in texts : textuary also any other way. In which sense we say, a close means contained in the text; or serving as a compact texture, a lax porous texture, a regular

or irregular texture, &c.

text.

END OF VOL. XXI.

j. Haddon, Priotor, Fiusbury.

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