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THE selections in Part I. of these Exercises, are designed especially to exemplify the principles of rhetorical delivery, as laid down in the foregoing pages. These principles are the same as those contained in my ANALYSIS, only thrown into a more brief and simple form, for a younger class of readers, than were contemplated in that work. I see no reason to change the original plan, of giving one series of exercises, with a rhetorical notation, throughout; and another series of miscellaneous pieces, in which such a notation is but partially applied.
These Exercises of the first part, are much the same as those of the ANALYSIS, chiefly because the examples were selected, with great expense of time, from the whole compass of English literature; and because it is not easy to make another selection, so well adapted to the various principles to be illustrated.
In using the Exercises of Part I. the student may be assisted by the following remarks.
1. At the head of each exercise, on the left hand, the page is noted, where the principle is contained, which the examples are intended to illustrate.
2. Under the several heads, a rhetorical notation, according to the Key given at the beginning, is so applied as
to designate inflection, emphasis, and towards the close, modulation. When emphatic stress is but moderate, it is often distinguished only by the mark of inflection; when the stress amounts to decided emphasis, it is denoted by the Italic type; and sometimes, when strongly intensive, by small capitals. In examples taken from the Scriptures, Italic words are used, not as in the English Bible, but solely to express emphasis.
3. In applying a rhetorical notation so as most fully to exhibit sentiment and emotion, there is often room for diversity of taste. Any amendments, in this respect, which may be suggested by Teachers or others will be gratefully received.
4. They who use these Exercises should be aware that examples, which apply exclusively to a single principle of elocution, are commonly very short. When longer ones
are chosen, including other principles, besides the one especially in view, it will still be apparent from the notation, what is the point chiefly to be regarded.
5. Before attempting to read any Exercise, the principle intended to be illustrated should be well examined by the pupil. Especially under the head of Modulation, no example expressive of passion, should be read without being studied beforehand.
EXERCISES ON ARTICULATION.
Page 24. Difficult articulation from immediate succession of the same or similar sounds.
1. The youth hates study.
2. The wild beasts straggled through the vale. 3. The steadfast stranger in the forests strayed. 4. It was the finest street of the city.
5. When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw. 6. It was the severest storm of the season, but the masts stood through the gale.
7. That lasts till night.
That last still night.
8. He can debate on either side of the question. He can debate on neither side of the question. 9. Who ever imagined such an ocean to exist? Who ever imagined such a notion to exist?
Page 25. Difficult succession of consonants with remote accent. 1. He has taken leave of terrestrial trials and enjoyments, and is laid in the grave, the common receptacle and home of mortals.
2. Though this barbarous chief received us very courteously, and spoke to us very communicatively at the first interview, we soon lost our confidence in the disinterestedness of his motives.
3. Though there could be no doubt as to the reasonableness of our request, yet he saw fit peremptorily to refuse it, and authoritatively to require that we should depart from the country. As no alternative was left us, we unhesitatingly prepared to obey this arbitrary mandate.
EXERCISES ON INFLECTION.
The disjunctive (or) has the rising inflection before, and the falling after it.
1. Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing;
Is it lawful on the sabbath-days to do good, or to do èvil? to save life, or to destroy it?
2. Whether we are hurt by a mád or a blìnd man, the pain is still the same. And with regard to those who are undone, it avails little whether it be by a man who decéives them, or by one who is himself deceived.
3. Has God forsaken the works of his own hands? or does he always graciously presèrve, and keep and guide them?
4. Therefore, O ye judges! you are now to consider, whether it is more probable that the deceased was murdered by the man who inherits his estáte, or by him, who inherits nothing but bèggary by the same death. By the man who was raised from penury to plénty, or by him who was brought from happiness to misery. By him whom the lust of lucre has inflamed with the most inveterate hatred against his own relations; or by him whose life was such, that he never knew what gain was, but from the product of his own labors. By him, who of all dealers in the trade of blood, was the most audácious; or by him who was so little accustomed to the forum and trials, that he dreads not only the benches of a court, but the very town. In short, ye judges, what I think most to this point is, you are to consider whether it is most likely that an énemy, or a sòn, would be guilty of this murder.
5. As for the particular occasion of these (charity) schools, there cannot any offer, more worthy a generous mind. Would you do a handsome thing without return? -do it for an infant that is not sensible of the obligation.* Would you do it for the public good?-do it for one who will be an honest artificer. Would you do it for the sake of heaven?—give it for one who shall be instructed in the worship of Him, for whose sake you gave it.
Page 29. The direct question, or that which admits the answers yes or no, has the rising inflection, and the answer has the falling.
1. Will the Lord cast off for ever? and will he be favorable no more? Is his mercy clean gone for ever? doth
* Disjunctive or is understood.
his promise fail for evermore? Hath God forgotten to be grácious? hath he in anger shut up his tender mércies?
2. Is not this the carpenter's són? is not his mother called Máry? and his brethren, Jámes, and Jóses, and Símon, and Júdas? and his sisters, are they not all with ús?
3. Are we intended for actors in the grand drama of etérnity? Are we candidates for the plaudit of the rátional creation? Are we formed to participate the supreme beatitude in communicating happiness? Are we destined to co-operate with God in advancing the order and perfection of his works? How sublime a creature then is man!
The following are examples of both question and answer.
4. Who are the persons that are most apt to fall into peevishness and dejection that are continually complaining of the world, and see nothing but wretchedness around them? Are they those whom want compels to toil for their daily bread?-who have no treasure but the labor of their hands—who rise, with the rising sun, to expose themselves to all the rigors of the seasons, unsheltered from the winter's cold, and unshaded from the summer's heat? Nò. The labors of such are the very blessings of their condition. 5. What, then, what was Cæsar's object? Do we select extortioners, to enforce the laws of équity? Do we make choice of profligates, to guard the morals of society? Do we depute atheists, to preside over the rites of religion? I will not prèss the answer I need not press the answer; the premises of my argument render it unneces cessary. What would content you? Tálent? No! Enterprise? No! Coúrage? No! Reputátion? No! Virtue? No! The men whom you would select, should possess, not one, but àll, of these.
6. Can the truth be discovered when the slaves of the prosecutor are brought as witnesses against the person accúsed? Let us hear now what kind of an examination this wàs. Call in Ruscio: call in Casca. Did Clodius way-lay Mílo? He did: Drag them instantly to execution. -He did nòt: Let them have their liberty. What can be more satisfactory than this method of examination?
7. Are you desirous that your talents and abilities may procure you respéct? Display them not ostentatiously to public view. Would you escape the envy which your rích