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himself, and to make known his demands to the person proposed for election. It is very seldom that a cardinal who wants but this one step to become Pope refuses to agree to whatever may be required of him !

Such were the general views entertained by the statesmen of that day as to the proceedings of a Conclave. They are important as enabling us to judge whether any very extraordinary means were adopted in 1769.

The special instructions to Bernis dwelt on the passionate and fanatic counsels followed by Clement XIII. (whose sincere piety and upright intentions are acknowledged), which had compelled France, Spain, the Two Sicilies, Portugal, and Venice to assert their rights of sovereignty. “The king has no decided plan as to the elevation of any pontiff: his exclusive is only to be used in case the voices should seem likely to be united in favour of some cardinal, whose personal prejudices, particular affections, and blind and imprudent zeal might render his administration dangerous, if not pernicious and fatal to religion and to the tranquillity of the Catholic states of this number are the Cardinals Torregiani, Boschi, Buonaccorsi, and Castelli,

The first object of Bernis was to obtain an Exclusive—sixteen voices. He commanded ten; six Neapolitans, two French, two Spaniards; and hoped to obtain six more at least among the following: Yorke, Lante, the two Corsinis, Ganganelli, Guglielmi, Malvezzi, Pallavicini, Pozzobonelli, and Colonna. The two latter, as well as Colonna's brother the Prince, had large possessions in the kingdom of Naples, and would not, it was thought, vote for a Pope unacceptable to that court.

But already D'Aubeterre began to develop his more decided views. He suggested to De Bernis that he should make the abolition of the Jesuits a preliminary condition. A cardinal before he is Pope lends himself willingly to anything in order to become Pope ; there are many instances of this kind of bargain. We must insist on this point alone and reserve all others, We must have a written promise, or, if that is refused,

a verbal promise in the presence of witnesses.-P. 219. Bernis shrunk from this bold measure ; D'Aubeterre insists that, as it only concerns the secularization of a religious order, it cannot be considered an unlawful covenant. He recommends Bernis 'to consult Ganganelli, one of the most celebrated theologians of the day, who had never been suspected of lax moral principles : j'espère que peut-être il rapprocherait de mon sentiment.' No dependence can be placed on what a Pope may do after he is elected, if he is not bound down before.'-P. 220.

Bernis thus describes to Choiseul the persons with whom he has to deal : The Sacred College was never composed of more pious or edifying persons—but their ignorance and narrowness are extreme.' He could not make them comprehend what was necessary to prevent them from compromising the Holy See with the Powers of Europe. "Their whole politics are confined within the walls of Monte Cavallo. Daily intrigue is their sole occupation, and, unhappily for the peace of the Church, their only knowledge.' He writes to D'Aubeterre-Le plus grand de tous est de choisir un Pape qui ait la tête assez large et assez bien faite pour sacrifier les petites considérations aux grandes. Mais où est-il ce Pape ? Où est le Secrétaire d'État supérieur aux misères locales de ce pays-ci ? Je le cherche en vain.'-D'Aubeterre had flattered Bernis in his hope of being Cardinal Secretary of State himself. Je ne trouve que quelques nuances de plus ou de moins dans la médiocrité des uns et des autres : car il ne faut pas s'y tromper, on gagnera plus sur l'objet intéressant des Jésuites avec un homme fort qu'avec un homme faible, pourvu qu'il ne soit fanatique.' At that time Bernis seems to have apprehended that the other parties were uniting in favour of Fantuzzi; if so, Fantuzzi must have secret dealings with the Jesuits.' He speaks favourably of Calvachini, who is ten years too old;' and, as we shall see hereafter, of Ganganelli. His great difficulty was to keep his colleague De Luynes quiet :—Je n'effarouche personne, et j'ai (Dieu merci) persuadé au Cardinal de Luynes de ne point trop agir et parler. Dans le fond c'est un honnête homme, et qui

sera toujours ce que le roi voudra, excepté ce que nous ne pourrons pas faire sans nous déshonorer in sæcula sæculorum.'

The Spaniards still delayed; they had given hopes that they would make the speedier journey by sea. They took fright, or pretended to take fright, at the sight of the Mediterranean, and began their tardy progress by land ; but Bernis had now made great way towards an Exclusive. He had flattered the older Corsini into a pledge to play the part assigned him; Lante had promised his voice; Conte spoke little, but favourably; he was enchanted with Malvezzi.

An interview (on April 18) with the leaders of the Zealots, of which Alexander and John Francis Albani were the spokesmen, did not pass off so easily. After a long discussion about the Jesuits, both parties seem to have lost their temper, and high words ensued, not over seemly in a conclave. “We should be all equal here,' said Bernis ; "we sit in this assembly by the same title.' The old Alexander Albani lifted up his red cap“No, your Eminence, we are not here by the same title; this berrettino was not placed on my head by a courtezan.' The allusion to Madame de Pompadour, according to our author, silenced De Bernis, who took his revenge by making Orsini drop some significant hints to the old fox,' as to the uncertain tenure of his estates in the kingdom of Naples.

According to M. Crétineau Joly there was an underplot. A certain Dufour, described as an agent or spy of Choiseul, acting in concert with the Jansenists and philosophers (a strange and impossible alliance which haunts the imagination of M. Crétineau), had proposed, three years before the vacancy, to secure the election by a summary process, no less than downright straightforward bribery. The passage must be given entire :


que personne puisse soupçonner la moindre chose, on arrivera au point de se rendre maître du futur Conclave. Les cardinaux français auront la liste des amis et ne feront que les observer. On pourrait ajouter au marché fait avec eux que l'argent ne sera délivré qu'après le Conclave, et que sur la parole du Cardinal chargé des instructions de la



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Cour; que de plus, la somme de sera ajoutée à la somme principale pour chaque suffrage que l'ami aura procuré; mais avec cette condition, que le Cardinal chargé des instructions de la Cour en sera convaincu, et que celui qu'on aura procuré n'aura pas été

été auparavant assuré.

This last provision against a cardinal being twice bought is exquisite. But after all we have some suspicion of this same Dufour, who seems to us not improbably a meddling intriguer, anxious to make himself an agent, not with any trust or commission from Choiseul or any one else. Choiseul, it is admitted, declined this unsafe and expensive course ; it was taken up, however, by the Spanish Court, and its ministers (for the cardinals were even now not yet arrived) had instructions accordingly from Madrid. Azparu obeyed, Azara betrayed the secret to Bernis. Bernis' objections are capital

As to the idée abandonnée, surely you have bethought yourself that such matters are safely entrusted to one individual alone (and one who you know beforehand has no scruples), and not to five cr six different ministers, and consequently to five or six secretaries; to five cardinals, some of them still friends of those whom we wish to destroy. Who is the ecclesiastic imprudent enough (even if he approve of the measure) to entrust his honour to the discretion of so many persons ?

Affairs did not proceed; day after day passed in plots and counter-plots, intrigues and counter-intrigues ; April wore away. No less than a miracle, says Bernis, can settle a business in which so many are engaged. The great point, the plain, positive, signed and sealed and witnessed covenant to abolish the Jesuits, was too uncanonical, too simoniacal, at least for the arts of Bernis. He himself felt or affected scruples. D'Aubeterre plies him with theological authorities, which he had industriously obtained from some unknown quarter. Bernis suggests, that if a cardinal were capable of making so simoniacal a bargain, he might perhaps be capable of breaking it. Matters do not seem to have been mended by the sudden activity of Cardinal de Luynes, who in his correspondence (tout gastronomique) had hitherto stood aloof from business. He too caught the fever of intrigue, and bestirred himself in a combined attack upon the Jesuits. We have here likewise an episode of Bernis bargaining with Choiseul for the payment of his debts, which were enormous, for Bernis was always prodigal and necessitous. Unless Choiseul complies with these reasonable demands the Cardinal threatens to strike.

Intimidation was now tried; the great powers gave actual orders to occupy Avignon, Benevento, and other papal territories. Once indeed Malvezzi was near success. Malvezzi, Archbishop of Bologna, was the prelate who had enchanted Bernis; but he was too enlightened (in Bernis' phrase)- he openly avowed at least Gallican opinions — he was the farthest removed from ultramontane principles of the whole Conclave. He was almost a philosophe; and a philosophe it was the great object of the Roman Catholic Powers of Christendom (according to our author) to place in the Papal chair. We do not quite understand whether the exclusive now possessed by France, Spain, and Naples was actually employed, so as to decimate the Conclave, and to reduce the number of Papable subjects within the narrowest limits-or whether this plan was only a matter of deliberation. The system of intimidation was, however, carried even further; it was distinctly intimated that if the Conclave persisted in their obstinacy, Portugal, France, Spain, and Naples would throw off the Papal supremacy.

Affairs seemed more inextricably involved than ever, except that Fantuzzi was out of the field, and Pozzobonelli (Archbishop of Milan, who represented Austria) had now become a kind of favourite ; he .four times a day came and made false confidences to Bernis. Poor Bernis was at his wits' end-To find out who are the real enemies of the Jesuits one must become God and be able to read the hearts of men.'

The Spaniards were now arrived, and not long after their arrival on a sudden Bernis received an intimation that everything was settled, and that he had nothing to do but to bring up all his votes for Cardinal Ganganelli. The grave, and silent, and serious Spaniards, particularly the Cardinal de Solis, Archbishop of Seville, who was in the confidence of Charles III. and of his minister D'Aranda, had achieved in a few days (by

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