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The story is told by Theodoret and Cassiodorus, and seems worthy of credit notwithstanding its place in the Roman martyrology. Besides the torrents of blood which flowed at the funerals, In the amphitheatres, the circus, the forums, and other public places, gladiators were introduced at feasts, and tore each other to pieces amidst the supper-tables, to the great delight and applause of the guests. Yet Lipsius permits himself to suppose the loss of courage, and the evident degeneracy of mankind, to be nearly connected with the abolition of these bloody spectacles. *)
Here, where the Roman million's blame or praise. Was death or life, the playthings of a crowd. (p. 52. St. 142. When one gladiator wounded another, he shouted "he has it." "hoc habet, or "habet." The wounded combatant dropped his weapon, and advancing to the edge of the arena, supplicated the spectators. If he had fought well, the people saved him; if otherwise, or as they happened to be inclined, they turned down their thumbs, and he was slain. They were occasionally so savage that they were impatient if a combat lasted longer than ordinary without wounds or death. The emperor's presence generally saved the vanquished: and it is recorded as an instance of Caracalla's ferocity, that he sent those who supplicated him for life, in a spectacle at Nicomedia, to ask the people; in other words, handed them over to be slain. A similar ceremony is observed at the Spanish bull-fights. The magistrate presides; and after the horsemen and piccadores have fought the bull, the matadore steps forward and bows to him for permission to kill the animal. If the bull has done his duty by killing two or three horses, or a man, which last is rare, the people interfere with shouts, the ladies wave their handkerchiefs, and the animal is saved. The wounds aud death of the horses are accompanied with the loudest acclamations, and many gestures of delight, especially from the female portion of the audience, including those of the gentlest blood. Every thing depends on habit. The author of Childe Harold, the writer of this note, and one or two other Englishmen, who have certainly in other days borne the sight of a pitched battle, were, during the summer of 1809, in the governor's box at the great amphitheatre of Santa Maria, opposite to Cadiz. The death of one or two horses completely satisfied their curiosity. A gentleman present, observing them shudder and look pale, noticed that unusual reception of so delightful a sport to some young ladies, who stared and smiled, and continued their applauses as another horse fell bleeding to the ground. One bull killed three horses off his own horns. He was saved by acclamations, which were redoubled when it was known he belonged to a priest.
An Englishman who can be much pleased with seeing two men beat themselves to pieces, cannot bear to look at a horse galloping round an arena with his bowels trailing on the ground, and turns from the spectacle and the spectators with horror and disgust.
Like laurels on the bald first Caesar's head. [p. 52. St. 144. Suetonius informs us that Julius Cæsar was particularly gratified by that decree of the senate,
*) "Quod? non tu Lipsi momentum aliquod habuisse censes ad virtutem? Magnum. Tempora nostra, nosque ipsos videamus. Oppidum ecce unum alterumve captum, direptum est; tumultus circa nos, non in nobis; et tamen concidimus et turbamur. Ubi robur, ubi tot per annos meditata sapientiæ studia? ubi ille animus qui possit dicere, si fractus illabatur orbis?" The prototype of Mr. Windham's panegyric on bull-baiting.
which enabled him to wear a wreath of laurel on all occasions. He was anxious, not, to show that he was the conqueror of the world, but to hide that he was bald. A stranger at Rome would hardly have guessed at the motive, nur should we without the help of the historian.
While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand [p. 52. St. 145. This is quoted in the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Spared and blest by time. [p. 52. St. 14. Though plundered of all its brass, except the ring which was necessary to preserve the aper ture above; though exposed to repeated free, though sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no monument of equal antiquity is so well preserved as this rotunde. It passed with little alteration from the pagan into the present worship; and so convenient were its niches for the Christian altar, that Michael Angelo, ever studious of ancient beauty, introduced their design as a model in the Catholic church.
And they who feel for genius may repose Their eyes on honour'd forms, whose busts around them close. [p. 52. St. 147. The Pantheon has been made a receptacle far the busts of modern great, or, at least, distinguished men. The flood of light, which once fell through the large orb above on the whole cirde of divinities, now shines on a numerous assenblage of mortals, some one or two of whom have been almost deified by the veneration of their countrymen.
There is a dungeon, in whose dim drear light. [p. 52. St. 1.
This and the three next stanzas allude to the story of the Roman daughter, which is recalled to the traveller by the site, or pretended site. of that adventure now shown at the church of Saint Nicholas in carcere.
Turn to the mole which Hadrian rear'd on high. [p. 53. St. 152. The castle of Saint Angelo.
[p. 53. St. 153.
This and the six next stanzas have a reference to the church of St. Peter.
-The strange fate Which tumbles mightiest sovereigns. [p. 55. St. 171. Mary died on the scaffold; Elizabeth of a broken heart; Charles V. a hermit; Louis XIV. a bankrupt in means and glory; Cromwell of anxiety; and, "the greatest is behind," Napoleon lives a prisoner. To these sovereigns a long but superfluous list might be added of names equally illustrious and unhappy.
Lo, Nemi! navell'd in the woody hills.
[p. 55. St. 173. The village of Nemi was near the Arician retreat of Egeria, and, from the shades which embosomed the temple of Diana, has preserved to this day its distinctive appellation of The Grove. Nemi is but an evening's ride from the comfortable inn of Albano.
half of the Æneld, and the coast from beyond | dam, and thence trickles over into the Digentia. the mouth of the Tiber to the headland of Cir- But we must not hope cæum and the Cape of Terracina.
The site of Cicero's villa may be supposed either at the Grotta Ferrata, or at the Tusculum of Lucian Buonaparte.
The former was thought some years ago the actual site, as may be seen from Middleton's Life of Cicero. At present it has lost something of its credit, except for the Domenichinos. Nine monks, of the Greek order, live there, and the adjoining villa is a Cardinal's summerhouse. The other villa, called Rufinella, is on the summit of the hill above Frascati, and many rich remains of Tusculum have been found there, besides seventy-two statues of different merit and preservation, and seven busts.
From the same eminence are seen the Sabine hills, embosomed in which lies the long valley of Rustica. There are several circumstances which tend to establish the identity of this valley with the "Ustica" of Horace; and it seems possible that the mosaic pavement which the peasants uncover by throwing up the earth of a vineyard, may belong to his villa. Rustica is pronourced short, not according to our stress upon "Ustica cubantis."—It is more rational to think that we are wrong than that the inhabitants of this secluded valley have changed their tone in this word. The addition of the consonant prefixed is nothing: yet it is necessary to be aware that Rustica may be a modern name which the peasants may have caught from the antiquaries. The villa, or the mosaic, is in a vineyard on a knoll covered with chesnut trees. A stream runs down the valley, and although it is not true, as said in the guide-books, that this stream is called Licenza, yet there is a village on a rock at the head of the valley which is so denominated, and which may have taken its name from the Digentia. Licenza contains 700 inhabitants. On a peak a little way beyond is Civitella, containing 300. On the banks of the Anio, a little before you turn up into Valle Rustica, to the left, about an hour from the villa, is a town called Vico-varo, another favourable coincidence with the Varia of the poet. At the end of the . valley, towards the Anio, there is a bare hill, crowned with a little town called Bardela. At the foot of this hill the rivulet of Licenza flows, and is almost absorbed in a wide sandy bed before it reaches the Anio. Nothing can be more fortunate for the lines of the poet, whether in a metaphorical or direct sense:
Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, Quem Mandela bibit rugosus frigore pagus. The stream is clear high up the valley, but before it reaches the hill of Bardela looks green and yellow like a sulphur rivulet.
Rocca Giovane, a ruined village in the hills, half an hour's walk from the vineyard where the pavement is shown, does seem to be the site of the fane of Vacuna, and an inscription found there tells that this temple of the Sabine victory was repaired by Vespasian. With these helps, and a position corresponding exactly to every thing which the poet has told us of his retreat, we may feel tolerably secure of our site.
The hill which should be Lucretilis is called Campanile, and by following up the rivulet to the pretended Bandusia, you come to the roots of the higher mountain Gennaro. Singularly enough, the only spot of ploughed land in the whole valley is on the knoll where this Bandusia rises,
"To trace the Muses upwards to their spring," by exploring the windings of the romantic valley in search of the Bandusian fountain. It seems strange that any one should have thought Bandusia a fountain of the Digentia; Horace has not let drop a word of it; and this immortal spring has in fact been discovered in possession of the holders of many good things in Italy, the monks. It was attached to the church of St. Gervais and Protais near Venusia, where it was most likely to be found. We shall not be so lucky as a late traveller in finding the occasional pine still pendant on the poetic villa. There is not a pine in the whole valley, but there are two cypresses, which he evidently took, or mistook, for the tree in the ode. The truth is, that the pine is now, as it was in the days of Virgil, a garden-tree, and it was not at all likely to be found in the craggy acclivities of the valley of Rustica. Horace probably had one of them in the orchard close above his farm, immediately overshadowing his villa, not on the rocky heights at some distance from his abode. The tourist may have easily supposed himself to have seen this pine figured in the above cypresses, for the orange and lemon trees which throw such a bloom over his description of the royal gardens at Naples, unless they have been since displaced, were assuredly only acacias and other common garden-shrubs. The extreme disappointment experienced by choosing the Classical Tourist as a guide in Italy must be allowed to find vent in a few observations, which, it is asserted without fear of contradiction, will be confirmed by every one who has selected the same conductor through the same country. This author is in fact one of the most inaccurate, unsatisfactory writers that have in our times attained a temporary reputation, and is very seldom to be trusted even when he speaks of objects which he must be presumed to have seen. His errors, from the simple exaggeration to the downright misstatement, are so frequent as to induce a suspicion that he had either never visited the spots described, or had trusted to the fidelity of former writers. Indeed the Classical Tour has every characteristic of a mere compilation of former notices, strung together upon a very slender thread of personal observation, and swelled out by those decorations which are so easily supplied by a systematic adoption of all the commonplaces of praise, applied to every thing and therefore signifying nothing.
The style which one person thinks cloggy and cumbrous, and unsuitable, may be to the taste of others, and such may experience some salutary excitement in ploughing through the periods of the "Classical Tour." It must be said, however, that polish and weight are apt to beget an expectation of value. It is amongst the pains of the damned to toil up a climax with a huge round stone.
The tourist had the choice of his words, but there was no such latitude allowed to that of his sentiments. The love of virtue and of liberty, which must have distinguished the character, certainly adorns the pages of Mr. Eustace, and the gentlemanly spirit, so recommendatory either in an author or his productions, is very conspicuous throughout the Classical Tour. But these generous qualities are the foliage of such a performance, and may be spread about it so prominently and profusely, as to embarrass those who wish to see and find the fruit at hand. The unction of the divine, and the exhortations of the moralist, may have made this work something more and better than a book of travels, but they have not made it a book of travels; and this observation applies more especially to that enticing method of instruction conveyed by the
If the conspiring voice of otherwise rival critics had not given considerable currency to the Classical Tour, it would have been unnecessary to warn the reader, that; however it may adorn his library, it will be of little or no service to him in his carriage; and if the judgment of those critics had hitherto been suspended, no attempt would have been made to anticipate their decision. As it is, those who stand in the relation of posterity to Mr. Eustace may be permitted to appeal from cotemporary praises, and are perhaps more likely to be just in proportion as the causes of love and hatred are the farther removed. This appeal had, in some measure, been made before the above remarks were written; for one of the most respectable of the Florentine publishers, who had been persuaded by the repeated inquiries of those on their journey southwards, to reprint a cheap edition of the Classical Tour, was, by the concurring advice of returning travellers, induced to abandon his design, although he had already arranged his types and paper, and had struck off one or two of the first sheets.
perpetual introduction of the same Gallic Helot | ping of the copper from the cupola of St. Poto reel and bluster before the rising generation, ter's, must be much relieved to find that sacriand terrify it into decency by the display of lege out of the power of the French, or any all the excesses of the revolution. An animosity other plunderers, the cupola being covered with against atheists and regicides in general, and lead. *) Frenchmen specifically, may be honourable, and may be useful, as a record; but that antidote should either be administered in any work rather than a tour, or, at least, should be served up apart, and not so mixed with the whole mass of information and reflexion, as to give a bitterness to every page: for who would choose to have the antipathies of any man, however just, for his travelling companions? A tourist, unless he aspires to the credit of prophecy, is not answerable for the changes which may take place in the country which he describes; but his reader may very fairly esteem all his political portraits and deductions as so much waste paper, the moment they cease to assist, and more particularly if they obstruct, his actual survey. Neither encomium nor accusation of any government, or governors, is meant to be here offered, but it is stated as an incontrovertible fact, that the change operated, either by the address of the late imperial system, or by the disappointment of every expectation by those who have succeeded to the Italian thrones, has been so considerable, and is so apparent, as not only to put Mr. Eustace's Antigallican philippics entirely out of date, but even to throw some suspicion upon the competency and candour of the author himself. A remarkable example may be found in the instance of Bologna, over whose papal attachments, and consequent desolation, the tourist pours forth such strains of condolence and revenge, made louder by the borrowed trumpet of Mr. Burke. Now Bologna is at this moment, and has been for some years, notorious amongst the states of Italy for its attachment to revolutionary principles, and was almost the only city which made any demonstrations in favour of the unfortunate Murat. This change may, however, have been made since Mr. Eustace visited this country; but the traveller whom he has thrilled with horror at the projected strip
The writer of these notes would wish to part (like Mr. Gibbon) on good terms with the Pope and the Cardinals, but he does not think it necessary to extend the same discreet silence to their humble partisans.
*) "What then will be the astonishment, or rather the horror, of my reader, when I inform him the French Committee turned its attention to Saint Peter's, and employed a company of Jews to estimate and purchase the gold, silver, and bronze that adorn the inside of the edifice, as well as the copper that covers the vaults and dome on the outside." The story about the Jews is positively denied at Rome.
NOTES TO THE GIAOUR.
That tomb which, gleaming o`er the cliff. [p. 57. | tempted in description, but those who have, will A tomb above the rocks on the promontory, by some supposed the sepulchre of Themistocles.
Sultana of the Nightingale. [p. 57. The attachment of the nightingale to the rose is a wellknown Persian fable. If I mistake not, the "Bulbul of a thousand tales is one of his appellations.
Till the gay mariner's guitar. [p. 57, The guitar is the constant amusement of the Greek sailor by night: with a steady fair wind, and during a calm, it is accompanied always by the voice, and often by dancing.
Where cold Obstruction's apathy. [p. 58. "Ay, but to die and go we know not where To lie in cold obstruction."
Measure for Measure, Act. II. Sc. 1.
The first, last look by death reveal'd. [p. 58. I trust that few of my readers have ever had an opportunity of witnessing what is here at
probably retain a painful remembrance of that singular beauty which pervades, with few exceptions, the features of the dead, a few hours, after "the spirit is not there." It is to be remarked in cases of violent death by gun-shot wounds, the expression is always that of languor, whatever the natural energy of the sufferer's character; but in death from a stab the conntenance preserves its traits of feeling or ferocity, and the mind its bias, to the last.
t Swift as the hurld on high jerreed. [p. 59. Jerreed, or Djerrid, a blunted Turkish Javelin, which is darted from horseback with great force and precision. It is a favourite exercise of the Mussulmans; but I know not if it can be called a manly one, since the most expert in the art are the black Eunuchs of Constantinople-I think, next to these, a Mamlouk at Smyrna was the most skilful that came within my observation.
He came, he went, like the Simoon. [p. 59. The blast of the desert, fatal to every thing living, and often alluded to in eastern poetry.
To bless the sacred "bread and salt." [p. 60. To partake of food, to break bread and salt with your host, insures the safety of the guest; even though an enemy, his person from that moment is sacred.
Since his turban was cleft by the infidel's sabre. [p. 60. I need hardly observe, that Charity and Hospitality are the first duties enjoined by Mahomet; and to say truth, very generally practised by his disciples. The first praise that can be bestowed on a chief is a panegyric on his bounty; the next, on his valour.
And silver-sheathed ataghan. [p. 60. The ataghan, a long dagger worn with pistols in the belt, in a metal scabbard, generally of silver; and, among the wealthier, gilt, or of gold.
An Emir by his garb of green. [P 60. Green is the privileged colour of the prophet's numerous pretended descendants; with them, as here, faith (the family inheritance) is supposed to supersede the necessity of good works: they are the worst of a very indifferent brood.
Ho! who art thou?-this low salam. [p. 60. Salam aleikoum! aleikoum salam! peace be with you; be with you peace the salutation reserved for the faithful:-to a Christian, "Urlarula," a good journey; or saban hiresem, saban serula; good morn, good even; and sometimes, "may your end be happy;" are the usual salutes.
The insect-queen of eastern spring. [p. 60. The blue-winged butterfly of Kashmeer, the most rare and beautiful of the species.
Or live like scorpion girt by fire. Alluding to the dubious suicide of the scorpion, so placed for experiment by gentle philosophers. Some maintain that the position of the sting, when turned towards the head, is merely a convulsive movement; but others have actually brought in the verdict "Felo de se." The scorpions are surely interested in a speedy decision of the question; as, if once fairly established as insect-Catos, they will probably be allowed to live as long as they think proper, without being martyred for the sake of an hypothesis.
When Rhamazan's last sun was set.
By pale Phingari's trembling light. Phingari, the moon.
Bright as the jewel of Giamschid. [p. 61. The celebrated fabulous ruby of Sultan Giamschid, the embellisher of Istakhar; from its splendour, named Schebgerag, "the torch of night; also, the "cup of the sun."-In the first editions "Giamschid" was written as a word of three syllables, so D'Herbelot has it; but I am told Richardson reduces it to a dissyllable, and writes "Jamshid. I have left in the text the orthography of the one with the pronunciation of the other.
Though on Al-Sirat's arch I stood. [p. 61. Al-Sirat, the bridge of breadth less than the thread of a famished spider, over which the Mussulmans must skate into Paradise, to which it is the only entrance; but this is not the worst, the river beneath being hell itself, into which, as may be expected, the unskilful and tender of foot contrive to tumble with a "facilis descensus Averni, not very pleasing in prospect to the next passenger. There is a shorter cut downwards for the Jews and Christians.
And keep that portion of his creed. [p. 61. A vulgar error; the Koran allots at least a third of Paradise to well-behaved women; but by far the greater number of Mussulmans interpret the text their own way, and exclude their moieties from heaven. Being enemies to Platonics, they cannot discern "any fitness of things" in the souls of the other sex, conceiving them to be superseded by the Houris.
The young pomegranate's blossoms strew. [p. 61. An oriental simile, which may, perhaps, though fairly stolen, be deemed "plus Arabe qu'en Arabie."
Her hair in hyacinthine flow. [p. 61. Hyacinthine, in Arabic, "Sunbul," as common a thought in the eastern poets as it was among the Greeks.
The loveliest bird of Franguestan. "Franguestan," Circassia.
Bismillah! now the peril's past. [p. 62. Bismillah "In the name of God;" the commencement of all the chapters of the Koran but one, and of prayer and thanksgiving.
Then curl'd his very beard with ire. [p. 62. A phenomenon not uncommon with an angry Mussulman. In 1809, the Capitan Pacha's whiskers at a diplomatic audience were no less lively with indignation than a tiger-cat's, to the horror of all the dragomans; the portentous mustachios twisted, they stood erect of their own accord, and were expected every moment to change their colour, but at last condescended to subside. which probably saved more heads than they contained hairs.
Nor raised the craven cry, Amaun! "Amaun," quarter, pardon.
frequently the case, the effect is solemn and beautiful beyond all the bells in Christendom.
They come their kerchiefs green they wave. (p. 63. The following is part of a battle-song of the Turks:-"I see-I see a dark-eyed girl of Paradise, and she waves a handkerchief, a kerchief of green; and cries aloud: Come, kiss me, for I
Beneath avenging Monkir's scythe. [p. 63. Monkir and Nekir are the inquisitors of the dead, before whom the corpse undergoes a slight noviciate and preparatory training for damnation. If the answers are none of the clearest, he is hauled up with a scythe and thumped down with a red hot mace till properly seasoned, with a variety of subsidiary probations. The office of these angels is no sinecare; there are but two, and the number of orthodox deceased being in a small proportion to the remainder, their hands are always full.
Turkish, Italian, and English were all exercised, in various conceits, upon the unfortunate Mus sulman. While we were contemplating the beautiful prospect, Dervish was occupied about the columns. I thought he was deranged into an antiquarian, and asked him if he had become a "Palaocastro" man: "No," said he, "but these pillars will be useful in making a stand;" and added other remarks, which at least evinced his own belief in his troublesome faculty of fure. hearing. On our return to Athens, we heard from Leone (a prisoner set ashore some days after) of the intended attack of the Mainotes, mentioned, with the cause of its not taking place, in the notes to Childe Harold, Canto 2d. I was at some pains to question the man, and he described the dresses, arms, and marks of the horses of our party so accurately, that, with other circumstances, we could not doubt of his having been in "villanous company," and ourselves in a bad neighbourhood. Dervish became a soothsayer for life, and I dare say is now hearing more musquetry than ever will be fired, to the great refreshment of the Arnauts of Be[p. 63. | rat, and his native mountains.-I shall mention one trait more of this singular race. In March 1811 a remarkably stout and active Arnaut But first, on earth as Vampire sent. [p. 63. came (I believe the 50th on the same errand) to The Vampire superstition is still general in offer himself as an attendant, which was declinthe Levant. Honest Tournefort tells a long ed: "Well, Affendi," quoth he, “may you live! story, which Mr. Southey, in the notes on Tha--you would have found me useful. I shall laba, quotes about these Vroucolochas," as he leave the town for the hills to-morrow; in the calls them. The Romaic term is "Vardoulacha." | winter I return, perhaps you will then receive I recollect a whole family being terrified by the scream of a child, which they imagined must proceed from such a visitation. The Greeks never mention the word without horror. I find that "Broucolokas is an old legitimate Hellenic appellation at least is so applied to Arsenius, who, according to the Greeks, was after his death animated by the Devil. The moderns, however, use the word I mention.
To wander round lost Eblis' throne. Eblis, the oriental Prince of Darkness.
me."-Dervish, who was present, remarked as a thing of course, and of no consequence, “in the mean time he will join the Klephtes" (robbers), which was true to the letter.-If not cut off, they come down in the winter, and pass it unmolested in some town, were they are often as well known as their exploits.
Looks not to priesthood for relief.
The monk's sermon is omitted. It seems to have had so little effect upon the patient, that it could have no hopes from the reader. It may be sufficient to say, that it was of a customary length (as may be perceived from the interruptions and uneasiness of the penitent), and was delivered in the nasal tone of all orthodox preachers.
And shining in her white symar. "Symar"-shroud.
This broken tale was all we knew
Deep in whose darkly boding ear. [p. 66. Of her he loved or him he slew. [p. 68. This superstition of a second-hearing (for I The circumstance to which the above story never met with downright second-sight in the relates was not very uncommon in Turkey. Ă East) fell once under my own observation.-On few years ago the wife of Muchtar Pacha commy third journey to Cape Colonna, early in 1811, plained to his father of his son's supposed infias we passed through the defile that leads from delity; he asked with whom, and she had the the hamlet between Keratia and Colonna, I ob- barbarity to give in a list of the twelve handserved Dervish Tahiri riding rather out of the somest women in Yanina. They were seized, path, and leaning his head upon his hand, as if fastened up in sacks, and drowned the same in pain. I rode up and inquired. “We are in night! One of the guards who was present inperil," he answered. "What peril? we are not formed me, that not one of the victims uttered now in Albania, nor in the passes to Ephesus, a cry, or showed a symptom of terror at so sudMessalunghi, or Lepanto; there are plenty of den a "wrench from all we know, from all we us, well armed, and the Choriates have not cou- love." The fate of Phrosine, the fairest of this rage to be thieves."-"True, Affendi; but never-sacrifice, is the subject of many a Romaic and theless the shot is ringing in my ears."-"The Arnaut ditty. The story in the text is one shot!-not a tophaike has been fired this moru- told of a young Venetian many years ago, and ing.""I hear it notwithstanding-Bom-Bom- now nearly forgotten. I heard it by accident as plainly as I hear your voice."-"Psha."-"As you please, Affendi; if it is written, so will it be."I left this quick-cared predestinarian, and rode up to Basili, his Christian compatriot, whose ears, though not at all prophetic, by no means relished the intelligence. We all arrived at Colonna, remained some hours, and returned leisurely, saying a variety of brilliant things, in more languages than spoiled the building of Babel, upon the mistaken seer; Romaic, Arnaut,
recited by one of the coffee-house story-tellers who abound in the Levant, and sing or recite their narratives. The additions and interpolations by the translator will be easily distinguished from the rest by the want of Eastern imagery; and I regret that my memory has retained so few fragments of the original.
For the contents of some of the notes I am indebted partly to D'Herbelot, and partly to that most eastern, and, as Mr. Weber justly