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era nella cospirazione, presero di eleggere venti de' primari della Terra, di giunta al detto Consiglio a consigliare, non però che potessero mettere pallotta.
di notte. Ed essendo stati impiccati i traditori, e tagliata la testa al Doge, rimase la Terra in gran riposo, e quiete. E come in una Cronica ho trovato, fu portato il Corpo del Doge in una barca con otto doppieri a seppelire nella sua arca a San Giovanni e Paolo, la quale al presente è in quell' andito per mezzo la Chiesuola di Santa Maria della Pace, fatta fare pel Vescovo Gabriello di Bergamo, e un Cassone di Pietra con queste lettere. Heic jacet Dominus Marinus Faletro Dux. E nel gran Consiglio non gli è stato fatto alcun Brieve, ma il luogo vacuo con lettere, che dicono cosi: Hic est locus Marini Faletro, decapitati pro criminibus. E pare, che la sua casa fosse data alla Chiesa di Sant' Apostolo, la qual era quella grande sul Ponte. Tamen vedo il contrario che è pure di Cà Faliero, o che i Falieri la ricuperassero con danari dalla Chiesa. Ne voglio restar di scrivere alcuni, che volevano, che fosse messo nel suo breve, cioè: Marinus Faletro Dux. Temeritas Altri vi fecero un Distico assai degno al sue merito, il quale è questo, da essere posto su la sua sepultura :
E chiamati questi venti nel Consiglio de' Dieci, fu mandato per Messer Marino Faliero Doge, il quale andava pel Palazzo con gran gente, gentiluomini, e altra buona gente, che non sapeano ancora come il fatto stava. In questo tempo fu condotto, preso, e ligato, Bertucci Israello, uno de Capi del trattato per que' di Santa Croce, e ancora fu preso Zanello del Brin, Nicoletto di Rosa, e Nicoletto Alberto, il Guardiaga, e altri nomini da mare, e d'altre condizioni. I quali furono esaminati, e trovata la verità del tradimento. A di 16. d'Aprile fu sentenziato pel detto Consiglio de Dieci, che Filippo Calandario, e Bertucci Israello fossero appiccati alle Colonne rosse del balconate del Palazzo, nelle quali sta a vedere il Doge la festa della Caccia. E così furono appiccati con spranghe in bocca. E nel giorno seguente questi furono condannati, Nic-me cepit. Panas lui, decapitatus pro criminibus. colò Zuccuolo, Nicoletto Blondo, Nicoletto Doro, Marco Giuda, Jacomello Dagolino, Nicoletto Fedele figliuolo di Filippo Calendaro, Marco Torello detto Israello, Stefano Trivisano Cambiatore di Santa Margherita, Antonio dalle Bende. Furono tutti presi a Chioggia, che fuggivano, e dipoi in diversi giorni a due a due, e a uno a uno, per sentenza fatta nel detto Consiglio de Dieci, furono appiccati per la gola alle Colonne, continuando dalle rosse del Palazzo, seguendo fin verso il Canale. E altri presi furono lasciati, perchè sentirono il fatto, ma non vi furono tal che fu dato loro ad intendere per questi capi, che venissero coll' arme, per prendere alcuni malfattori in servigio della Signoria, nè altro sapeano. Fu ancora liberato Nicoletto Alberto, il Guardiaga, e Bartolommeo Ciriuola, e suo figliuolo, e molti altri, che non erano in colpa.
"Dux Venetum jacet heic, patriam qui prodere tentans,
Sceptra, decus, censum, perdidit, atque eaput."
"Non voglio restar di scrivere quello che ho letto in una Cronica, cioè, che Marino Faliero trovandosi Podestà e Capitano a Treviso, e do vendosi fare una Processione, il Vescovo stette troppo a far venire il Corpo di Cristo. 11 detto Faliero era di tanta superbia e arroganza, che diede un buffetto al prefato Vescovo, per modo ch' egli quasi cadde in terra. Però fu permesso, che il Faliero perdette l'intelletto, e fece la mala morte, come ho scritto di sopra."
Cronica di Sanuto-Muratori S. S. Rerum Italicarum-vol. xx11. 628-639.
MARINO FAliero, doge XLIX.
"E a dì 16. d'Aprile, giorno di Venerdì, fu sentenziato nel detto Consiglio de' Dicci, di tagliare la testa a Messer Marino Faliero Doge sul pato della Scala di pierra, dove i Dogi giurano il primo sagramento, quando montano prima in Palazzo. E così serrato il Palazzo la mattina seguente a ora di Terza, fu tagliata la testa al detto Doge a dì 17. d'Aprile. E prima la beretta fu tolta di testa al detto Doge, avanti che venisse giù dalla Scala. E compiuta la giustizia, pare che un Capo de' Dieci andasse alle Colonne del Palazzo sopra la Piazza, e mo- On the eleventh day of September, in the year strasse la spada insanguinata a tutti, dicendo: of our Lord 1354, Marino Faliero was elected E stata fatta la gran giustizia del Traditore. and chosen to be the Duke of the Commonwealth E aperta la Porta tutti entrarono dentro con of Venice. He was Count of Valdemarino, in gran furia a vedere il Doge, ch' era stato giu- the Marches of Treviso, and a Knight and a stiziato. E' da sapere, che a fare la detta giu- wealthy man to boot. As soon as the election stizia non fu Ser Giovanni Sanudo il Consigliere, was completed, it was resolved in the Great perchè era andato a casa per difetto della per- Council, that a deputation of twelve should be sona, sicchè furono quatordici seli, che ballotta- despatched to Marino Faliero the Duke, who rono, cioè cinque Consiglieri, e nove del Con- was then on his way from Rome; for, when he siglio de' Diece. E fu preso, che tutti i beni was chosen, he was Embassador at the court of del Doge fossero confiscati nel Comune, e cosi the Holy Father, at Rome,-the Holy Father degli altri traditori. E fu conceduto al detto himself held his court at Avignon. When MesDoge pel detto Consiglio de' Dieci, ch' egli po- ser Marino Faliero the Duke was about to land tesse ordinare del suo per Ducati due mila. in this city, on the fifth day of October, 1354, a Ancora fu preso, che tutti i Consiglieri, e Avo- thick haze came on, and darkened the air; and gadori del Comune, que' del Consiglio de' Dieci, he was enforced to land on the place of Saint e della Giunta, ch' erano stati a fare la detta Mark, between the two columns on the spot sentenza del Doge, e d'altri, avessero licenza di where evil doers are put to death; and all portar arme di di e di notte in Venezia e da thought that this was the worst of tokens.-Nor Grado fino a Cavarzere, ch'è sotto il Dogato, must I forget to write that which I have read con due fanti in vita loro, stando i fanti con in a chronicle.-When Messer Marino Faliero essi in casa al suo pane e al suo vino. E chi was podesta and Captain of Treviso, the Bishop non avesse fanti, potesse dar tal licenza a' suoi delayed coming in with the holy sacrament, on figliuoli ovvero fratelli, due però e non più. a day when a procession was to take place. Now Eziandio fu data licenza dell' arme a quattro the said Marino Faliero was so very proud and Notaj della Cancelleria, cioè della Corte Mag-wrathful, that he buffeted the Bishop, and almost giore, che furono a prendere le deposizioni e in- struck him to the ground. And, therefore, Heaquisizioni, in perpetuo a loro soli, quali fu- ven allowed Marino Faliero to go out of his rono Amadio, Nicoletto di Loreno, Steffanello, right senses, in order that he might bring hime Pietro de Compostelli, Scrivani de' Signoril self to an evil death.
punishment upon the Gentleman of Ca Barbaro "What wouldst thou have me do for thee T answered the Duke;-"think upon the shameful gibe which hath been written concerning me; and think on the manner in which they have punished that ribald Michele Steno, who wrote it; and see how the Council of Forty respect our person."-Upon this the Admiral answered; "My Lord Duke, if you would wish to make yourself a Prince and to cut all those cuckoldy gentlemen to pieces, I have the heart, if you do but help me, to make you Prince of all this state; and then you may punish them all."Hearing this, the Duke said: "How can such a matter be brought about?" and so they discoursed thereon.
The Duke called for his nephew Ser Bertue
Now to this feast there came a certain Ser Michele, Steno, a gentleman of poor estate and very young, but crafty and daring, and who cio Israello, who was exceedingly wily and canloved one of the damsels of the Duchess.-Serning. Then taking counsel amongst themselves, Michele stood amongst the women upon the so- they agreed to call in some others; and so, for lajo; and he behaved indiscreetly, so that my Duke at home in his palace. And the following Lord the Duke ordered that he should be kicked several nights successively, they met with the
off the solajo; and the Esquires of the Duke men were called in singly; to wit:-Nicolo flung him down from the solajo accordingly. Ser Fagiuolo, Giovanni da Corfu, Stefano, Niccolo Michele thought that such an affront was beyond dalle Bende, Niccolo Biondo, and Stefano Triall bearing: and when the feast was over, and Visiano.-It was concerted that sixteen or sevenall other persons had left the palace, he, continuing heated with anger, went to the hall of of the city, each being at the head of forty men, teen leaders should be stationed in various parts audience, and wrote certain unseemly words re-armed and prepared; but the followers were not lating to the Duke and the Duchess, upon the to know their destination. On the appointed day chair in which the Duke was used to sit; for in those days the Duke did not cover his chair with cloth of sendal, but he sat in a chair of wood. Ser Michele wrote thereon:-Marin Falier, the husband of the fair wife; others kiss her, but he keeps her." In the morning the words were seen, and the matter was considered to be very scandalous; and the Senate commanded the Avogadori of the Commonwealth to proceed therein with the greatest diligence. A largesse of great amount was immediately proffered by the Avogadori in order to discover who had written these words. And at length it was known that Michele Steno had written them. It was resolved in the Council of Forty that he should be arrested; and he then confessed, that in a fit of vexation and spite, occasioned by his being thrust off the solajo in the presence of his mistress, he had written the words. Therefore the Council debated thereon. And the Council took his youth into consideration, and that he was a lover, and therefore they adjudged that he should be kept in close confinement during two months, and that afterwards he should be banished from Venice and the state during one year. In consequence of this merciful sentence the Duke became exceedingly wroth, it appearing to him that the Council had not acted in such a manner as was required by the respect due to his ducal dignity; and he said that they ought to have condemned Ser Michele to be hanged by the neck, or at least to be banished for life.
they were to make affrays amongst themselves here and there, in order that the Duke might have a pretence for tolling the bells of San Marco: these bells are never rung but by the order of the Duke. And at the sound of the followers, were to come to San Marco, through the streets which open upon the Piazza. And bells, these sixteen or seventeen, with their when the noble and leading citizens should come into the Piazza, to know the cause of the riot, then the conspirators were to cut them in pieces; and this work being finished, my Lord Marino Faliero the Duke was to be proclaimed the Lord of Venice. Things having been thus settled, they agreed to fulfil their intent on Wednesday, the fifteenth day of April, in the year 1355. So covertly did they plot, that no one ever dreamt of their machinations.
Now it was fated that my Lord Duke Marino was to have his head cut off. And as it is necessary when any effect is to be brought about, that the cause of such effect must happen, it therefore came to pass, that on the very day after sentence had been pronounced on Ser Michele Steno, being the first day of Lent, a Gentleman of the house of Barbaro, a choleric Gentleman, went to the arsenal and required certain things of the masters of the galleys. This he did in the presence of the Admiral of the arsenal, and he, hearing the request, answered,-No, it cannot be done. -High words arose between the Gentleman and the Admiral, and the Gentleman struck him with his fist just above the eye; and as he happened to have a ring on his finger, the ring cut the Admiral and drew blood. The Admiral, all bruised and bloody, ran straight to the Duke to complain, and with the intent of praying him to inflict some heavy
most glorious city, and who, loving its righteousness and holiness, hath never forsaken it, But the Lord, who hath always helped this inspired one Beltramo Bergamasco to be the cause of bringing the plot to light in the following manner. Ser Niccolo Lioni of Santo Stefano, had heard a word or two of what was to take place; and This Beltramo, who belonged to so, in the before-mentioned month of April, he Lioni, and told him all the particulars of the went to the house of the aforesaid Ser Niccolo plot. Ser Niccolo, when he heard all these things, was struck dead, as it were, with affright. prayed him to keep it all secret; and, if he He heard all the particulars, and Beltrame told Ser Niccolo, it was in order that Ser Niccolo might stop at home on the fifteenth of April, and thus save his life. Beltramo was going, but Ser Niccolo ordered his servants to lay hands upon him and lock him up. Ser Niccolo then went to the house of Messer Giovanni Gradenigo Nasoni, who afterwards became Duke and who also lived at Santo Stefano, and told him all. The matter seemed to him to be of the very greatest importance, as indeed it was; and they two went to the house of Ser Marco Cornaro, who lived at San Felice; and, having spoken with him, they all three then determined to go back to the house of Ser Niccolo Lioni, to examine the said Beltramo; and having questioned him, and heard all that he had to say, they left him in confinement. And then they. all three went into the sacristy of San Salvatore, and sent their men to summon the Counsellors,
the Avogadori, the Capi de' Dieci, and those of the Great Council.
When all were assembled, the whole story was told to them. They were struck dead, as it with affright. They determined to send for Beltramo. He was brought in before them. They examined him and ascertained that the matter was true; and, althongh they were exceedingly troubled, yet they determined upon their measures. And they sent for the Capi de' Quaranta, the Signori di Notte, the Capi de' Sestieri, and the Cinque della Pace; and they were ordered to associate to their men other good men and true, who were to proceed to the houses of the ringleaders of the conspiracy and secure them. And they secured the foremen of the arsenal, in order that the conspirators might not do mischief. Towards nightfall they assembled in the palace. When they were assembled in the palace, they caused the gates of the quadrangle of the palace to be shut. And they sent to the keeper of the bell-tower and forbade the tolling of the bells. All this was carried into effect. The before-mentioned conspirators were secured, and they were brought to the palace; and as the Council of Ten saw that the Duke was in the plot, they resolved that twenty of the leading men of the state should be associated to them, for the purpose of consultation and deliberation, but that they should not be allowed to ballot.
These twenty were accordingly called in to the Council of Ten; and they sent for my Lord Marino Faliero the Duke; and my Lord Marino was then consorting in the palace with people of great estate, gentlemen, and other good men, none of whom knew yet how the fact stood.
At the same time Bertuccio Israello, who, as one of the ringleaders, was to head the conspirators in Santa Croce, was arrested and bound, and brought before the Council. Zanello del Brin, Nicoletto di Rosa, Nicoletto Alberto, and the Guardiaga, were also taken, together with several seamen, and people of various ranks. These were examined, and the truth of the plot was ascertained.
On the sixteenth of April judgment was given in the Council of Ten, that Filippo Calendario and Bertuccio Israello should be hanged upon the red pillars of the balcony of the palace, from which the Duke is wont to look at the Bull-hunt: and they were hanged with gags in their mouths. The next day the following were condemned: -Niccolo Zuccuolo, Nicoletto Blondo, Nicoletto Doro, Marco Gjuda, Jacomello Dagolino, Nicoletto Fidele, the son of Filippo Calendaro, Marco Torello, called Israello, Stefano Trivisano, the money-changer of Santa Margherita, and Antonio dalle Bende. These were all taken at Chiozza, for they were endeavouring to escape. Afterwards, by virtue of the sentence which was passed upon them in the Council of Ten, they were hanged on successive days, some singly and some in couples, upon the columns of the palace, beginning from the red columns, and so going onwards towards the canal. And other prisoners were discharged, because, although they had been involved in the conspiracy, yet they had not assisted in it: for they were given to understand by some of the heads of the plot, that they were to come armed and prepared for the service of the state, and in order to secure certain criminals, and they knew nothing else. Nicoletto Alberto, the Guardiaga, and Bartolom. meo Ciruola and his son, and several others, who were not guilty, were discharged.
On Friday, the sixteenth day of April, judgment was also given, in the aforesaid Council of Ten, that my Lord Marino Faliero, the Duke, should have his head cut off, and that the execution should be done on the landing place of the stone staircase, where the Dukes take their oath when they first enter the palace. On the
following day, the seventeenth of April, the doors of the palace being shut, the Duke had his head cut off, about the hour of noon. And the cap of estate was taken from the Duke's head before he came down stairs. When the execution was over, it is said that one of the Council of Ten went to the columns of the palace over against the place of St. Mark, and that he showed the bloody sword unto the people, crying out with a loud voice-"The terrible doom hath fallen upon the traitor!"-and the doors were opened, and the people all rushed in, to see the corpse of the Duke, who had been beheaded.
It must be known, that Ser Giovanni Sanudo, the councillor, was not present when the aforesaid sentence was pronounced; because he was unwell and remained at home. So that only fourteen ballotted; that is to say, five councillors, and nine of the Council of Ten. And it was adjudged, that all the lands and chattels of the Duke, as well as of the other traitors, should be forfeited to the state. And, as a grace to the Duke, it was resolved in the Council of Ten, that he should be allowed to dispose of two thousand ducats out of his own property. And it was resolved, that all the councillors and all the Avogadori of the commonwealth, those of the Council of Ten, and the members of the junta who had assisted in passing sentence on the Duke and the other traitors, should have the privilege of carrying arms both by day and by night in Venice, and from Grado to Cavazere. And they were also to be allowed two footmen carrying arms, the aforesaid footmen living and boarding with them in their own houses. And he who did not keep two footmen might transfer the privilege to his sons or his brothers; but only to two. Permission of carrying arms was also granted to the four Notaries of the Chancery, that is to say, of the Supreme Court, who took the depositions; and they were Amedio, Nicoletto di Lorino, Steffanello, and Pietro de Compostelli, the secretaries of the Signori di Notte.
After the traitors had been hanged, and the Duke had had his head cut off, the state remained in great tranquillity and peace. And, as I have read in a chronicle, the corpse of the Duke was removed in a barge, with eight torches, to his tomb in the church of San Giovanni e Paolo, where it was buried. The tomb is now in that aisle in the middle of the little church of Santa Maria della Pace, which was built by Bishop Gabriel of Bergamo. It is a coffin of stone, with these words engraved thereon: Heic jacet Dominus Marinus Faletro Dux." - And they did not paint his portrait in the hall of the Great Council:-But in the place where it ought to have been, you see these words :-"Hic est locus Marini Faletro decapitati pro criminibus" — and it is thought that his house was granted to the church of Sant' Apostolo; it was that great one near the bridge. Yet this could not be the case, or else the family bought it back from the church; for it still belongs to Cà Faliero. I must not refrain from noting, that some wished to write the following words in the place where his portrait ought to have been, as aforesaid:"Marinus Faletro Dux, temeritas me cepit, pœnas lui, decapitatus pro criminibus."-Others, also, indited a couplet, worthy of being inscribed upon his tomb:
«Dux Venetum jacet heic, patriam qui prodere
"Sceptra, decus, censum, perdidit, atque caput.”
"Al giovane Doge Andrea Dandolo succedette un vecchio, il quale tardi si pose al timone della repubblica, ma sempre prima di quel, che facea
non si concedette a nessun altro;" a proof of the high esteem in which he must have been held. 5thly, That he had a reputation for wisdom, only forfeited by the last enterprise of his life, si usurpo per tanti anni una falsa fama di sapienza."-"He had usurped for so many years a false fame of wisdom; rather a difficult task I should think. People are generally found out before eighty years of age, at least in a republic.
From these, and the other historical notes which I have collected, it may be inferred, that Marino Faliero possessed many of the qualities, but not the success of a hero; and that his pas sions were too violent. The paltry and ignorant account of Dr. Moore falls to the ground. Petrarch says, "that there had been no greater event in his times" (our times literally), "nostri tempi," in Italy. He also differs from the historian in saying that Faliero was on the banks of the Rhone," instead of at Rome, when elected; the other accounts say, that the deputation of the Venetian senate met him at Ravenna. How this may have been, it is not for me to decide, and is of no great importance. Had the man succeeded, he would have changed the face of Venice, and perhaps of Italy. As it is, what are they both?
par Daru, tom. v. livre xxxv.
d'uopo a luf, ed alla patria: egli è Marino Faliero, personaggio a me noto per antica dimestichezza. Falsa era l'opinione intorno a lui, giacchè egli si mostrò fornito più di corraggio, che di senno. Non pago della prima dignità, entrò con sinistro piede nel pubblico Palazzo imperciocché questo Doge dei Veneti, magistrato sacro in tutti i secoli, che dagli antichi fu sempre venerato qual nume in quella città, altr jeri fu decollato nel vestibolo dell' istesso Palazzo. Discorrerei fin dal principio le cause di un tale evento, se cosi vario, ed ambiguo non ne fosse il grido. Nessuno però lo scusa, tutti affermano, che egli abbia voluto cangiar qualche cosa nell'ordine della repubblica a lui tramandato dai maggiori. Che desiderava egli di più? lo son d' avviso, che egli abbia ottenuto ciò, che non si concedette a nessun altro: mentre adempiva gli ufficj di legato presso il Pontefice, e sulle rive del Rodano trattava la pace, che io prima di lui avevo indarno tentato di conchiudere, gli fù conferito l'onore del Ducato, che nè chiedeva, nè s'aspettava. Tornato in patria, pensò a quello cui nessuno non pose mente giammai, e soffri quello, che a niuno accadde mai di soffrire: giacche in quel luogo celeberrimo, e chiarissimo, e bellissimo infra tutti quelli, che io vidi, ove i suoi antenati avevano ricevuti grandissimi onori in mezzo alle pompe trionfali, ivi egli fu trascinato in modo servile, e spogliato delle insegne ducali, perdette la testa, e macchiò col proprio sangue le soglie del tempio, l' atrio del Palazzo, e le scale marmoree rendate spesse volte illustri | Extrait de l'Histoire de la République de Venise, o dalle solenni festività, o dalle ostili spoglie. Ho notato il luogo, ora noto il tempo: è l' anno del Natale di Cristo 1355. fù il giorno 18. d`Aprile. Si alto è il grido sparso, che se alcuno esaminerà la disciplina, e le costumanze di quella città, e quanto mutamento di cose venga minacciato dalla morte di un sol uomo (quantunque molti altri, come narrano, essendo complici, o subirono l'istesso supplicio, o lo aspettano) si accorgerà, che nulla di più grande avvenne ai nostri tempi nell' Italia. Tu forse qui attendi il mio giudizio: assolvo il popolo, se credere alla fama, benchè abbia potuto e castigare più Cette liberté de mœurs, qu'on avait long temps mitemente, e con maggior dolcezza vendicare il vantée comme le charme principal de la société suo dolore: ma non cosi facilmente, si modera de Venise, était devenue un désordre scandaleur; un' ira giusta insieme, e grande in un numeroso le lien du mariage était moins sacré dans ce popolo principalmente, nel quale il precipitoso, pays catholique que dans ceux où les lois civied instabile volgo aguzza gli stimoli dell' ira-les et religieuses permettent de le dissoudre. condia con rapidi, e sconsigliati clamori. Compa- Faute de pouvoir rompre le contrat, on suppotisco, e nell' istesso tempo mi adiro con quell' sait qu'il n'avait jamais existé, et les moyens de infelice uomo, il quale adorno di un' insolito nullité, allégués avec impudeur par les époux, onore, non so, che cosa si volesse negli estremi étaient admis avec la même facilité par des anni della sua vita: la calamità di lui diviene magistrats et par des prètres également corsempre più grave, perche dalla sentenza contra rompus. Ces divorces colorés d'un autre nom di esso promulgata apperirà, che egli fu non deviurent si fréquens, que l'acte le plus imporsolo misero, ma insano, e demente, e che con tant de la société civile se trouva de la compévane arti si usurpò per tanti anni una falsa fama tence d'un tribunal d'exception, et que ce fut à di sapienza. Ammonisco i Dogi, i quali gli suc- la police de réprimer le scandale." Le conseil cederanno, che questo è un esempio posto in- de dix ordonna, en 1782, que toute femme, qui nanzi ai loro occhi, quale specchio, nel quale intenterait une demande en dissolution de maveggano di essere non Signori, ma Duci, anzi riage, serait obligée d'en attendre le jugement nemmeno Duci, ma onorati servi della Repub- dans un couvent que le tribunal désignerait. blica. Tu sta sano; e giacchè fluttuano le pub- Bientôt après il évoqua devant lui toutes les bliche cose, sforziamoci di governar modestissi- causes de cette nature. Cet empiétement sur mamente i privati nostri affari." la jurisdiction ecclésiastique ayant occasionné des réclamations de la part de la cour de Rome, le conseil se réserva le droit de débouter les époux de leur demande; et consentit à la renvoyer devant l'officialité, toutes les fois qu'il ne l'aurait pas rejetée.
"A ces attaques si fréquentes que le gouvernement dirigeait contre le clergé, à ces luttes établies entre les différens corps constitués, à ces entreprises de la masse de la noblesse contre les dépositaires du pouvoir, à toutes ces propositions d'innovation qu se terminaient toujours par des coups d'état; il faut ajouter une autre cause non moins propre à propager le mépris des anciennes doctrines, c'était l'excès de la corruption.
The above Italian translation from the Latin epistles of Petrarch proves-1stly, That Marino Faliero was a personal friend of Petrarch's: "antica dimestichezza,” old intimacy, is the phrase of the poet. 2dly, That Petrarch thought that he had more courage than conduct, "più di Il y eut un moment, où sans doute le reavercoraggio che di senno. 3dly, That there was sement des fortunes, la perte des jeunes gens, some jealousy on the part of Petrarch; for he les discordes domestiques, déterminèrent le says that Marino Faliero was treating of the gouvernement à s'écarter des maximes qu'il peace which he himself had "vainly attempted s'était faites sur la liberté de mœurs qu'il perto conclude." 4thly, That the honour of the mettait à ses sujets: on chassa de Venise toutes Dukedom was conferred upon him, which he les courtisanes. Mais leur absence ne suffisait neither sought nor expected, "che nè chiedeva pas pour ramener aux bonnes mœurs toute une nè aspettava," and which had never been grant-population élevée dans la plus honteuse licence. ed to any other in like circumstances, "ciò che Le désordre pénétra dans l'intérieur des familles,
dans les cloitres et l'on se crut obligé de rappeler, d'indemniser *) même des femmes, qui
Ginguene, tom. 1x, chap. xxxvI.
"Il y a une prédiction fort singulière sur Venise: "Si tu ne changes pas," dit-il à cette république altière, "ta liberté, qui déjà s'enfuit, ne comptera pas un siècle aprés la millième année."
surprenaient quelquefois d'importans secrets, et Extrait de l'Histoire Littéraire d'Italie, par qu'on pouvait employer utilement à ruiner des hommes que leur fortune aurait pu rendre dangereux. Depuis, la licence est toujours allée croissant, et l'on a vu non seulement des mères trafiquer de la virginité de leurs filles, mais la vendre par un contrat, dont l'authenticité était garantie par la signature d'un officier public, et T'exécution mise sous la protection des lois. Les parloirs des couvents où étaient renfer- Vénitienne jusqu'à l'établissement du gouverne"En faisant remonter l'époque de la liberté mées les filles nobles, les maisons des courtiment sous lequel la république a fleuri, on trousanes, quoique la police y entre tint soigneuse-vera que l'élection du premier Doge date de ment un grand nombre de surveillans, étaient 697, et si l'on y ajoute un siècle après mille, les scnls points de réunion de la société de Ve- c'est à dire onze cents ans, on trouvera encore nise, et dans ces deux endroits si divers on que le sens de la prédiction est littéralement était également libre. La musique, les colla- celui-ci: "Ta liberté ne comptera pas jusqu'à tions, la galanterie, n'étaient pas plus interdites l'an 1797." Rappelez-vous maintenant que Ve dans les parloirs que dans les casins. Il y avait nise a cessé d'être libre en l'an cinq de la réun grand nombre de casins destinés aux réu-publique Française, on en 1796; vous verrez nions publiques, où le jeu était la principale qu'il n'y eut jamais de prédiction plus précise et occupation de la société. C'était un singulier plus ponctuellement suivie de l'effet. Vous nospectacle de voir autour d'une table des person- terez donc comme très-remarquables ces trois nes des deux sexes en masque, et des graves vers de l'Alamanni, adressés à Venise, que per personnages en robe de magistrature, implorant sonne pourtant n'a remarqués: le hasard, passant des angoisses du désespoir aux illusions de l'espérance, et cela sans proférer une parole.
Les riches avaient des casins particuliers; mais ils y vivaient avec mystère; leurs femmes délaissées trouvaient un dédommagement dans la liberté dont elles jouissaient. La corruption des mœurs les avait privées de tout leur empire; on vient de parcourir toute l'histoire de Venise, et on ne les a pas vues une seule fois exercer la moindre influence."
Se non cangi pensier, l'un secol solo
Bien des prophéties ont passé pour telles, et
The author of "Sketches Descriptivo of Italy," one of the hundred tours lately published, is extremely anxious to disclaim a possible charge of plagiarism from "Childe Harold" and "Beppo." He adds, that still less could this presumed coincidence arise from "my conversation," as he had repeatedly declined an introduction to me while in Italy.
From the present decay and degeneracy of Venice under the Barbarians, there are some honourable individual exceptions. There is Pasqualigo, the last, and, alas posthumous son of Who this person may be I know not; but he the marriage of the Doges with the Adriatic, must have been deceived by all or any of those who fought his frigate with far greater gallant who "repeatedly offered to introduce him, as ry than any of his French coadjutors in the I have invariably refused to receive any English memorable action off Lissa. I came home in the with whom I was not previously acquainted, squadron with the prizes in 1811, and recollect even when they had letters from England. If to have heard Sir William Hoste, and the other the whole assertion is not an invention, I reofficers engaged in that glorious conflict, speak quest this person not to sit down with the noin the highest terms of Pasqualigo's behaviour. tion that he COULD have been introduced, since There is the Abbate Morelli. There is Alvise there has been nothing I have so carefully Querini, who, after a long and honourable di- avoided as any kind of intercourse with his plomatic career, finds some consolation for the countrymen,-excepting the very few who were wrongs of his country, in the pursuits of lite- a considerable time resident in Venice, or had rature with his nephew, Vittor Benzon, the son been of my previous acquaintance. Whoever of the celebrated beauty, the heroine of "La made him any such offer was possessed of imBiondina in Gondoletta." There are the patri- pudence equal to that of making such an assercian poet Morosini, and the poet Lamberti, the tion without having had it. The fact is, that I author of the "Biondina" and many other es- hold in utter abhorrence any contact with the timable productions; and, not least in an English- travelling English, as my friend, the Consulman's estimation, Madame Michelli, the trans- General Hoppner, and the Countess Benzoni (in lator of Shakspeare. There are the young whose house the Conversazione mostly frequentDandolo, and the improvisatore Carrer, and ed by them is held) could amply testify, were Giuseppe Albrizzi, the accomplished son of an it worth while. I was persecuted by these touraccomplished mother. There is Aglietti, and, ists even to my riding ground at Lido, and rewere there nothing else, there is the immortal-duced to the most disagreeable circuits to avoid ity of Canova. Cicognara, Mustoxithi, Bucati, them. At Madame Benzoni's I repeatedly refusI do not reckon, because the one is a Greek, ed to be introduced to them;-of a thousand and the others were born at least a hundred such presentations pressed upon me, I accepted miles off, which, throughout Italy, constitutes, two, and both were to Irish women. if not a foreigner, at least a stranger (forestiere).
⚫) Le décret de rappel les désignait sous le nom de nostre benemerite meretrici. On leur assigna un fonds et des maisons appelées, Case rampane, d'où vient la dénomination injurieuse de Carampane.
I should hardly have descended to speak of such trifles publicly, if the impudence of this "sketcher" had not forced me to a refutation of a disingenuous and gratuitously impertinent assertion-so meant to be, for what could it import to the reader to be told that the author
had repeatedly declined an introduction," even had it been truc, which for the reasons I have above given, is scarcely possible. Except Lords