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COLLEGE SERIES OF LATIN AUTHORS

LIVY

BOOKS XXI. AND XXII.

EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY

J. B. GREENOUGH
PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

AND

TRACY PECK

PROFESSOR IN YALE UNIVERSITY

BOSTON, U.S.A., AND LONDON
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS

1893

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' Hall.

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY
CLEMENT L. SMITH AND TRACY PECK.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

TYPOGRAPHY BY J. S. CUSHING & Co., Boston, U.S.A.

PRESSWORK BY GINN & Co., BOSTON, U.S.A.

. Ir

The rele
Crapon a trust

3114.3

PREFACE.

0 7-29-412S

The scope and method of this volume of Livy are the same as were set forth in the preface to Books I. and II. The wants of college students have been kept steadily in view, and the chief object of the commentary is to stimulate such students and aid them in forming the habit of reading Latin as Latin, of apprehending thought in its Latin form and sequence, and of entering with intelligent sympathy into the workings of Livy's mind and his conception of his country's history and destiny.

The text is based upon the recension by August Luchs (Berlin, 1888) of the Codex Puteanus and of its best derivatives. This codex was probably written in the sixth century, and is now in the National Library at Paris. Deviations from Luchs are generally in a closer adherence to the manuscript readings. Luchs' treatment of the text is conservative, but at times his changes do not seem necessary. The best manuscripts more or less misrepresent the original author; but the object of criticism should be to ascertain, not what we may think the author ought to have said, but what, in view of his mental peculiarities and of his surroundings, he probably did say.

On the other hand, the editors have reproduced less often than Luchs the vagaries and inconsistencies of the manuscript spellings. As the oldest Latin manuscripts are centuries later than the authors themselves, and have usually been copied and re-copied under oral dictation, they often contain the accumu

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