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JOHN M. ROSS, LL.D.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT EDITOR OF “CHAMBERS S ENCYCLOPÆDIA."
Cann'a, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the fumes, form the staple exports. Off the coast tunny, sardine, natural order Marantacea. The seeds are round, hard, and and anchovy fisheries are carried on. Pop. (1872) 7844. Near black ; hence the name Indian shot applied to the plants. They this Napoleon landed, ist March 1815, on his escape from Elba.
have very beautiful flowers, ' | Opposite to C. lie the Îles de Lérins.
Cann'ibal (Canib for Carib, one of the extinct aborigines of bedding during the summer | the W. Indian Islands), Gr. Anthropophagos, or man-eater. months. C. edulis of the W. | In Homer's Odyssey there is the story of Polyphemus devouring Indies, and probably other | human flesh, and in Herodotus the Massagetæ and the Padæi are species of C. also yield Tous- | spoken of as killing and eating their relations when they become les-mois, a kind of arrowroot. | aged or ill. The poet also says that when a man's father dies The tubers of others are among the Issedones, his relations come and help him to eat the eaten, and in Brazil the seeds dead body. Among the ancient Tupis of Brazil, when the chief of C. are used as beads, and despaired of a sick man's recovery, his final advice was that he the leaves for packing goods. should be killed and eaten. The early Christians regarded pagans
as man-eaters. St Jerome asserts, that, when a boy, living in Cannabina'ceæ, the | Gaul, he beheld the Scots—a people of Britain-eating human hemp order, a natural order flesh, in preference to the flesh of cattle and sheep, which were of Dicotyledonous plants, plentiful." When the Lombards invaded Italy, in the second half natives of the temperate part of the 6th c., it was reported of them that they were accustomed of the northern hemisphere
to this practice, as it was also of the Slavonian tribes a century in Europe and Asia. It has
later. During the Crusades, the Saracens charged the Christians but two genera, each con
with it, and the Christians retorted the accusation upon them. Canna Annaci. taining two species, but both |
But, worse than this, Christian romancers converted their most of great economic and medi
approved hero, Richard Caur de Lion, into a C. He is reprecinal importance. The order yields fibres, and possesses narcotic,
sented, after eating a few Saracens' heads with good appetite, as tonic, and stomachic properties. Hemp (q. v.) and Hop (q. v.) | sayingare the important products of the order.
* King Richard shall warrant
There is no flesh so nourisant Cann'æ, a small town of Apulia, about 6 miles from the
Unto an English man, . mouth of the Aufidus. Here the Roman army sustained a
Partridge, plover, heron, ne swan,
Cow-ne.ox, sheep, ne swine, terrible defeat by Hannibal, probably in June of 216 B.C. The
As the head of a Sarezyne.'
Marco Polo asserted that the Battas, a people of Sumatra, and 40,000 infantry. The Carthaginian cavalry under Hannibal,
the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands ate human flesh. It was having defeated the right wing of the Romans, attacked in the
reported of the Caribbees, that they preferred sucking infants to rear successively their left wing and their centre. No quarter
all other food, and of the Peruvians that they kept mistresses to was given. Of the Romans 70,000 fell, including the Consul
breed children for their table, and that they fattened and killed Lucius Paullus, and eighty men of senatorial rank. Hannibal
these women when they gave over child-bearing. But these, and lost not quite 6ooo men.
all the innumerable parallel assertions of older writers, must be
received with a grain of salt. Late travellers, however, put it Cannes (the reedy'), a seaport in the Riviera department of beyond doubt that cannibalism has been and is practised. The Alpes-Maritimes, France, on the Gulf of Napoule, about 22 miles New Zealanders were down to a recent period systematic feeders S.W. of Nice, and a station on the Lyon Railway. It has a fine on human flesh. They despised the aborigines of Australia, who climate, which has made it a favourite resort of invalids. The fed on worms and herbs-larger prey not being available--and most remarkable buildings in the town are the casino, the pictur did not feed on their fellow-men. It is to be observed that while esque Pont-du-Rion, built about 1070, on the site of an earlier the latter were an extremely degraded type of humanity, the Roman bridge, and a tower of the old abbey commanding a former were the most highly-developed aboriginal race with superb view of the Mediterranean. The orange, fig, vine, olive, which European civilisation has conie in contact. The extremi. and other southern fruits flourish, and, along with oil and per- | ties to which men have often been driven in sieges and ship
wrecks, and the outbursts of ferocity in degraded natures, have his conduct the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, was raised frequently led to the occasional consumption of human flesh, to the rank of Earl, made Viceroy of India, and at once set but that is not systematic cannibalism.
himself to reorganise the shattered finance of the country. In Cann'ing, George, an English politician and orator, born | died in London on the 17th June of the same year. at London, rith April 1770, of Irish parents, was educated
Canning, Stratford de Redcliffe, Stratford, Vis. at Eton and Oxford at the expense of an uncle. His clever
count, a notable English diplomatist, was the son of a London ness was shown in the school magazine, the Mikrokosm. At
merchant, and cousin of George Canning. Born in 1788, he Oxford he met Jenkinson (afterwards Lord Liverpool). His
entered the diplomatic service in 1807, but did not hold any vacations were frequently spent at Sheridan's house, where
very important post till 1820, when he became Plenipotentiary he met the leading Whigs. To their surprise he entered Parliament in 1793 under the auspices of Pitt, who in 1796
at Washington. After visiting St Petersburg as Ambassador made him an Under-Secretary of State. At this time he
Extraordinary (1824), his cousin sent him to a similar post
in Constantinople, where he attended the conferences of Akeropposed parliamentary reform and the proposed peace with
man, but had to retire to Corfu before peace was agreed to France, but supported Wilberforce's motion on the slave trade.
after the battle of Navarino. In 1831 Lord Grey sent him back With Frere and Ellis he contributed largely to the Anti-Facobin, of which Gifford was the editor. His speeches for the Irish
to assist in the final adjustment of boundaries and other Greek
questions. From 1834 to 1841 he represented King's Lynn in union, his attacks on the Addington ministry, his defence of
Parliament, deprecating interference in Spain, and calling attenLord Melville, all showed great talent for argument and satire. In 1807 he became Foreign Secretary under Lord Portland's
tion to Austrian aggression in Poland. În 1842 Peel sent him
again to Constantinople, whither, after a special mission on ministry. This office he left after his duel with Lord Castle
Swiss affairs to M. Guizot in 1847, he returned to protect the reagh in 1809, and in 1812 began, in conjunction with Grattan,
Hungarian refugees, and to conduct that long discussion with his long series of efforts for Catholic emancipation. During
Menchikoff, which decided Turkey to declare war against Russia, several years he sat for Liverpool, and in 1816 became Presi
on the promise of help from England and France. In 1858 C. dent of the Board of Control. He abstained from taking part
retired from service. The viscountship conferred on him by Lord in the proceedings against Queen Caroline. On the suicide of
| Derby enabled him to give valuable aid in the House of Lords Castlereagh, C. again became Foreign Secretary, and giving
when foreign relations were under discussion. In 1873 he up as hopeless the control of Spanish affairs, which, as ambassador to Portugal, he had considered important, he appointed
published a statement of his reasons for remaining a Christian. diplomatic agents to Columbia, Mexico, and Buenos Ayres, as Cann'on, the general name given to heavy ordnance or artilde facto independent, and sent British troops to defend Portugallery, whether for fort, ship, or field service. It is a matter of from the despotic menaces of Spain. In April 1827, .C. suc- controversy as to when Ĉ. were first invented. By some the ceeded Liverpool as Premier. This caused the resignation credit is given to the Chinese, who are said to be in possession of of Eldon, Wellington, and Peel. C. now arranged the Triple C. made in 80 A.D. It is certain, however, that C. were used Alliance for the preservation of Greece, promoted the Catholic by Edward III. in his first campaign against the Scots in 1327, cause, but repeated his declaration against parliamentary reform by the English at the siege of Calais in 1347, and by the Turks and the Test and Corporation Acts. He died rather suddenly in the sieges of Constantinople in 1394 and 1453. The early C. at Chiswick (the Duke of Devonshire's seat), 8th August 1827, were made of wrought-iron bars bound together like casks by from the effects of a cold. It is thought that C. had opinions iron rings or hoops, the latter, being driven on red-hot and conand resolutions far in advance of the political parties of his tracting on cooling, gave great strength to the weapon. A day. There was in his eloquence a piquancy and finish rare good example of this system of C. building is the celebrated among English speakers. Cobbett always refers to him as that | Mons Meg in the Castle of Edinburgh, said to have been forged impudent spouter C:' His loftiness of aim and goodness of at Mons in Flanders in 1486, and unfortunately damaged in fir. heart were not spoiled by his long parliamentary life. He was ing a salute to James, Duke of York, in 1682, by part of the called by Quincy-Adams“ the most thoroughly English' of our hoop near the touch-hole being blown away. The projectiles politicians. Certainly his opposition to the Holy Alliance was first used were knobs of stone, afterwards superseded by iron well-timed and beneficial. His speeches were collected and shot. In the second half of the 14th c. C., cast from an alloy of published by R. Therry (6 vols. Lond. 1828). See also Bell's copper and tin in various proportions, were substituted for the Life of George C. (Lond. 1846), and Stapleton's C. and his Times built guns, and some time subsequently guns made from cast iron (Lond. 1859).
came into use, and, along with the bronze, or, as they are CHARLES JOHN, EARL C., son of the preceding, was born at called, though erroneously, brass' guns, are used to some exBrompton, near London, 14th December 1812. Educated at tent to the present day. One of the largest cast C. at present
in 1836, and in the following year, on the death of his mother, ture of Bejapoor by the Emperor Alum Gir in 1685. It is 14 succeeded to the title of Viscount, and was called to the House feet i inch in length, and the diameter of the bore is 2 feet 4 of Lords. In 1841 he was appointed Under-Secretary of State inches. At first cast C. were cast hollow, but these, owing to for Foreign Affairs in the government of Peel, and in 1846 | the irregular cooling of the metal, were found not to be equally Commissioner of Woods and Forests. Hitherto he had not strong in every part, and since the 16th c. they have' generally made any great mark as a politician, partly because he was en- | been cast solid and the interior afterwards bored out. tirely destitute of his father's gift of eloquence; but those who Rified C. are believed to have been in use as early as 1620, knew him well, valued his powers highly. In the Aberdeen and breech-loading C. are said to have been used thirty years ministry of 1853 he held the office of Postmaster-General, and before that date. continued to hold it when Palmerston was called to power in Many of the early C. were of very large size and calibre, and 1855. In March 1856 C. went out to India as Governor-General, were dignified with grand names—twelve cast by Louis XII. and in little more than a year found himself face to face with the being named after the twelve peers of France, and Charles V. most terrible mutiny of modern times. He met it with a stern, had twelve called the Twelve Apostles. In the 16th c. the size silent fearlessness, which one cannot but admire as an essentially was reduced and general names adopted, such as C.-royal, or heroic mood, however much the wisdom of his conduct before carthoun carrying a ball of 48 lbs.; bastard-C., or å-carthoun, the outbreak took place may be questioned. It is said that he 36 lbs. ; 4-carthoun, whole culverin, demi-culverin, &c.—these was badly advised by an official coterie, that he was repeatedly again being superseded by names denominating the weight of warned of what was impending, and refused to believe it, and the balls used, such as 9-pounders, 32-pounders, 68-pounders, that he is, therefore, responsible in some measure for the subse- and so on; or in the case of shell-guns by the diameter of the
of alarm escaped his lips during the darkest days of the revolt; At the present day we are reverting to the principles of connothing moved him to rage or revenge when the hour of triumphstruction, modified, of course, and improved in many respects, came, and in the opinion of some, he helped to re-establish the in use in the 15th c., and building or forging our C. from English empire in India by his moderation and clemency no less wrought iron, although other systems are also in use. Among than Havelock and Campbell by their valour. C. received for the modern systems of gun-building may be mentioned the Arm