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Zo I moov'd auff vrim thare, za vast as I kude,
Vur ha tride ta kum out, wich I thort ha'd a dude.

Nathan Hogg, Tha Wile Baists.

3. [u] pron. She. As used thus, it is probable that this really stands for the fem. he, (O.E. heo; M.E. heo, hee, he 'she',) that being the alternative of her in the nom. case. [Hur núvur kaan dùe ut, kan u?], she never cannot do it, can she (he)? (See IV. S. Gram. pp. 32, 33.) [Uur'dh u droad aup ur wuurk aath-n u?], she has thrown up her work, hath she not ?-July 28, 1880. See HE.

4. [ŭ] pron. It. Commonly applied to inanimate objects, but most probably [ŭ] stands for he, as in 3.

[Aay bún aa'dr dhu wagʻeen, bud u waudn u-dùed,] I (have) been after the wagon, but it was not done. [Dhu wee'ul-z u toa urd ubroa ud údn u? ], the wheel is broken to pieces, is it not? In this latter form údn ur is commoner.

5. [ŭ] pron. impers. One (constant use). [U múd zu wuul bee u-traanspoo'urtud-z buyd wai un,] one might as well be transported as stay with him. See ANYBODY.

IV. A. 1. (a.) [ŭ] prep. On. Before a verbal noun (nearly always). I be gwain a pixy-wordin-a beggin-a sweepin, &c. (Compare John xxi. 3.) Also as prefix in abed (see BAD-ABED), abier, acock, [uvèot,] afoot, alie, &c.

(b.) Before the name of a day: [aay zeed-n u Vruy dee,] I saw him on Friday. School-children are fond of singing:

[Wee muus-n plaay u Zún·dee,

Bekae uz eet úz u seen;

Búd wee kn plaay u wik ud daiz (week days)

Gún Zún dee kaumth ugee un.]

A Tuesdy nex (tha auder's com)-i. e. the order is come

Us laives.-Nathan Hogg, ser. i. p. 35.

(c) Before certain adverbs of place or position. Billy, come and ride a picky-back. Tommy, your pinny-s a put on a backLet-n vall out a thick zide.


A þes half Mantrible, pe grete Citee ys be brigge y-set?

1380. Sir Ferumbras, l. 1680. And a thys syde Egrymoygne a iornee þar is a brigge of gret fertee. Ibid. 1. 4307.

A þys syde be toun þat ryuer rend.-Ibid. 1. 4315.

2. [ŭ] prep. Of. As in the common phrase, What manner This form is usually written o', and

a man.

The tap a the hill. before a vowel it becomes [oa].

See OF.

3. [u] prep. To. I be gwain in a town, i. e. in to town (always). [Aay shl zee ee een u maar kut,] I shall see you in to market. I bin down a Minehead's vortnight. To is also always sounded [u] when following a word ending in d or t. [Uur dúd-n aut u dùe ut,] she did not ought to do it. [Dhik wuz u'zoald u mús tur Buurd,] that one was sold to Mr. Bird.

4. [ŭ] prep. At. Before nouns denoting points of time always; before place names frequently; in the latter case it may be same as 3=to. [Aa-l due ut u brak sustuy'm,] I will do it at breakfasttime. I meet-n in u Wilscombe. Sce To.

And blesce: & a last siggeð adjutorium nostrum, &c.

5. [u] prep. By, or for the sake of. naeum, ur dhu raayn-1 kaech us,] name, or the rain will overtake us !

6. [ŭ] prep. In.

they boots, they be all a pieces.

Ancren Riwle, p. 44.

[Lèok shaarp, soa'us, u Gaudz look sharp, mates, in God's

Plase sir, Mr. Pike zes can't do nort way

And eke an ax to smite the corde a-two.

Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 382.

And a file to file þis nayle a two;
pat nayle a p'st toke po in hond.

V. A. 1. [ŭ] adv. There.

1420. Chron. Vilod. st. 354.

Ees u

[Aay bee saaf u waudn zu mún ee-z dhee-s maek aewt. wauz, u mooʻur tùe!] I am certain there were not so many as you make out. Yes, there were, and more too!

2. [u] adv. How (in rapid conversation).

[Snoa u múnee twauz? Noa tuynoa!], dost know how many it was? No 't I know!

VI. A [u], conj. And (in rapid speech). [Wuur-s u-bún u gaut dhik dhae ur puur tee uy?] where hast (thou) been and got that pretty eye? (See note, II. A. v. p. 2.) In the well-known phr. well-a-fine (see Ex. Scold. ll. 81, 269), this a must be shortened and. As holy wry3t says us well and fyne.—Boke of Curtayse, l. 182. Now y know wel-a-ffyn: by message schendep me.-Sir Ferumbras, 1. 2752. VII. A. 1. [ŭ] Interrogative


eh? what?

[Wuur's u bún tùe? u? U? waut-s dhaat tu dhee? u?] Where hast (thou) been? A? (or Eh?) A? what is that to thee? A?


2. [ai] Interrogative, aye? what? what do you say? This is rather more polite than [?]

([ai]=aye! is not used as an exclamation like it is in Lancashire. We never hear in W. S. Aye! my word!)

VIII. A. 1. [ŭ]. Prefix to past participle, forming the regular and

nearly invariable inflection, unless where dropped in consequence of being immediately preceded by a similar sound signifying have (see II. A, v.), or by another short vowel; in these cases the two sounds become one. (See W. S. Gram. p. 53.) [Aay meet Júm z-maur'nin u-gwaayn u wuurk, un u zaed,.s-ee, Jaak, wuur-s u-bún ?] I met Jim this morning going to work, and he said, said he, Jack, where hast been? [Zoa aay zaed, s-aay, aay aant u-bún noa plaetus, nur eet u-ad noa urt, un aay kèod-n u-dringkt ut, neef aay kúd u-kaum tùe ut,] so I said, said I, I have been nowhere, nor yet had anything, and I could not have drank it, if I could have come to it. Uncontracted this speaker would have said: [Kèod-n u udringkt ut, neef aay kúd u u-kaum tùe ut.]

It will be noticed by the above examples, that the prefix is used before vowels as well as consonants. This is no modern corruption.

fforþ þan rod he stoutely well i-armed oppon his stede.

Sir Ferumbras, 1. 254. (See also 1. 875.)

Although this prefix has usually been written with i or y, yet sometimes a is found.

In pauylons rich and well abuld.— Sir Ferumbras, 1. 74.
And 3ut i holde me well a paid.-Ibid. 1. 271.

Bot þis lady was a angryd and a grevyd full sore,
Pat he myzt not of hurr herude no sauner spede.

And now I zet me down to write,
To tell thee ev'rything outright,

1420, Chron. Vilod. st. 1216.

The whole that I've azeed.-Peter Pindar, The Royal Visit, st. 1. Very frequently in sentences where an adverb immediately precedes the verb, this prefix is apparently duplicated, i. e. placed before both adverb and verb, but in these cases the prefix to the adverb may be taken as representing have (II. A, v.), a form of speech as common to Cockneydom as to West Somerset.

[Ee-du-prau pur u-tèokt mee een, wauns luyk,] he had (have) completely taken me in once (like). [Uur-d u júst u-staar tud haun aay kaum,] she had (have) just started when I came.

2. [u]. Prefix to certain adverbs and adjectives, as unee'us, aneast =near; unuy, anigh; uvoar, avore= = before; urad ee ready; a-cold, &c. I was most aready to drop gin I come tap the

hill. I be a-cold sure 'nough z-mornin.

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Tom's a-cold.-King Lear, III. 4; IV. 7.

Who lies here? Who do 'e think,

Why, old Clapper Watts, if you'll give him some drink ;
Give a dead man drink?-for why?

Why; when he was alive he was always a-dry.

Epitaph at Leigh Delamere, Wilts.

Halliwell has a number of participial adjectives formed in this way, as a-choked, a-coathed, a-paid, apast, aprilled, ascat; but inasmuch

as the dialect, as a rule (see above), uses this prefix with all past participles, it is not thought desirable to encumber these pages with a repetition of every verb in the vocabulary of the district.

3. [u]. Prefix before worth. [Plaiz-r, mús'tur Joa'unz zaes aew dhu sprang kur úd-n u waeth main deen,] please, sir, Mr. Jones says (how) the watering-pot is not worth mending. They do zay how th' old man's a worth thousands. They was all a ate and a brokt, eens they wadn a wo'th nort.-Jan. 28, 1882.

4. [ŭ]. Suffix, redundant. Used by many individuals by way of emphasis, or at the end of a clause: You never ded-n ought to a went-a. It is very commonly heard after proper names when shouted: Bee ul-u! Taum-u! Uurch-u! Bill, Tom, Dick. Many carters and plough-boys invariably use it when calling out to urge on their horses or oxen by their names: Blau sm-й! Kapteen-ŭ ! Faurteen-u! Chuur ee-u! Blossom, Captain, Fortune, Cherry.

ABB [aub], sb. Weaver's weft, i. e. the yarn woven across the warp. In W. S. the yarns composing any piece of cloth are called the chain (q. v.), and abb corresponding to the warp and weft of the northern counties. The abb is nearly always spun from carded wool, and hence a carded warp, such as that used in weaving blankets, flannels, or soft woollens, is called [u aub chain,] an abbchain, in distinction to one spun from combed wool, such as that used in weaving serge, which is a [wus turd,] worsted chain. Halliwell is inaccurate in defining abb as the yarn of a weaver's warp." A weaver's art consists partly in so adjusting the stroke of his loom as to make a certain required number of threads, or in other words, a certain weight of abb produce the required length of cloth.

ABB [aub], sb. Tech. The name of a particular sort or quality of short-stapled wool, as sorted, usually from the belly part of the fleece.

A B C [ae ŭ, bee, see]. The alphabet. [Dhee urt u puur tee skau lurd, shoa'ur nuuf! wuy kas-n zai dhee aeu, bee, see,] thou art a pretty scholar sure enough, why (thou) canst not say thy А В С.

A B C BOOK. The book from which infants are first taught.

A B C FASHION [ae'u, bee, see faar sheen]. Perfectly; applied to things known, as a trade, a lesson, &c. A man would be said to know his business or profession a b c faar sheen-i. e. as perfectly as his alphabet.

ABEAR [ubae'ur], v. t. and i. To tolerate, to endure. I can abear to see a riglur fair stand-up fight, but I can't never abear to zee boys always a naggin and a quardlin. [Uur kèod-n ubae ur vur tu paeurt wai ur bwuuy,] she could not bear to part with her boy..

ABHOR [ubaur'], v. t. To endure. Used always with a negative construction, probably from confusion with abear. One of the commonest of phrases is, I can't abhor it, [uur kaant ubaur-n]— i. e. she cannot endure him.

Abhorrence and abhorrent are unknown.

ABIDE [ubuyd], v. t. To tolerate, to endure, to put up with; used only with a negative. I never can't abide they there fine stickt-up hussies.

For the day of the Lord is great and very terrible; who can abide it?
Joel ii. 2.

Dead, but unburied.

ABIER [ubee'ur], a. [Poour saul! uur mae'un duyd uun'ee bút tuudh'ur dai, un naew uur luyth ubeeur,] poor soul! her man (husband) died only the other day, and now she lies dead (but unburied). (Very com.)

ABLEMENT [ae'ubl-munt], sb. 1. Ability, mental faculty; in the plur. it means tools or gear for any work.

[A plain tee u ae ublmunt baewt ee,] a plenty of ability about him.1 We should ha finished avore we comed away, on'y we 'ad-n a-got no ablements 'long way us.

2. Strength, power. I 'sure ee, mum, I bin that bad, I hant no more [ae ublmunt-n u chee'ul], i. e. strength than a child.

ABLENESS [ae'ublnees], strength, agility.

[Saum feen luyk u fuulur, sm-ae ubl-nees baewt ee,] something like a fellow, some strength in him.

ABLISH [aeubleesh], adj. Strong, active; inclined to work. [U aeubleesh soa urt u yuung chaap,] an active, industrious kind of young fellow.

ABLOW [ubloa], adv. Blooming; full of flower.

The primroses be all ablow up our way.

ABNER [ab'mur]. Ch. name. The pronunciation of this common name follows the rule given in p. 17, W. S. Dialect, whereby the n is changed to m after b.

ABOMINATION [bauminae'urshun], adj. Very com. [Túz u baum inae urshun shee'um vur tu saar dhu poar dhing zu baeud,] it is an abominable shame to serve the poor thing so badly. It is quite evident that dialect speakers take the initial a to be the indef. demon. adj. in this and many other words. (See list of A. words.)

ABOO [ubèo], adv. Above, more than, before nouns of number or quantity. [Twaud-n ubèo u dizen,] it was not more than a

1 Observe plenty always takes an article before it-[dhaat-s u plain'tee: dhur wuz u plain tee u voaks].

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